Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828)


Displaying 2009 result(s) from the 1913 edition:
Œnophilist (Page: 997)

Œ*noph"i*list (?), n. [Gr. wine + to love.] A lover of wine. [R.]<-- now oenophile, older form obsolete! --> Thackeray.


'Gainst (Page: 607)

'Gainst (?), prep. A contraction of Against.


'Mongst (Page: 938)

'Mongst (?), prep. See Amongst.


-blast (Page: 153)

-blast (?). [Gr. sprout, shoot.] A suffix or terminal formative, used principally in biological terms, and signifying growth, formation; as, bioblast, epiblast, mesoblast, etc.


-est (Page: 511)

-est (?). [AS. -ost, -est; akin to G. -est, -ist, Icel. -astr, -str, Goth. -ists, -sts, Skr. -ishha.] A suffix used to form the superlative of adjectives and adverbs; as, smoothest; earl(y)iest.


-ist (Page: 793)

-ist (?). [Gr. : cf. F. -iste.] A noun suffix denoting an agent, or doer, one who practices, a believer in; as, theorist, one who theorizes; socialist, one who holds to socialism; sensualist, one given to sensuality.


Aërcyst Moore. -- >mcol>\'92olian harp, \'92olian lyre, a musical instrument consisting of a box, on or in which are stretched strings, on which the wind acts to produce the notes; -- usually placed at an open window. Moore. -- \'92olian mode (Mus.), one of the ancient Greek and early ecclesiastical modes.> A"ër*cyst (#), n. [Aëro- + cyst.] (Bot.) One of the air cells of algals.
Aërologist Moore. -- >mcol>\'92olian harp, \'92olian lyre, a musical instrument consisting of a box, on or in which are stretched strings, on which the wind acts to produce the notes; -- usually placed at an open window. Moore. -- \'92olian mode (Mus.), one of the ancient Greek and early ecclesiastical modes.> A`ër*ol"o*gist (#), n. One versed in aërology.
Abacist (Page: 1)

Ab"a*cist (#), n. [LL abacista, fr. abacus.] One who uses an abacus in casting accounts; a calculator.


Abaist (Page: 2)

A*baist" (#), p.p. Abashed; confounded; discomfited. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Abdest (Page: 3)

Ab"dest (#), n. [Per. ābdast; ab water + dast hand.] Purification by washing the hands before prayer; -- a Mohammedan rite. Heyse.


Abiogenist (Page: 4)

Ab`i*og"e*nist (#), n. (Biol.) One who believes that life can be produced independently of antecedent. Huxley.


Abolitionist (Page: 5)

Ab`o*li"tion*ist, n. A person who favors the abolition of any institution, especially negro slavery.


Abortionist (Page: 6)

A*bor"tion*ist, n. One who procures abortion or miscarriage.


Abreast (Page: 6)

A*breast" (#), adv. [Pref. a- + breast.]

1. Side by side, with breasts in a line; as, Two men could hardly walk abreast." Macaulay.

2. (Naut.) Side by side; also, opposite; over against; on a line with the vessel's beam; -- with of.

3. Up to a certain level or line; equally advanced; as, to keep abreast of [or with] the present state of science.

4. At the same time; simultaneously. [Obs.]

Abreast therewith began a convocation. Fuller.

Absist (Page: 7)

Ab*sist" (#), v. i. [L. absistere, p. pr. absistens; ab + sistere to stand, causal of stare.] To stand apart from; top leave off; to desist. [Obs.] Raleigh.


Absolutist (Page: 7)

Ab"so*lu`tist (#), n.

1. One who is in favor of an absolute or autocratic government.

2. (Metaph.) One who believes that it is possible to realize a cognition or concept of the absolute. Sir. W. Hamilton.


Absolutist (Page: 7)

Ab"so*lu`tist, a. Of or pertaining to absolutism; arbitrary; despotic; as, absolutist principles.


Abstractionist (Page: 7)

Ab*strac"tion*ist, n. An idealist. Emerson.


Aburst (Page: 7)

A*burst" (#), adv. [Pref. a- + burst.] In a bursting condition.


Academist (Page: 7)

A*cad"e*mist (#), n. [F. academiste.]

1. An Academic philosopher.

2. An academician. [Obs.] Ray.


Accoast (Page: 12)

Ac*coast" (#), v. t. & i. [See Accost, Coast.] To lie or sail along the coast or side of; to accost. [Obs.]

Whether high towering or accosting low. Spenser.

Accompanist (Page: 12)

Ac*com"pa*nist (#), n. The performer in music who takes the accompanying part. Busby.


Accordionist (Page: 12)

Ac*cor"di*on*ist, n. A player on the accordion.


Accost (Page: 12)

Ac*cost" (#; 115), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Accosted; p. pr. & vb. n. Accosting.] [F. accoster, LL. accostare to bring side by side; L. ad + costa rib, side. See Coast, and cf. Accoast.]

1. To join side to side; to border; hence, to sail along the coast or side of. [Obs.] So much [of Lapland] as accosts the sea." Fuller.

2. To approach; to make up to. [Archaic] Shak.

3. To speak to first; to address; to greet. Him, Satan thus accosts." Milton.


Accost (Page: 12)

Ac*cost", v. i. To adjoin; to lie alongside. [Obs.] The shores which to the sea accost." Spenser.


Accost (Page: 12)

Ac*cost", n. Address; greeting. [R.] J. Morley.


Accursed, Accurst (Page: 14)

Ac*cursed" (#), Ac*curst" (#), p. p. & a. Doomed to destruction or misery; cursed; hence, bad enough to be under the curse; execrable; detestable; exceedingly hateful; -- as, an accursed deed. Shak. -- Ac*curs"ed*ly, adv. -- Ac*curs"ed*ness, n.


Acephalist (Page: 14)

A*ceph"a*list (#), n. One who acknowledges no head or superior. Dr. Gauden.


Acephalocyst (Page: 14)

A*ceph"a*lo*cyst (#), n. [Gr. without a head + bladder.] (Zoöl.) A larval entozoön in the form of a subglobular or oval vesicle, or hy datid, filled with fluid, sometimes found in the tissues of man and the lower animals; -- so called from the absence of a head or visible organs on the vesicle. These cysts are the immature stages of certain tapeworms. Also applied to similar cysts of different origin.


Acolothist (Page: 16)

A*col"o*thist (#), n. See Acolythist.


Acolythist (Page: 16)

A*col"y*thist (#), n. An acolyte. [Obs.]


Acosmist (Page: 16)

A*cos"mist (#), n. [See Acosmism.] One who denies the existence of the universe, or of a universe as distinct from God. G. H. Lewes.


Acquest (Page: 16)

Ac*quest" (#), n. [OF. aquest, F. acqu\'88t, fr. LL. acquestum, acquisītum, for L. acquisītum, p. p. (used substantively) of acquirere to acquire. See Acquire.]

1. Acquisition; the thing gained. [R.] Bacon.

2. (Law) Property acquired by purchase, gift, or otherwise than by inheritance. Bouvier.


Acquist (Page: 16)

Ac*quist" (#), n. [Cf. Acquest.] Acquisition; gain. Milton.


Actinost (Page: 18)

Ac"tin*ost (#), n. [Gr. , , ray + bone.] (Anat.) One of the bones at the base of a paired fin of a fish.


Actionary, Actionist (Page: 18)

Ac"tion*a*ry (#), Ac"tion*ist (#), n. [Cf. F. actionnaire.] (Com.) A shareholder in joint-stock company. [Obs.]


Actualist (Page: 19)

Ac"tu*al*ist, n. One who deals with or considers actually existing facts and conditions, rather than fancies or theories; -- opposed to idealist. J. Grote.


Adeptist (Page: 21)

A*dept"ist, n. A skilled alchemist. [Obs.]


Adiaphorist (Page: 21)

Ad`i*aph"o*rist (#), n. [See Adiaphorous.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of the German Protestants who, with Melanchthon, held some opinions and ceremonies to be indifferent or nonessential, which Luther condemned as sinful or heretical. Murdock.


Adjust (Page: 22)

Ad*just" (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Adjusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Adjusting.] [OF. ajuster, ajoster (whence F. ajouter to add), LL. adjuxtare to fit; fr. L. ad + juxta near; confused later with L. ad and justus just, right, whence F. ajuster to adjust. See Just, v. t. and cf. Adjute.]

1. To make exact; to fit; to make correspondent or conformable; to bring into proper relations; as, to adjust a garment to the body, or things to a standard.

2. To put in order; to regulate, or reduce to system.

Adjusting the orthography. Johnson.

3. To settle or bring to a satisfactory state, so that parties are agreed in the result; as, to adjust accounts; the differences are adjusted.

4. To bring to a true relative position, as the parts of an instrument; to regulate for use; as, to adjust a telescope or microscope. Syn. -- To adapt; suit; arrange; regulate; accommodate; set right; rectify; settle.


Adonist (Page: 24)

A*do"nist (#), n. [Heb. dnāi my Lords.] One who maintains that points of the Hebrew word translated Jehovah" are really the vowel points of the word Adonai." See Jehovist.


Adoptionist (Page: 24)

A*dop"tion*ist, n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect which maintained that Christ was the Son of God not by nature but by adoption.


Adust (Page: 25)

A*dust" (#), a. [L. adustus, p. p. of adurere: cf. F. aduste.]

1. Inflamed or scorched; fiery. The Libyan air adust. Milton.

2. Looking as if or scorched; sunburnt.

A tall, thin man, of an adust complexion. Sir W. Scott.

3. (Med.) Having much heat in the constitution and little serum in the blood. [Obs.] Hence: Atrabilious; sallow; gloomy.


Adventist (Page: 25)

Ad"vent*ist (#), n. One of a religious body, embracing several branches, who look for the proximate personal coming of Christ; -- called also Second Adventists. Schaff-Herzog Encyc.


Affectationist (Page: 28)

Af`fec*ta"tion*ist, n. One who exhibits affectation. [R.] Fitzed. Hall.


Afforest (Page: 29)

Af*for"est (#), v. t. [LL. afforestare; ad + forestare. See Forest.] To convert into a forest; as, to afforest a tract of country.


Aftercast (Page: 30)

Aft"er*cast` (#), n. A throw of dice after the game in ended; hence, anything done too late. Gower.


Aftermost (Page: 30)

Aft"er*most (#), a. superl. [OE. eftemest, AS. æftemest,akin to Gothic aftumist and aftuma, the last, orig. a superlative of of, with the superlative endings -te, -me, -st.]

1. Hindmost; -- opposed to foremost.

2. (Naut.) Nearest the stern; most aft.


Aftmost (Page: 30)

Aft"most (#), a. (Naut.) Nearest the stern.


Against (Page: 30)

A*gainst" (?; 277), prep. [OE. agens, ageynes, AS. ongegn. The s is adverbial, orig. a genitive ending. See Again.]

1. Abreast; opposite to; facing; towards; as, against the mouth of a river; -- in this sense often preceded by over.

Jacob saw the angels of God come against him. Tyndale.

2. From an opposite direction so as to strike or come in contact with; in contact with; upon; as, hail beats against the roof.

3. In opposition to, whether the opposition is of sentiment or of action; on the other side; counter to; in contrariety to; hence, adverse to; as, against reason; against law; to run a race against time.

The gate would have been shut against her. Fielding.
An argument against the use of steam. Tyndale.

4. By of before the time that; in preparation for; so as to be ready for the time when. [Archaic or Dial.]

Urijah the priest made it, against King Ahaz came from Damascus. 2 Kings xvi. 11.
Against the sun, in a direction contrary to that in which the sun appears to move.
Agamist (Page: 31)

Ag"a*mist (#), n. [See Agamous.] An unmarried person; also, one opposed to marriage. Foxe.


Agast or Aghast (Page: 31)

A*gast" or A*ghast" (#), v. t. To affright; to terrify. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.


Agast (Page: 31)

A*gast" (#), p. p. & a. See Aghast.


Aggest (Page: 31)

Ag*gest" (#), v. t. [L. aggestus, p. p. of aggerere. See Agger.] To heap up. [Obs.]

The violence of the waters aggested the earth. Fuller.

Aghast (Page: 32)

A*ghast" (#), v. t. See Agast, v. t. [Obs.]


Aghast (Page: 32)

A*ghast" (#), a & p. p. [OE. agast, agasted, p. p. of agasten to terrify, fr. AS. pref. ā- (cf. Goth. us-, G. er-, orig. meaning out) + gstan to terrify, torment: cf. Goth. usgaisjan to terrify, primitively to fix, to root to the spot with terror; akin to L. haerere to stick fast, cling. See Gaze, Hesitate.] Terrified; struck with amazement; showing signs of terror or horror.

Aghast he waked; and, starting from his bed, Cold sweat in clammy drops his limbs o'erspread. Dryden.
The commissioners read and stood aghast. Macaulay.

Agist (Page: 32)

A*gist" (#), v. t. [OF. agister; à (L. ad) + gister to assign a lodging, fr. giste lodging, abode, F. g\'8cte, LL. gistum, gista, fr. L. jacitum, p. p. of jacre to lie: cf. LL. agistare, adgistare. See Gist.] (Law) To take to graze or pasture, at a certain sum; -- used originally of the feeding of cattle in the king's forests, and collecting the money for the same. Blackstone.


Agonist (Page: 33)

Ag"o*nist (#), n. [Gr. .] One who contends for the prize in public games. [R.]


Agrammatist (Page: 33)

A*gram"ma*tist (#), n. [Gr. illiterate; priv. + letters, fr. to write.] A illiterate person. [Obs.] Bailey.


Agricolist (Page: 33)

A*gric"o*list (#), n. A cultivator of the soil; an agriculturist. Dodsley.


Agriculturalist (Page: 33)

Ag`ri*cul"tur*al*ist, n. An agriculturist (which is the preferred form.)


Agriculturist (Page: 33)

Ag`ri*cul"tur*ist, n. One engaged or skilled in agriculture; a husbandman.

The farmer is always a practitioner, the agriculturist may be a mere theorist. Crabb.

Agriologist (Page: 34)

Ag`ri*ol"o*gist (#), n. One versed or engaged in agriology.


Agronomist (Page: 34)

A*gron"o*mist (#), n. One versed in agronomy; a student of agronomy.


Agrostologist (Page: 34)

Ag`ros*tol"o*gist (#), n. One skilled in agrostology.


Aladinist (Page: 35)

A*lad"in*ist (#), n. [From Aladin, for Ala Eddin, i. e., height of religion, a learned divine under Mohammed II. and Bajazet II.] One of a sect of freethinkers among the Mohammedans.


Alarmist (Page: 36)

A*larm"ist, n. [Cf. F. alarmiste.] One prone to sound or excite alarms, especially, needless alarms. Macaulay.


Alcahest (Page: 36)

Al"ca*hest (#), n. Same as Alkahest.


Alchemist (Page: 37)

Al"che*mist (#), n. [Cf. OF. alquemiste, F. alchimiste.] One who practices alchemy.

You are alchemist; make gold. Shak.

Alcoranist (Page: 37)

Al`co*ran"ist, n. One who adheres to the letter of the Koran, rejecting all traditions.


Alder-liefest (Page: 37)

Al`der-lief"est (#), a. [For allerliefest dearest of all. See Lief.] Most beloved. [Obs.] Shak.


Alecost (Page: 37)

Ale"cost` (#), n. [Ale + L. costus an aromatic plant: cf. Costmary.] (Bot.) The plant costmary, which was formerly much used for flavoring ale.


Algebraist Ale"hoof` (#), n. [AS. h ground ivy; the first part is perh. a corruption: cf. OE. heyhowe hedgehove, 38 ground ivy, \'bdin old MSS. heyhowe, heyoue, haihoue, halehoue.\'b8 [Prior]. Ground ivy (Nepeta Glechoma).> Al"ge*bra`ist (#), n. One versed in algebra.
Algologist Ale"hoof` (#), n. [AS. h ground ivy; the first part is perh. a corruption: cf. OE. heyhowe hedgehove, 38 ground ivy, \'bdin old MSS. heyhowe, heyoue, haihoue, halehoue.\'b8 [Prior]. Ground ivy (Nepeta Glechoma).> Al*gol"o*gist (#), n. One learned about algæ; a student of algology.
Alienist (Page: 39)

Al"ien*ist (#), n. [F. aliéniste.] One who treats diseases of the mind. Ed. Rev.


Alkahest (Page: 39)

Al"ka*hest (#), n. [LL. alchahest, F. alcahest, a word that has an Arabic appearance, but was probably arbitrarily formed by Paracelsus.] The fabled universal solvent" of the alchemists; a menstruum capable of dissolving all bodies. -- Al`ka*hes"tic (#), a.


Alkoranist (Page: 39)

Al`ko*ran"ist, n. Same as Alcoranist.


Allegorist (Page: 40)

Al"le*go*rist (#), n. [Cf. F. allegoriste.] One who allegorizes; a writer of allegory. Hume.


Allodialist (Page: 41)

Al*lo"di*al*ist, n. One who holds allodial land.


Allopathist (Page: 41)

Al*lop"a*thist (#), n. One who practices allopathy; one who professes allopathy.


Almagest (Page: 42)

Al"ma*gest (#), n. [F. almageste, LL. almageste, Ar. al-majistī, fr. Gr. (sc. ), the greatest composition.] The celebrated work of Ptolemy of Alexandria, which contains nearly all that is known of the astronomical observations and theories of the ancients. The name was extended to other similar works.


Almost (Page: 42)

Al"most (#), adv. [AS. ealmæst, ælmæst, quite the most, almost all; eal (OE. al) all + mst most.] Nearly; well nigh; all but; for the greatest part.

Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. Acts xxvi. 28.
Almost never, scarcely ever. -- Almost nothing, scarcely anything.
Alongst (Page: 42)

A*longst" (?; 115), prep. & adv. [Formed fr. along, like amongst fr. among.] Along. [Obs.]


Alopecist (Page: 42)

A*lop"e*cist (#), n. A practitioner who tries to prevent or cure baldness.


Alpinist (Page: 44)

Al"pin*ist (#), n. A climber of the Alps.


Altarist (Page: 44)

Al"tar*ist (#), n. [Cf. LL. altarista, F. altariste.] (Old Law) (a) A chaplain. (b) A vicar of a church.


Altruist (Page: 45)

Al"tru*ist, n. One imbued with altruism; -- opposed to egoist.


Ambitionist (Page: 46)

Am*bi"tion*ist, n. One excessively ambitious. [R.]


Amethodist (Page: 48)

A*meth"o*dist (#), n. [Pref. a- not + methodist.] One without method; a quack. [Obs.]


Amethyst (Page: 48)

Am"e*thyst (#), [F. ametiste, amatiste, F. améthyste, L. amethystus, fr. Gr. without drunkenness; as a noun, a remedy for drunkenness, the amethyst, supposed to have this power; priv. + to be drunken, strong drink, wine. See Mead.]

1. (Min.) A variety of crystallized quartz, of a purple or bluish violet color, of different shades. It is much used as a jeweler's stone. Oriental amethyst, the violet-blue variety of transparent crystallized corundum or sapphire.

2. (Her.) A purple color in a nobleman's escutcheon, or coat of arms.


Amnicolist (Page: 49)

Am*nic"o*list (#), n. [L. amnicola, amnis a river + colere to dwell.] One who lives near a river. [Obs.] Bailey.


Among, Amongst (Page: 49)

A*mong" (#), A*mongst" (#), prep. [OE. amongist, amonges, amonge, among, AS. onmang, ongemang, gemang, in a crowd or mixture. For the ending -st see Amidst. See Mingle.]

1. Mixed or mingled; surrounded by.

They heard, And from his presence hid themselves among The thickest trees. Milton.

2. Conjoined, or associated with, or making part of the number of; in the number or class of.

Blessed art thou among women. Luke i. 28.

3. Expressing a relation of dispersion, distribution, etc.; also, a relation of reciprocal action.

What news among the merchants? Shak.
Human sacrifices were practiced among them. Hume.
Divide that gold amongst you. Marlowe.
Whether they quarreled among themselves, or with their neighbors. Addison.
Syn. -- Amidst; between. See Amidst, Between.

Amorist (Page: 49)

Am"o*rist (#), n. [L. armor love. See Amorous.] A lover; a gallant. [R.] Milton.

It was the custom for an amorist to impress the name of his mistress in the dust, or upon the damp earth, with letters fixed upon his shoe. Southey.

Amphipneust (Page: 50)

Am*phip"neust (#), n. [Gr. + one who breathes, to breathe.] (Zoöl.) One of a tribe of Amphibia, which have both lungs and gills at the same time, as the proteus and siren.


Anabaptist (Page: 52)

An`a*bap"tist (#), n. [LL. anabaptista, fr. Gr. as if : cf. F. anabaptiste.] A name sometimes applied to a member of any sect holding that rebaptism is necessary for those baptized in infancy. &hand; In church history, the name Anabaptists usually designates a sect of fanatics who greatly disturbed the peace of Germany, the Netherlands, etc., in the Reformation period. In more modern times the name has been applied to those who do not regard infant baptism as real and valid baptism.


Anagrammatist (Page: 52)

An`a*gram"ma*tist, n. [Cf. F. anagrammatiste.] A maker anagrams.


Analogist (Page: 53)

A*nal"o*gist (#), n. One who reasons from analogy, or represent, by analogy. Cheyne.


Analyst (Page: 53)

An"a*lyst (#), n. [F. analyste. See Analysis.] One who analyzes; formerly, one skilled in algebraical geometry; now commonly, one skilled in chemical analysis.


Anapæst (Page: 53)

An`a*pæst (#), An`a*pæs"tic (#). Same as Anapest, Anapestic.


Anapest (Page: 53)

An"a*pest (#), n. [L. anapaestus, Gr. an anapest, i.e., a dactyl reserved, or, as it were, struck back; fr. ; back + to strike.]

1. (Pros.) A metrical foot consisting of three syllables, the first two short, or unaccented, the last long, or accented (#); the reverse of the dactyl. In Latin d--tās, and in English in-ter-vene, are examples of anapests.

2. A verse composed of such feet.


Anarchist (Page: 53)

An"arch*ist (#), n. [Cf. F. anarchiste.] An anarch; one who advocates anarchy of aims at the overthrow of civil government.


Anatomist An`a*stal"tic (#), a. & n. [Gr. (Med.) Styptic. [Obs.]> A*nat"o*mist (#), n. [Cf. F. anatomiste.] One who is skilled in the art of anatomy, or dissection.
Anecdotist (Page: 55)

An"ec*do"tist (#), n. One who relates or collects anecdotes.


Angust (Page: 57)

An*gust" (#), a. [L. angustus. See Anguish.] Narrow; strait. [Obs.]


Animalculist (Page: 58)

An`i*mal"cu*list (#), n. [Cf. F. animalculiste.]

1. One versed in the knowledge of animalcules. Keith.

2. A believer in the theory of animalculism.


Animist (Page: 58)

An"i*mist (#), n. [Cf. F. animiste.] One who maintains the doctrine of animism.


Annalist (Page: 59)

An"nal*ist, n. [Cf. F. annaliste.] A writer of annals.

The monks . . . were the only annalists in those ages. Hume.

Annexationist (Page: 59)

An`nex*a"tion*ist, n. One who favors annexation.


Annexionist (Page: 59)

An*nex"ion*ist, n. An annexationist. [R.]


Annihilationist (Page: 59)

An*ni`hi*la"tion*ist, n. (Theol.) One who believes that eternal punishment consists in annihilation or extinction of being; a destructionist.


Annotationist (Page: 59)

An`no*ta"tion*ist, n. An annotator. [R.]


Annualist (Page: 60)

An"nu*al*ist, n. One who writes for, or who edits, an annual. [R.]


Antagonist (Page: 61)

An*tag"o*nist (#), n. [L. antagonista, Gr. ; against + combatant, champion, fr. : cf. F. antagoniste. See Antagonism.]

1. One who contends with another, especially in combat; an adversary; an opponent.

Antagonist of Heaven's Almigthy King. Milton.
Our antagonists in these controversies. Hooker.

2. (Anat.) A muscle which acts in opposition to another; as a flexor, which bends a part, is the antagonist of an extensor, which extends it.

3. (Med.) A medicine which opposes the action of another medicine or of a poison when absorbed into the blood or tissues. Syn. -- Adversary; enemy; opponent; toe; competitor. See Adversary.


Antagonist (Page: 61)

An*tag"o*nist, a. Antagonistic; opposing; counteracting; as, antagonist schools of philosophy.


Antarchist (Page: 62)

Ant*ar"chist (#), n. One who opposes all government. [R.]


Antepast (Page: 62)

An"te*past (#), n. [Pref. ante- + L. pastus pasture, food. Cf. Repast.] A foretaste.

Antepasts of joy and comforts. Jer. Taylor.

Anthologist (Page: 63)

An*thol"o*gist (#), n. One who compiles an anthology.


Anthropologist (Page: 63)

An`thro*pol"o*gist (#), n. One who is versed in anthropology.


Anthropomorphist (Page: 63)

An`thro*po*mor"phist (#), n. One who attributes the human form or other human attributes to the Deity or to anything not human.


Anthropotomist (Page: 64)

An`thro*pot"o*mist (#), n. One who is versed in anthropotomy, or human anatomy.


Anti-federalist (Page: 64)

An`ti-fed"er*al*ist (#), n. One of party opposed to a federative government; -- applied particularly to the party which opposed the adoption of the constitution of the United States. Pickering.


Antichrist (Page: 64)

An"ti*christ (#), n. [L. Antichristus, Gr. ; against + .] A denier or opponent of Christ. Specif.: A great antagonist, person or power, expected to precede Christ's second coming.


Antiloquist (Page: 65)

An*til"o*quist (#), n. A contradicter. [Obs.]


Antimonarchist (Page: 65)

An`ti*mon"arch*ist (#), n. An enemy to monarchial government.


Antinomist (Page: 65)

An*tin"o*mist (#), n. An Antinomian. [R.] Bp. Sanderson.


Antipathist (Page: 65)

An*tip"a*thist (#), n. One who has an antipathy. [R.] Antipathist of light." Coleridge.


Antiquist (Page: 66)

An"ti*quist (#), n. An antiquary; a collector of antiques. [R.] Pinkerton.


Antisocialist (Page: 66)

An`ti*so"cial*ist, n. One opposed to the doctrines and practices of socialists or socialism.


Antispast (Page: 66)

An"ti*spast (#), n. [L. antispastus, Gr. , fr. to draw the contrary way; against + to draw.] (Pros.) A foot of four syllables, the first and fourth short, and the second and third long (#).


Antitheist (Page: 66)

An`ti*the"ist, n. A disbeliever in the existence of God.


Antivaccinationist (Page: 66)

An`ti*vac`ci*na"tion*ist, n. An antivaccinist.


Antivaccinist (Page: 66)

An`ti*vac"ci*nist, n. One opposed to vaccination.


Antivivisectionist (Page: 66)

An`ti*viv`i*sec"tion*ist, n. One opposed to vivisection


Aorist Anx*i"e*ty (#), n.; pl. Anxieties (#). [L. anxietas, fr. anxius: cf. F. anxi\'82t\'82. See Anxious.]67

1. Concern or solicitude respecting some thing o> A"o*rist (#), n. [Gr. indefinite; priv. + to define, boundary, limit.] (Gram.) A tense in the Greek language, which expresses an action as completed in past time, but leaves it, in other respects, wholly indeterminate.


Apathist Anx*i"e*ty (#), n.; pl. Anxieties (#). [L. anxietas, fr. anxius: cf. F. anxi\'82t\'82. See Anxious.]67

1. Concern or solicitude respecting some thing o> Ap"a*thist (#), n. [Cf. F. apathiste.] One who is destitute of feeling.


Aphorist (Page: 68)

Aph"o*rist, n. A writer or utterer of aphorisms.


Apiarist (Page: 68)

A"pi*a*rist (#), n. One who keeps an apiary.


Apiologist (Page: 68)

A`pi*ol"o*gist (#), n. [L. apis bee + -logist (see -logy).] A student of bees. [R.] Emerson.


Apocalyptic, Apocalyptist (Page: 69)

A*poc`a*lyp"tic (#), A*poc`a*lyp"tist, n. The writer of the Apocalypse.


Apocryphalist (Page: 69)

A*poc"ry*phal*ist, n. One who believes in, or defends, the Apocrypha. [R.]


Apologist (Page: 69)

A*pol"o*gist (#), n. [Cf. F. apologiste.] One who makes an apology; one who speaks or writes in defense of a faith, a cause, or an institution; especially, one who argues in defense of Christianity.


Apothegmatist (Page: 70)

Ap`o*theg"ma*tist (#), n. A collector or maker of apothegms. Pope.


Appanagist (Page: 71)

Ap*pan"a*gist (#), n. [F. apanagiste.] A prince to whom an appanage has been granted.


Appressed, Apprest (Page: 74)

Ap*pressed", Ap*prest", a. [p. p. appress, which is not in use. See Adpress.] (Bot.) Pressed close to, or lying against, something for its whole length, as against a stem, Gray.


Aquarellist (Page: 76)

Aq`ua*rel"list (#), n. A painter in thin transparent water colors.


Arabist (Page: 76)

Ar`a*bist (#), n. [Cf. F. Arabiste.] One well versed in the Arabic language or literature; also, formerly, one who followed the Arabic system of surgery.


Arachnologist (Page: 76)

Ar`ach*nol"o*gist (#), n. One who is versed in, or studies, arachnology.


Arbalest, Arbalist (Page: 77)

Ar"ba*lest (#), Ar"ba*list (#), n. [OF. arbaleste, LL. arbalista, for L. arcuballista; arcus bow + ballista a military engine. See Ballista.] (Antiq.) A crossbow, consisting of a steel bow set in a shaft of wood, furnished with a string and a trigger, and a mechanical device for bending the bow. It served to throw arrows, darts, bullets, etc. [Written also arbalet and arblast.] Fosbroke.


Arblast (Page: 77)

Ar"blast (#), n. A crossbow. See Arbalest.


Arboriculturist (Page: 77)

Ar`bor*i*cul"tur*ist, n. One who cultivates trees.


Arborist (Page: 77)

Ar"bor*ist (#), n. [F. arboriste, fr. L. arbor tree.] One who makes trees his study, or who is versed in the knowledge of trees. Howell.


Archæologist (Page: 78)

Ar`chæ*ol"o*gist (#), n. One versed in archæology; an antiquary. Wright.


Archaist (Page: 78)

Ar"cha*ist, n.

1. Am antiquary.

2. One who uses archaisms.


Archivist (Page: 79)

Ar"chi*vist (#), n. [F. archiviste.] A keeper of archives or records. [R.]


Archpriest (Page: 79)

Arch`priest" (#), n. A chief priest; also, a kind of vicar, or a rural dean.


Arcubalist (Page: 79)

Ar"cu*ba*list (#), n. [See Arbalist.] A crossbow. Fosbroke.


Areopagist (Page: 80)

Ar`e*op"a*gist (#), n. See Areopagite.


Arest (Page: 80)

A*rest" (#), n. A support for the spear when couched for the attack. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Arist (Page: 81)

A*rist" (#), 3d sing. pres. of Arise, for ariseth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Armorist (Page: 82)

Ar"mor*ist (#), n. [F. armoriste.] One skilled in coat armor or heraldry. Cussans.


Arrest (Page: 83)

Ar*rest" (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arrested; p. pr. & vb. n. Arresting.] [OE. aresten, OF. arester, F. arr\'88ter, fr. LL. arrestare; L. ad + restare to remain, stop; re + stare to stand. See Rest remainder.]

1. To stop; to check or hinder the motion or action of; as, to arrest the current of a river; to arrest the senses.

Nor could her virtues the relentless hand Of Death arrest. Philips.

2. (Law) To take, seize, or apprehend by authority of law; as, to arrest one for debt, or for a crime. &hand; After his word Shakespeare uses of (I arrest thee of high treason") or on; the modern usage is for.

3. To seize on and fix; to hold; to catch; as, to arrest the eyes or attention. Buckminster.

4. To rest or fasten; to fix; to concentrate. [Obs.]

We may arrest our thoughts upon the divine mercies. Jer. Taylor.
Syn. -- To obstruct; delay; detain; check; hinder; stop; apprehend; seize; lay hold of.
Arrest (Page: 83)

Ar*rest", v. i. To tarry; to rest. [Obs.] Spenser.


Arrest (Page: 83)

Ar*rest", n. [OE. arest, arrest, OF. arest, F. arr\'88t, fr. arester. See Arrest, v. t., Arrt.]

1. The act of stopping, or restraining from further motion, etc.; stoppage; hindrance; restraint; as, an arrest of development.

As the arrest of the air showeth. Bacon.

2. (Law) The taking or apprehending of a person by authority of law; legal restraint; custody. Also, a decree, mandate, or warrant.

William . . . ordered him to be put under arrest. Macaulay.
[Our brother Norway] sends out arrests On Fortinbras; which he, in brief, obeys. Shak.
&hand; An arrest may be made by seizing or touching the body; but it is sufficient in the party be within the power of the officer and submit to the arrest. In Admiralty law, and in old English practice, the term is applied to the seizure of property.

3. Any seizure by power, physical or moral.

The sad stories of fire from heaven, the burning of his sheep, etc., . . . were sad arrests to his troubled spirit. Jer. Taylor.

4. (Far.) A scurfiness of the back part of the hind leg of a horse; -- also named rat-tails. White. Arrest of judgment (Law), the staying or stopping of a judgment, after verdict, for legal cause. The motion for this purpose is called a motion in arrest of judgment.


Artillerist (Page: 86)

Ar*til"ler*ist (#), n. A person skilled in artillery or gunnery; a gunner; an artilleryman.


Artist (Page: 86)

Art"ist (#), n. [F. artiste, LL. artista, fr. L. ars. See Art, n., and cf. Artiste.]

1. One who practices some mechanic art or craft; an artisan. [Obs.]

How to build ships, and dreadful ordnance cast, Instruct the articles and reward their. Waller.

2. One who professes and practices an art in which science and taste preside over the manual execution. &hand; The term is particularly applied to painters, sculptors, musicians, engravers, and architects. Elmes.

3. One who shows trained skill or rare taste in any manual art or occupation. Pope.

4. An artful person; a schemer. [Obs.] Syn. -- Artisan. See Artisan.


Assientist (Page: 91)

As`si*en"tist, n. [Cf. F. assientiste, Sp. asentista.] A shareholder of the Assiento company; one of the parties to the Assiento contract. Bancroft.


Assist (Page: 92)

As*sist" (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Assisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Assisting.] [L. assistere; ad + sistere to cause to stand, to stand, from stare to stand: cf. F. assister. See Stand.] To give support to in some undertaking or effort, or in time of distress; to help; to aid; to succor.

Assist me, knight. I am undone! Shak.
Syn. -- To help; aid; second; back; support; relieve; succor; befriend; sustain; favor. See Help.
Assist (Page: 92)

As*sist", v. i.

1. To lend aid; to help.

With God not parted from him, as was feared, But favoring and assisting to the end. Milton.

2. To be present as a spectator; as, to assist at a public meeting. [A Gallicism] Gibbon. Prescott.


Associationist (Page: 92)

As*so`ci*a"tion*ist, n. (Philos.) One who explains the higher functions and relations of the soul by the association of ideas; e. g., Hartley, J. C. Mill.


Assyriologist (Page: 93)

As*syr`i*ol"o*gist (#), n. One versed in Assyriology; a student of Assyrian archæology.


Atheist (Page: 95)

A"the*ist, n. [Gr. without god; priv. + god: cf. F. athéiste.]

1. One who disbelieves or denies the existence of a God, or supreme intelligent Being.

2. A godless person. [Obs.] Syn. -- Infidel; unbeliever. See Infidel.


Athirst (Page: 96)

A*thirst" (#), a. [OE. ofthurst, AS. ofpyrsted, p. p. of ofpyrstan; pref. of-, intensive + pyrstan to thirst. See Thirst.]

1. Wanting drink; thirsty.

2. Having a keen appetite or desire; eager; longing. Athirst for battle." Cowper.


Atmologist (Page: 96)

At*mol"o*gist (#), n. One who is versed in atmology.


Atomist (Page: 96)

At"om*ist, n. [Cf. F. atomiste.] One who holds to the atomic philosophy or theory. Locke.


Attest (Page: 99)

At"test" (#), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Attested; p. pr. & vb. n. Attesting.] [L. attestari; ad + testari to bear witness: cf. F. attester.]

1. To bear witness to; to certify; to affirm to be true or genuine; as, to attest the truth of a writing, a copy of record.

Facts . . . attested by particular pagan authors. Addison.

2. To give proof of; to manifest; as, the ruins of Palmyra attest its ancient magnificence.

3. To call to witness; to invoke. [Archaic]

The sacred streams which Heaven's imperial state Attests in oaths, and fears to violate. Dryden.

Attest (Page: 99)

At*test", n. Witness; testimony; attestation. [R.]

The attest of eyes and ears. Shak.

Augurist (Page: 101)

Au"gu*rist (?), n. An augur. [R.]


August (Page: 101)

Au*gust" (?), a. [L. augustus; cf. augere to increase; in the language of religion, to honor by offerings: cf. F. auguste. See Augment.] Of a quality inspiring mingled admiration and reverence; having an aspect of solemn dignity or grandeur; sublime; majestic; having exalted birth, character, state, or authority. Forms august." Pope. August in visage." Dryden. To shed that august blood." Macaulay.

So beautiful and so august a spectacle. Burke.
To mingle with a body so august. Byron.
Syn. -- Grand; magnificent; majestic; solemn; awful; noble; stately; dignified; imposing.
August (Page: 101)

Au"gust (?), n. [L. Augustus. See note below, and August, a.] The eighth month of the year, containing thirty-one days. &hand; The old Roman name was Sextilis, the sixth month from March, the month in which the primitive Romans, as well as Jews, began the year. The name was changed to August in honor of Augustus Cæsar, the first emperor of Rome, on account of his victories, and his entering on his first consulate in that month.


Aurist (Page: 102)

Au"rist (?), n. [L. auris ear.] One skilled in treating and curing disorders of the ear.


Autobiographist (Page: 103)

Au`to*bi*og"ra*phist (?), n. One who writes his own life; an autobiographer. [R.]


Autoomist (Page: 103)

Au"to"o*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. automiste. See Autonomy.] One who advocates autonomy.


Autotheist (Page: 104)

Au"to*the`ist, n. One given to self-worship. [R.]


Avast (Page: 104)

A*vast" (?), interj. [Corrupted from D. houd vast hold fast. See Hold, v. t., and Fast, a.] (Naut.) Cease; stop; stay. Avast heaving." Totten.


Averroist (Page: 105)

A*ver"ro*ist, n. One of a sect of peripatetic philosophers, who appeared in Italy before the restoration of learning; so denominated from Averroes, or Averrhoes, a celebrated Arabian philosopher. He held the doctrine of monopsychism.


Babist (Page: 109)

Bab"ist, n. A believer in Babism.


Backcast (Page: 110)

Back"cast` (?), n. [Back, adv.+ cast.] Anything which brings misfortune upon one, or causes failure in an effort or enterprise; a reverse. [Scot.]


Bacteriologist (Page: 111)

Bac*te"ri*ol`o*gist, n. One skilled in bacteriology.


Bacterioscopist (Page: 111)

Bac*te`ri*os"co*pist (?), n. (Biol.) One skilled in bacterioscopic examinations.


Ballast (Page: 114)

Bal"last (?), n. [D. ballast; akin to Dan. baglast, ballast, OSw. barlast, Sw. ballast. The first part is perh. the same word as E. bare, adj.; the second is last a burden, and hence the meaning a bare, or mere, load. See Bare, a., and Last load.]

1. (Naut.) Any heavy substance, as stone, iron, etc., put into the hold to sink a vessel in the water to such a depth as to prevent capsizing.

2. Any heavy matter put into the car of a balloon to give it steadiness.

3. Gravel, broken stone, etc., laid in the bed of a railroad to make it firm and solid.

4. The larger solids, as broken stone or gravel, used in making concrete.

5. Fig.: That which gives, or helps to maintain, uprightness, steadiness, and security.

It [piety] is the right ballast of prosperity. Barrow.
Ballast engine, a steam engine used in excavating and for digging and raising stones and gravel for ballast. -- Ship in ballast, a ship carring only ballast.
Ballast (Page: 114)

Bal"last, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ballasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ballasting.]

1. To steady, as a vessel, by putting heavy substances in the hold.

2. To fill in, as the bed of a railroad, with gravel, stone, etc., in order to make it firm and solid.

3. To keep steady; to steady, morally.

'T is charity must ballast the heart. Hammond.

Balloonist (Page: 114)

Bal*loon"ist, n. An aëronaut.


Baptist (Page: 117)

Bap"tist (?), n. [L. baptista, G. ]

1. One who administers baptism; -- specifically applied to John, the forerunner of Christ. Milton.

2. One of a denomination of Christians who deny the validity of infant baptism and of sprinkling, and maintain that baptism should be administered to believers alone, and should be by immersion. See Anabaptist. In doctrine the Baptists of this country [the United States] are Calvinistic, but with much freedom and moderation. Amer. Cyc. Freewill Baptists, a sect of Baptists who are Arminian in doctrine, and practice open communion. -- Seventh-day Baptists, a sect of Baptists who keep the seventh day of the week, or Saturday, as the Sabbath. See Sabbatarian. The Dunkers and Campbellites are also Baptists.


Barghest (Page: 119)

Bar"ghest` (?), n. [Perh. G. berg mountain + geist demon, or bär a bear + geist.] A goblin, in the shape of a large dog, portending misfortune. [Also written barguest.]


Barpost (Page: 120)

Bar"post` (?), n. A post sunk in the ground to receive the bars closing a passage into a field.


Barrowist (Page: 121)

Bar"row*ist, n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Henry Barrowe, one of the founders of Independency or Congregationalism in England. Barrowe was executed for nonconformity in 1953.


Bassoonist (Page: 123)

Bas*soon"ist, n. A performer on the bassoon. Busby.


Bast (Page: 123)

Bast (?), n. [AS. bæst; akin to Icel., Sw., Dan., D., & G. bast, of unknown origin. Cf. Bass the tree.]

1. The inner fibrous bark of various plants; esp. of the lime tree; hence, matting, cordage, etc., made therefrom.

2. A thick mat or hassock. See 2d Bass, 2.


Battologist (Page: 125)

Bat*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who battologizes.


Beast (Page: 129)

Beast (?), n. [OE. best, beste, OF. beste, F. b\'88te, fr. L. bestia.]

1. Any living creature; an animal; -- including man, insects, etc. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. Any four-footed animal, that may be used for labor, food, or sport; as, a beast of burden.

A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast. Prov. xii. 10.

3. As opposed to man: Any irrational animal.

4. Fig.: A coarse, brutal, filthy, or degraded fellow.

5. A game at cards similar to loo. [Obs.] Wright.

6. A penalty at beast, omber, etc. Hence: To be beasted, to be beaten at beast, omber, etc. Beast royal, the lion. [Obs.] Chaucer. Syn. -- Beast, Brute. When we use these words in a figurative sense, as applicable to human beings, we think of beasts as mere animals governed by animal appetite; and of brutes as being destitute of reason or moral feeling, and governed by unrestrained passion. Hence we speak of beastly appetites; beastly indulgences, etc.; and of brutal manners; brutal inhumanity; brutal ferocity. So, also, we say of a drunkard, that he first made himself a beast, and then treated his family like a brute.


Bedpost (Page: 131)

Bed"post` (?), n.

1. One of the four standards that support a bedstead or the canopy over a bedstead.

2. Anciently, a post or pin on each side of the bed to keep the clothes from falling off. See Bedstaff. Brewer.


Bedust (Page: 131)

Be*dust" (?), v. t. To sprinkle, soil, or cover with dust. Sherwood.


Behest (Page: 133)

Be*hest" (?), n. [OE. biheste promise, command, AS. behs promise; pref. be- + hs command. See Hest, Hight.]

1. That which is willed or ordered; a command; a mandate; an injunction.

To do his master's high behest. Sir W. Scott.

2. A vow; a promise. [Obs.]

The time is come that I should send it her, if I keep the behest that I have made. Paston.

Behest (Page: 133)

Be*hest", v. t. To vow. [Obs.] Paston.


Belle-lettrist (Page: 135)

Belle-let"trist (?), n. One versed in belleslettres.


Bemist (Page: 136)

Be*mist" (?), v. t. To envelop in mist. [Obs.]


Bequest (Page: 138)

Be*quest" (?), n. [OE. biquest, corrupted fr. bequide; pref. be- + AS. cwide a saying, becwean to bequeath. The ending -est is probably due to confusion with quest. See Bequeath, Quest.]

1. The act of bequeathing or leaving by will; as, a bequest of property by A. to B.

2. That which is left by will, esp. personal property; a legacy; also, a gift.


Bequest (Page: 138)

Be*quest", v. t. To bequeath, or leave as a legacy. [Obs.] All I have to bequest." Gascoigne.


Best (Page: 140)

Best (?), a.; superl. of Good. [AS. besta, best, contr. from betest, betst, betsta; akin to Goth. batists, OHG. pezzisto, G. best, beste, D. best, Icel. beztr, Dan. best, Sw. bäst. This word has no connection in origin with good. See Better.]

1. Having good qualities in the highest degree; most good, kind, desirable, suitable, etc.; most excellent; as, the best man; the best road; the best cloth; the best abilities.

When he is best, he is a little worse than a man. Shak.
Heaven's last, best gift, my ever new delight. Milton.

2. Most advanced; most correct or complete; as, the best scholar; the best view of a subject.

3. Most; largest; as, the best part of a week. Best man, the only or principal groomsman at a wedding ceremony.


Best (Page: 140)

Best, n. Utmost; highest endeavor or state; most nearly perfect thing, or being, or action; as, to do one's best; to the best of our ability. At best, in the utmost degree or extent applicable to the case; under the most favorable circumstances; as, life is at best very short. -- For best, finally. [Obs.] Those constitutions . . . are now established for best, and not to be mended." Milton. -- To get the best of, to gain an advantage over, whether fairly or unfairly. -- To make the best of. (a) To improve to the utmost; to use or dispose of to the greatest advantage. Let there be freedom to carry their commodities where they can make the best of them." Bacon. (b) To reduce to the least possible inconvenience; as, to make the best of ill fortune or a bad bargain.


Best (Page: 140)

Best, adv.; superl. of Well.

1. In the highest degree; beyond all others. Thou serpent! That name best befits thee." Milton.

He prayeth best, who loveth best All things both great and small. Coleridge.

2. To the most advantage; with the most success, case, profit, benefit, or propriety.

Had we best retire? I see a storm. Milton.
Had I not best go to her? Thackeray.

3. Most intimately; most thoroughly or correctly; as, what is expedient is best known to himself.


Best (Page: 140)

Best, v. t. To get the better of. [Colloq.]


Betrust (Page: 141)

Be*trust" (?), v. t. To trust or intrust. [Obs.]


Bettermost (Page: 141)

Bet"ter*most` (?), a. Best. [R.] The bettermost classes." Brougham.


Biblicist (Page: 142)

Bib"li*cist (?), n. One skilled in the knowledge of the Bible; a demonstrator of religious truth by the Scriptures.


Bibliolater, Bibliolatrist (Page: 142)

Bib`li*ol"a*ter (?), Bib`li*ol"a*trist (?), n. [See. Bibliolatry.] A worshiper of books; especially, a worshiper of the Bible; a believer in its verbal inspiration. De Quincey.


Bibliopegist (Page: 143)

Bib`li*op"e*gist (?), n. A bookbinder.


Bibliophilist (Page: 143)

Bib`li*oph"i*list (?), n. A lover of books.


Bibliopolist (Page: 143)

Bib`li*op"o*list (?), n. Same as Bibliopole.


Bibliotaph, Bibliotaphist (Page: 143)

Bib"li*o*taph (?), Bib`li*ot"a*phist (?), n. [Gr. book + a burial.] One who hides away books, as in a tomb. [R.] Crabb.


Biblist (Page: 143)

Bib"list (?), n. [Cf. F. bibliste. See Bible.]

1. One who makes the Bible the sole rule of faith.

2. A biblical scholar; a biblicist. I. Taylor.


Bicyclist (Page: 143)

Bi"cy*clist (?), n. A bicycler.


Bigamist (Page: 144)

Big"a*mist (?), n. [Cf. Digamist.] One who is guilty of bigamy. Ayliffe.


Biggest (Page: 144)

Big"gest (?), a., superl. of Big.


Bilinguist (Page: 145)

Bi*lin"guist (?), n. One versed in two languages.


Bimetallist (Page: 146)

Bi*met"al*list (?), n. An advocate of bimetallism.


Bioblast (Page: 146)

Bi"o*blast (?), n. [Gr. life + -blast.] (Biol.) Same as Bioplast.


Biogenist (Page: 146)

Bi*og"e*nist (?), n. A believer in the theory of biogenesis.


Biologist (Page: 146)

Bi*ol"o*gist (?), n. A student of biology; one versed in the science of biology.


Bioplast (Page: 147)

Bi"o*plast (?), n. [Gr. life + to form.] (Biol.) A tiny mass of bioplasm, in itself a living unit and having formative power, as a living white blood corpuscle; bioblast.


Bird's nest, ∨ Bird's-nest (Page: 147)

Bird's" nest`, ∨ Bird's-nest (?), n.

1. The nest in which a bird lays eggs and hatches her young.

2. (Cookery) The nest of a small swallow (Collocalia nidifica and several allied species), of China and the neighboring countries, which is mixed with soups. &hand; The nests are found in caverns and fissures of cliffs on rocky coasts, and are composed in part of algæ. They are of the size of a goose egg, and in substance resemble isinglass. See Illust. under Edible. [148]

3. (Bot.) An orchideous plant with matted roots, of the genus Neottia (N. nidus-avis.) Bird's-nest pudding, a pudding containing apples whose cores have been replaces by sugar. -- Yellow bird's nest, a plant, the Monotropa hypopitys.


Blacklist (Page: 151)

Black"list` (?), v. t. To put in a black list as deserving of suspicion, censure, or punishment; esp. to put in a list of persons stigmatized as insolvent or untrustworthy, -- as tradesmen and employers do for mutual protection; as, to blacklist a workman who has been discharged. See Black list, under Black, a.

If you blacklist us, we will boycott you. John Swinton.

Blast (Page: 153)

Blast (?), n. [AS. blst a puff of wind, a blowing; akin to Icel. blāstr, OHG. blāst, and fr. a verb akin to Icel. blāsa to blow, OHG. blâsan, Goth. blsan (in comp.); all prob. from the same root as E. blow. See Blow to eject air.]

1. A violent gust of wind.

And see where surly Winter passes off, Far to the north, and calls his ruffian blasts; His blasts obey, and quit the howling hill. Thomson.

2. A forcible stream of air from an orifice, as from a bellows, the mouth, etc. Hence: The continuous blowing to which one charge of ore or metal is subjected in a furnace; as, to melt so many tons of iron at a blast. &hand; The terms hot blast and cold blast are employed to designate whether the current is heated or not heated before entering the furnace. A blast furnace is said to be in blast while it is in operation, and out of blast when not in use.

3. The exhaust steam from and engine, driving a column of air out of a boiler chimney, and thus creating an intense draught through the fire; also, any draught produced by the blast.

4. The sound made by blowing a wind instrument; strictly, the sound produces at one breath.

One blast upon his bugle horn Were worth a thousand men. Sir W. Scott.
The blast of triumph o'er thy grave. Bryant.

5. A sudden, pernicious effect, as if by a noxious wind, especially on animals and plants; a blight.

By the blast of God they perish. Job iv. 9.
Virtue preserved from fell destruction's blast. Shak.

6. The act of rending, or attempting to rend, heavy masses of rock, earth, etc., by the explosion of gunpowder, dynamite, etc.; also, the charge used for this purpose. Large blasts are often used." Tomlinson.

7. A flatulent disease of sheep. Blast furnace, a furnace, usually a shaft furnace for smelting ores, into which air is forced by pressure. -- Blast hole, a hole in the bottom of a pump stock through which water enters. -- Blast nozzle, a fixed or variable orifice in the delivery end of a blast pipe; -- called also blast orifice. -- In full blast, in complete operation; in a state of great activity. See Blast, n., 2. [Colloq.]


Blast (Page: 153)

Blast, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Blasting.]

1. To injure, as by a noxious wind; to cause to wither; to stop or check the growth of, and prevent from fruit-bearing, by some pernicious influence; to blight; to shrivel.

Seven thin ears, and blasted with the east wind. Gen. xii. 6.

2. Hence, to affect with some sudden violence, plague, calamity, or blighting influence, which destroys or causes to fail; to visit with a curse; to curse; to ruin; as, to blast pride, hopes, or character.

I'll cross it, though it blast me. Shak.
Blasted with excess of light. T. Gray.

3. To confound by a loud blast or din.

Trumpeters, With brazen din blast you the city's ear. Shak.

4. To rend open by any explosive agent, as gunpowder, dynamite, etc.; to shatter; as, to blast rocks.


Blast (Page: 153)

Blast, v. i.

1. To be blighted or withered; as, the bud blasted in the blossom.

2. To blow; to blow on a trumpet. [Obs.]

Toke his blake trumpe faste And gan to puffen and to blaste. Chaucer.

Blastocyst (Page: 153)

Blas"to*cyst (?), n. [Gr. sprout + E. cyst.] (Biol.) The germinal vesicle.


Blest (Page: 155)

Blest, a. Blessed. This patriarch blest." Milton.

White these blest sounds my ravished ear assail. Trumbull.

Bluebreast (Page: 159)

Blue"breast` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small European bird; the blue-throated warbler.


Boast (Page: 160)

Boast (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Boasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Boasting.] [OE. bosten, boosten, v., bost, boost, n., noise, boasting; cf. G. bausen, bauschen, to swell, pusten, Dan. puste, Sw. pusta, to blow, Sw. pösa to swell; or W. bostio to boast, bost boast, Gael. bosd. But these last may be from English.]

1. To vaunt one's self; to brag; to say or tell things which are intended to give others a high opinion of one's self or of things belonging to one's self; as, to boast of one's exploits courage, descent, wealth.

By grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: .. not of works, lest any man should boast. Eph. ii. 8, 9.

2. To speak in exulting language of another; to glory; to exult.

In God we boast all the day long. Ps. xiiv. 8
Syn. -- To brag; bluster; vapor; crow; talk big.
Boast (Page: 160)

Boast, v. t.

1. To display in ostentatious language; to speak of with pride, vanity, or exultation, with a view to self-commendation; to extol.

Lest bad men should boast Their specious deeds. Milton.

2. To display vaingloriously.

3. To possess or have; as, to boast a name. To boast one's self, to speak with unbecoming confidence in, and approval of, one's self; -- followed by of and the thing to which the boasting relates. [Archaic]

Boast not thyself of to-morrow. Prov. xxvii.

Boast (Page: 160)

Boast, v. t. [Of uncertain etymology.]

1. (Masonry) To dress, as a stone, with a broad chisel. Weale.

2. (Sculp.) To shape roughly as a preparation for the finer work to follow; to cut to the general form required.


Boast (Page: 160)

Boast, n.

1. Act of boasting; vaunting or bragging.

Reason and morals? and where live they most, In Christian comfort, or in Stoic boast! Byron.

2. The cause of boasting; occasion of pride or exultation, -- sometimes of laudable pride or exultation.

The boast of historians. Macaulay.

Boist (Page: 163)

Boist (?), n. [OF. boiste, F. bo\'8cte, from the same root as E. box.] A box. [Obs.]


Bombast (Page: 164)

Bom"bast (?), n. [OF. bombace cotton, LL. bombax cotton, bombasium a doublet of cotton; hence, padding, wadding, fustian. See Bombazine.]

1. Originally, cotton, or cotton wool. [Obs.]

A candle with a wick of bombast. Lupton.

2. Cotton, or any soft, fibrous material, used as stuffing for garments; stuffing; padding. [Obs.]

How now, my sweet creature of bombast! Shak.
Doublets, stuffed with four, five, or six pounds of bombast at least. Stubbes.

3. Fig.: High-sounding words; an inflated style; language above the dignity of the occasion; fustian.

Yet noisy bombast carefully avoid. Dryden.

Bombast (Page: 164)

Bom"bast, a. High-sounding; inflated; big without meaning; magniloquent; bombastic.

[He] evades them with a bombast circumstance,
Horribly stuffed with epithets of war. Shak.
Nor a tall metaphor in bombast way. Cowley.

Bombast (Page: 164)

Bom*bast" (?), v. t. To swell or fill out; to pad; to inflate. [Obs.]

Not bombasted with words vain ticklish ears to feed. Drayton.

Bonapartist (Page: 164)

Bo"na*part`ist, n. One attached to the policy or family of Bonaparte, or of the Bonapartes.


Boodhist (Page: 166)

Boodh"ist, n. Same as Buddhist.


Boost (Page: 166)

Boost (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Boosted; p. pr. & vb. n. Boosting.] [Cf. Boast, v. i.] To lift or push from behind (one who is endeavoring to climb); to push up; hence, to assist in overcoming obstacles, or in making advancement. [Colloq. U. S.] [167]


Boost (Page: 167)

Boost (?), n. A push from behind, as to one who is endeavoring to climb; help. [Colloq. U. S.]


Botanist (Page: 169)

Bot"a*nist (?), n. [Cf. F. botaniste.] One skilled in botany; one versed in the knowledge of plants.


Bourbonist (Page: 171)

Bour"bon*ist, n. One who adheres to the house of Bourbon; a legitimist.


Brahmanist, Brahminist (Page: 174)

Brah"man*ist (?), Brah"min*ist (?), n. An adherent of the religion of the Brahmans.


Brast (Page: 176)

Brast (?), v. t. & i. [See Burst.] To burst. [Obs.]

And both his yën braste out of his face. Chaucer.
Dreadfull furies which their chains have brast. Spenser.

Breakfast (Page: 178)

Break"fast (?), n. [Break + fast.]

1. The first meal in the day, or that which is eaten at the first meal.

A sorry breakfast for my lord protector. Shak.

2. A meal after fasting, or food in general.

The wolves will get a breakfast by my death. Dryden.

Breakfast (Page: 178)

Break"fast, v. i. [imp. & p. p. breakfasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Breakfasting.] To break one's fast in the morning; too eat the first meal in the day.

First, sir, I read, and then I breakfast. Prior.

Breakfast (Page: 178)

Break"fast, v. t. To furnish with breakfast. Milton.


Breast (Page: 178)

Breast (?), n. [OE. brest, breost, As. breóst; akin to Icel. brjst, Sw. bröst, Dan. bryst, Goth. brusts, OS. briost, D. borst, G. brust.]

1. The fore part of the body, between the neck and the belly; the chest; as, the breast of a man or of a horse.

2. Either one of the protuberant glands, situated on the front of the chest or thorax in the female of man and of some other mammalia, in which milk is secreted for the nourishment of the young; a mammma; a teat.

My brother, that sucked the breasts of my mother. Cant. viii. 1.

3. Anything resembling the human breast, or bosom; the front or forward part of anything; as, a chimney breast; a plow breast; the breast of a hill.

Mountains on whose barren breast The laboring clouds do often rest. Milton.

4. (Mining) (a) The face of a coal working. (b) The front of a furnace.

5. The seat of consciousness; the repository of thought and self-consciousness, or of secrets; the seat of the affections and passions; the heart.

He has a loyal breast. Shak.

6. The power of singing; a musical voice; -- so called, probably, from the connection of the voice with the lungs, which lie within the breast. [Obs.]

By my troth, the fool has an excellent breast. Shak.
Breast drill, a portable drilling machine, provided with a breastplate, for forcing the drill against the work. -- Breast pang. See Angina pectoris, under Angina. -- To make a clean breast, to disclose the secrets which weigh upon one; to make full confession.
Breast (Page: 178)

Breast, v. t. [imp. & p. p.Breasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Breasted.] To meet, with the breast; to struggle with or oppose manfully; as, to breast the storm or waves.

The court breasted the popular current by sustaining the demurrer. Wirt.
To breast up a hedge, to cut the face of it on one side so as to lay bare the principal upright stems of the plants.
Breastfast (Page: 178)

Breast"fast` (?), n. (Naut.) A large rope to fasten the midship part of a ship to a wharf, or to another vessel.


Brest, Breast (Page: 179)

Brest, Breast (?), n. (Arch.) A torus. [Obs.]


Brest (Page: 179)

Brest (?), 3d sing.pr. for Bursteth. [Obs.]


Broadcast (Page: 183)

Broad"cast` (?), n. (Agric.) A casting or throwing seed in all directions, as from the hand in sowing.


Broadcast (Page: 183)

Broad"cast`, a.

1. Cast or dispersed in all directions, as seed from the hand in sowing; widely diffused.

2. Scattering in all directions (as a method of sowing); -- opposed to planting in hills, or rows.


Broadcast (Page: 183)

Broad"cast`, adv. So as to scatter or be scattered in all directions; so as to spread widely, as seed from the hand in sowing, or news from the press.


Bromatologist (Page: 184)

Bro`ma*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in the science of foods.


Bronzist (Page: 184)

Bronz"ist, n. One who makes, imitates, collects, or deals in, bronzes.


Brownist (Page: 185)

Brown"ist, n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Robert Brown, of England, in the 16th century, who taught that every church is complete and independent in itself when organized, and consists of members meeting in one place, having full power to elect and depose its officers.


Brownist (Page: 185)

Brown"ist, n. (Med.) One who advocates the Brunonian system of medicine.


Browpost (Page: 185)

Brow"post` (?), n. (Carp.) A beam that goes across a building.


Bryologist (Page: 186)

Bry*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in bryology.


Buddhist (Page: 188)

Bud"dhist (?), n. One who accepts the teachings of Buddhism.


Buddhist (Page: 188)

Bud"dhist, a. Of or pertaining to Buddha, Buddhism, or the Buddhists.


Bullfeast (Page: 190)

Bull"feast` (?), n. See Bullfight. [Obs.]


Bullionist (Page: 191)

Bul"lion*ist, n. An advocate for a metallic currency, or a paper currency always convertible into gold.


Bullist (Page: 191)

Bull"ist, n. [F. bulliste. See Bull an edict.] A writer or drawer up of papal bulls. [R.] Harmar.


Bumbast (Page: 191)

Bum"bast (?). See Bombast. [Obs.]


Bureaucratist (Page: 193)

Bu*reau"cra*tist (?), n. An advocate for , or supporter of, bureaucracy.


Burinist (Page: 193)

Bu"rin*ist, n. One who works with the burin. For. Quart. Rev.


Burst (Page: 194)

Burst (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Burst; p. pr. & vb. n. Bursting. The past participle bursten is obsolete.] [OE. bersten, bresten, AS. berstan (pers. sing. berste, imp. sing. bærst, imp. pl. burston, p.p. borsten); akin to D. bersten, G. bersten, OHG. brestan, OS. brestan, Icel. bresta, Sw. brista, Dan. briste. Cf. Brast, Break.]

1. To fly apart or in pieces; of break open; to yield to force or pressure, especially to a sudden and violent exertion of force, or to pressure from within; to explode; as, the boiler had burst; the buds will burst in spring.

From the egg that soon Bursting with kindly rupture, forth disclosed Their callow young. Milton.
Often used figuratively, as of the heart, in reference to a surcharge of passion, grief, desire, etc.
No, no, my heart will burst, an if I speak: And I will speak, that so my heart may burst. Shak.

2. To exert force or pressure by which something is made suddenly to give way; to break through obstacles or limitations; hence, to appear suddenly and unexpecedly or unaccountably, or to depart in such manner; -- usually with some qualifying adverb or preposition, as forth, out, away, into, upon, through, etc.

Tears, such as angels weep, burst forth. Milton.
And now you burst (ah cruel!) from my arms. Pope.
A resolved villain Whose bowels suddenly burst out. Shak.
We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea. Coleridge.
To burst upon him like an earthquake. Goldsmith.
[195]


Burst (Page: 195)

Burst (?), v. t.

1. To break or rend by violence, as by an overcharge or by strain or pressure, esp. from within; to force open suddenly; as, to burst a cannon; to burst a blood vessel; to burst open the doors.

My breast I'll burst with straining of my courage. Shak.

2. To break. [Obs.]

You will not pay for the glasses you have burst? Shak.
He burst his lance against the sand below. Fairfax (Tasso).

3. To produce as an effect of bursting; as, to burst a hole through the wall. Bursting charge. See under Charge.


Burst (Page: 195)

Burst, n.

1. A sudden breaking forth; a violent rending; an explosion; as, a burst of thunder; a burst of applause; a burst of passion; a burst of inspiration.

Bursts of fox-hunting melody. W. Irving.

2. Any brief, violent evertion or effort; a spurt; as, a burst of speed.

3. A sudden opening, as of landscape; a stretch; an expanse. [R.] A fine burst of country." Jane Austen.

4. A rupture of hernia; a breach.


Bust (Page: 196)

Bust (?), n. [F. buste, fr. It. busto; cf. LL. busta, bustula, box, of the same origin as E. box a case; cf., for the change of meaning, E. chest. See Bushel.]

1. A piece of sculpture representing the upper part of the human figure, including the head, shoulders, and breast.

Ambition sighed: she found it vain to trust The faithless column, and the crumbling bust. Pope.

2. The portion of the human figure included between the head and waist, whether in statuary or in the person; the chest or thorax; the upper part of the trunk of the body.


By-interest (Page: 198)

By"-in`ter*est (?), n. Self-interest; private advantage. Atterbury.


By-past (Page: 198)

By"-past (?), a. Past; gone by. By-past perils." Shak.


Cabalist (Page: 199)

Cab"a*list (?), n. [Cf.F. cabaliste.] One versed in the cabala, or the mysteries of Jewish traditions. Studious cabalists." Swift.


Calamist (Page: 202)

Cal"a*mist (?), n. [L. calamus a reed.] One who plays upon a reed or pipe. [Obs.] Blount.


Calligraphist (Page: 205)

Cal*lig"ra*phist (?), n. A calligrapher


Calvinist (Page: 205)

Cal"vin*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. Calviniste.] A follower of Calvin; a believer in Calvinism.


Cambist (Page: 207)

Cam"bist (?), n. [F. cambiste, It. cambista, fr. L. cambire to exchange. See Change.] A banker; a money changer or broker; one who deals in bills of exchange, or who is skilled in the science of exchange.


Campanologist Cam`pa*nol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in campanology; a bell ringer.
Canoeist (Page: 211)

Ca*noe"ist (?), n. A canoeman.


Canonist (Page: 211)

Can"on*ist, n. [Cf. F. canoniste.] A professor of canon law; one skilled in the knowledge and practice of ecclesiastical law. South.


Capitalist (Page: 214)

Cap"i*tal*ist, n. [Cf. F. capitaliste.] One who has capital; one who has money for investment, or money invested; esp. a person of large property, which is employed in business.

The expenditure of the capitalist. Burke.

Caricaturist (Page: 218)

Car"i*ca*tu`rist (?), n. One who caricatures.


Carlist (Page: 219)

Car"list (?), n. A parisan of Charles X. Of France, or of Dod Carlos of Spain.


Carnalist (Page: 219)

Car"nal*ist (?), n. A sensualist. Burton.


Carpologist (Page: 220)

Car*pol"o*gist (?), n. One who describes fruits; one versed in carpology.


Cartoonist (Page: 221)

Car"toon"ist, n. One skilled in drawing cartoons.


Carvist (Page: 222)

Car"vist (?), n. [A corruption of carry fist.] (Falconary) A hawk which is of proper age and training to be carried on the hand; a hawk in its first year. Booth.


Cast (Page: 223)

Cast (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cast; p. pr. & vb. n. Casting.] [Cf. Dan. kastw, Icel. & Sw. kasta; perh. akin to L. gerer to bear, carry. E. Jest.]

1. To send or drive by force; to throw; to fling; to hurl; to impel.

Uzziash prepared . . . slings to cast stones. 2 Chron. xxvi. 14
Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me. Acts. xii. 8
We must be cast upon a certain island. Acts. xxvii. 26.

2. To direct or turn, as the eyes.

How earnestly he cast his eyes upon me! Shak.

3. To drop; to deposit; as, to cast a ballot.

4. To throw down, as in wrestling. Shak.

5. To throw up, as a mound, or rampart.

Thine enemies shall cast a trench [bank] about thee. Luke xix. 48.

6. To throw off; to eject; to shed; to lose.

His filth within being cast. Shak.
Neither shall your vine cast her fruit. Mal. iii. 11
The creatures that cast the skin are the snake, the viper, etc. Bacon.

7. To bring forth prematurely; to slink.

Thy she-goats have not cast their young. Gen. xxi. 38.

8. To throw out or emit; to exhale. [Obs.]

This . . . casts a sulphureous smell. Woodward.

9. To cause to fall; to shed; to reflect; to throw; as, to cast a ray upon a screen; to cast light upon a subject.

10. To impose; to bestow; to rest.

The government I cast upon my brother. Shak.
Cast thy burden upon the Lord. Ps. iv. 22.

11. To dismiss; to discard; to cashier. [Obs.]

The state can not with safety casthim.

12. To compute; to reckon; to calculate; as, to cast a horoscope. Let it be cast and paid." Shak.

You cast the event of war my noble lord. Shak.

13. To contrive; to plan. [Archaic]

The cloister . . . had, I doubt not, been cast for [an orange- house]. Sir W. Temple.

14. To defeat in a lawsuit; to decide against; to convict; as, to be cast in damages.

She was cast to be hanged. Jeffrey.
Were the case referred to any competent judge, they would inevitably be cast. Dr. H. More.

15. To turn (the balance or scale); to overbalance; hence, to make preponderate; to decide; as, a casting voice.

How much interest casts the balance in cases dubious! South.

16. To form into a particular shape, by pouring liquid metal or other material into a mold; to fashion; to found; as, to cast bells, stoves, bullets.

17. (Print.) To stereotype or electrotype.

18. To fix, distribute, or allot, as the parts of a play among actors; also to assign (an actor) for a part.

Our parts in the other world will be new cast. Addison.
To cast anchor (Naut.) Se under Anchor. -- To cast a horoscope, to calculate it. -- To cast a horse, sheep, or other animal, to throw with the feet upwards, in such a manner as to prevent its rising again. -- To cast a shoe, to throw off or lose a shoe, said of a horse or ox. -- To cast aside, to throw or push aside; to neglect; to reject as useless or inconvenient. -- To cast away. (a) To throw away; to lavish; to waste. Cast away a life" Addison. (b) To reject; to let perish. Cast away his people." Rom. xi. 1. Cast one away." Shak. (c) To wreck. Cast away and sunk." Shak. -- To cast by, to reject; to dismiss or discard; to throw away. -- To cast down, to throw down; to destroy; to deject or depress, as the mind. Why art thou cast down. O my soul?" Ps. xiii. 5. -- To cast forth, to throw out, or eject, as from an inclosed place; to emit; to send out. -- To cast in one's lot with, to share the fortunes of. -- To cast in one's teeth, to upbraid or abuse one for; to twin. -- To cast lots. See under Lot. -- To cast off. (a) To discard or reject; to drive away; to put off; to free one's self from. (b) (Hunting) To leave behind, as dogs; also, to set loose, or free, as dogs. Crabb. (c) (Naut.) To untie, throw off, or let go, as a rope. -- To cast off copy, (Print.), to estimate how much printed matter a given amount of copy will make, or how large the page must be in order that the copy may make a given number of pages. -- To cast one's self on ∨ upon to yield or submit one's self unreservedly to. as to the mercy of another. -- To cast out, to throy out; to eject, as from a house; to cast forth; to expel; to utter. -- To cast the lead (Naut.), to sound by dropping the lead to the botton. -- To cast the water (Med.), to examine the urine for signs of disease. [Obs.]. -- To cast up. (a) To throw up; to raise. (b) To compute; to reckon, as the cost. (c) To vomit. (d) To twit with; to throw in one's teeth.

Cast (Page: 223)

Cast (?), v. i.

1. To throw, as a line in angling, esp, with a fly hook.

2. (Naut.) To turn the head of a vessel around from the wind in getting under weigh.

Weigh anchor, cast to starboard. Totten.

3. To consider; to turn or revolve in the mind; to plan; as, to cast about for reasons.

She . . . cast in her mind what manner of salution this should be. Luke. i. 29.

4. To calculate; to compute. [R.]

Who would cast and balance at a desk. Tennyson.

5. To receive form or shape in a mold.

It will not run thin, so as to cast and mold. Woodward.

6. To warp; to become twisted out of shape.

Stuff is said to cast or warp when . . . it alters its flatness or straightness. Moxon.

7. To vomit.

These verses . . . make me ready to cast. B. Jonson.

Cast (Page: 223)

Cast, 3d pres. of Cast, for Casteth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Cast (Page: 223)

Cast, n. [Cf. Icel., Dan., & Sw. kast.]

1. The act of casting or throwing; a throw.

2. The thing thrown.

A cast of dreadful dust. Dryden.

3. The distance to which a thing is or can be thrown. About a stone's cast." Luke xxii. 41.

4. A throw of dice; hence, a chance or venture.

An even cast whether the army should march this way or that way. Sowth.
I have set my life upon a cast, And I will stand the hazard of the die. Shak.

5. That which is throw out or off, shed, or ejected; as, the skin of an insect, the refuse from a hawk's stomach, the excrement of a earthworm.

6. The act of casting in a mold.

And why such daily cast of brazen cannon. Shak.

7. An impression or mold, taken from a thing or person; amold; a pattern.

8. That which is formed in a mild; esp. a reproduction or copy, as of a work of art, in bronze or plaster, etc.; a casting.

9. Form; appearence; mien; air; style; as, a pecullar cast of countenance. A neat cast of verse." Pope.

An heroic poem, but in another cast and figure. Prior.
And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought. Shak.

10. A tendency to any color; a tinge; a shade.

Gray with a cast of green. Woodward.

11. A chance, opportunity, privilege, or advantage; specifically, an opportunity of riding; a lift. [Scotch]

We bargained with the driver to give us a cast to the next stage. Smollett.
If we had the cast o' a cart to bring it. Sir W. Scott.

12. The assignment of parts in a play to the actors.

13. (Falconary) A flight or a couple or set of hawks let go at one time from the hand. Grabb.

As when a cast of falcons make their flight. Spenser.

14. A stoke, touch, or trick. [Obs.]

This was a cast of Wood's politics; for his information was wholly false. Swift.

15. A motion or turn, as of the eye; direction; look; glance; squint.

The cast of the eye is a gesture of aversion. Bacon.
And let you see with one cast of an eye. Addison.
This freakish, elvish cast came into the child's eye. Hawthorne.

16. A tube or funnel for conveying metal into a mold.

17. Four; that is, as many as are thrown into a vessel at once in counting herrings, etc; a warp.

18. Contrivance; plot, design. [Obs.] Chaucer. A cast of the eye, a slight squint or strabismus. -- Renal cast (Med.), microscopic bodies found in the urine of persons affected with disease of the kidneys; -- so called because they are formed of matter deposited in, and preserving the outline of, the renal tubes. -- The last cast, the last throw of the dice or last effort, on which every thing is ventured; the last chance.


Casualist (Page: 225)

Cas"u*al*ist, n. One who believes in casualism.


Casuist (Page: 225)

Cas"u*ist (?), n. [L. casus fall, case; cf. F. casuiste. See Casual.] One who is skilled in, or given to, casuistry.

The judment of any casuist or learned divine concerning the state of a man's soul, is not sufficient to give him confidence. South.

Casuist (Page: 225)

Cas"u*ist, v. i. To play the casuist. Milton.


Catabaptist (Page: 225)

Cat`a*bap"tist (?), n. [Pref. cata + aptist. See Baptist.] (Eccl.) One who opposes baptism, especially of infants. [Obs.] Featley.


Cataclysmist (Page: 225)

Cat`a*clys"mist (?), n. One who believes that the most important geological phenomena have been produced by cataclysms.


Catastrophist (Page: 225)

Ca*tas"tro*phist (?), n. (Geol.) One who holds the theory or catastrophism.


Catechist (Page: 227)

Cat"e*chist (?), n. [L. catechista, fr. Gr.] One who instructs by question and answer, especially in religions matters.


Catechumenist (Page: 227)

Cat`e*chu"men*ist, n. A catechumen. Bp. Morton.


Categorist (Page: 227)

Cat"e*go*rist (?), n. One who inserts in a category or list; one who classifies. Emerson.


Catharist (Page: 227)

Cath"a*rist (?), n. [LL. catharista, fr. Gr. clean, pure.] One aiming at or pretending to a greater purity of like than others about him; -- applied to persons of various sects. See Albigenses.


Causationist (Page: 228)

Cau*sa"tion*ist, n. One who believes in the law of universal causation.


Celibatist (Page: 230)

Ce*lib"a*tist (?), n. One who lives unmarried. [R.]


Cellarist (Page: 230)

Cel"lar*ist (?), n. Same as Cellarer.


Centuriator, Centurist (Page: 233)

Cen*tu"ri*a`tor (?), Cen"tu*rist (?), n. [Cf. F. centuriateur.] An historian who distinguishes time by centuries, esp. one of those who wrote the Magdeburg Centuries." See under Century. [R.]


Cerebralist (Page: 234)

Cer"e*bral*ist, n. One who accepts cerebralism.


Cerographist (Page: 234)

Ce*rog"ra*phist (?), n. One who practices cerography.


Cest (Page: 235)

Cest (?), n. [L. cestus: cf. OF. ceste.] A woman's girdle; a cestus. [R.] Collins.


Cetologist (Page: 236)

Ce*tol"o*gist (?), a. One versed in cetology.


Chalcographer, Chalcographist (Page: 237)

Chal*cog"ra*pher (?), Chal*cog"ra*phist (?), n. An engraver on copper or brass; hence, an engraver of copper plates for printing upon paper.


Charterist (Page: 242)

Char"ter*ist, n. Same as Chartist.


Chartist (Page: 242)

Chart"ist (?), n. A supporter or partisan of chartism. [Eng.]


Chast (Page: 243)

Chast (?), v. t. to chasten. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Chemist (Page: 245)

Chem"ist, n. [Shortened from alchemist; cf. F. chimiste.] A person versed in chemistry or given to chemical investigation; an analyst; a maker or seller of chemicals or drugs.


Chest (Page: 246)

Chest (?), n. [OE. chest, chist, AS. cest, cist, cyst, L. cista, fr. Gr. . Cf. Cist, Cistern.]

1. A large box of wood, or other material, having, like a trunk, a lid, but no covering of skin, leather, or cloth.

Heaps of money crowded in the chest. Dryden.

2. A coffin. [Obs.]

He is now dead and mailed in his cheste. Chaucer.

3. The part of the body inclosed by the ribs and breastbone; the thorax.

4. (Com.) A case in which certain goods, as tea, opium, etc., are transported; hence, the quantity which such a case contains.

5. (Mech.) A tight receptacle or box, usually for holding gas, steam, liguids, etc.; as, the steam chest of an engine; the wind chest of an organ. Bomb chest, See under Bomb. -- Chest of drawers, a case or movable frame containing drawers.


Chest (Page: 246)

Chest (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chested.]

1. To deposit in a chest; to hoard.

2. To place in a coffin. [Obs.]

He dieth and is chested. Gen. 1. 26 (heading).

Chest (Page: 246)

Chest (?), n. [AS. ceást.] Strife; contention; controversy. [Obs.] P. Plowman.


Chiaroscurist (Page: 246)

Chi*a`ros*cu"rist (?), n. A painter who cares for and studies light and shade rather than color.


Chiefest (Page: 247)

Chief"est, a. [Superl. of Chief.] First or foremost; chief; principal. [Archaic] Our chiefest courtier." Shak.

The chiefest among ten thousand. Canticles v. 10.

Chiliast (Page: 248)

Chil"i*ast (?), n. [Gr. . See Chiliasm.] One who believes in the second coming of Christ to reign on earth a thousand years; a milllenarian.


Chimney-breast (Page: 248)

Chim"ney-breast` (?), n. (Arch.) The horizontal projection of a chimney from the wall in which it is built; -- commonly applied to its projection in the inside of a building only.


Chirographist (Page: 249)

Chi*rog"ra*phist (?), n.

1. A chirographer; a writer or engrosser.

2. One who tells fortunes by examining the hand.


Chirogymnast (Page: 249)

Chi`ro*gym"nast (?), n. [Gr. hand + trainer of athletes, gymnast.] A mechanocal contrivance for exercesing the fingers of a pianist.


Chirologist (Page: 249)

Chi*rol"o*gist (?), n. One who communicates thoughts by signs made with the hands and fingers.


Chiromanist, Chiromantist (Page: 249)

Chi"ro*man`ist (?), Chi"ro*man`tist (?) n. [Gr. .] A chiromancer.


Chiroplast (Page: 249)

Chi"ro*plast (?), n. [Gr. formed by hand; hand + to shape.] (Mus.) An instrument to guid the hands and fingers of pupils in playing on the piano, etc.


Chiropodist (Page: 249)

Chi*rop"o*dist (?), n. [Gr. hand + ; , foot.] One who treats diseases of the hands and feet; especially, one who removes corns and bunions.


Chirosophist (Page: 249)

Chiros"ophist (?), n. [Gr. hand + skillful, wise. See Sophist.] A fortune teller.


Choralist (Page: 252)

Cho"ral*ist (?), n. A singer or composer of chorals.


Chorist (Page: 252)

Cho"rist (?), n. [F. choriste.] A singer in a choir; a chorister. [R.]


Christ (Page: 253)

Christ (?), n. [L. Christus, Gr. , fr. anointed, fr. chri`ein to anoint. See Chrism.] The Anointed; an appellation given to Jesus, the Savior. It is synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah.


Chromoblast (Page: 253)

Chro"mo*blast (?), n. [Gr. color + -blast.] An embryonic cell which develops into a pigment cell.


Chronogrammatist (Page: 254)

Chron`o*gram"ma*tist (?), n. A writer of chronograms.


Ciderist (Page: 256)

Ci`der*ist, n. A maker of cider. [Obs.] Mortimer.


Circumvest (Page: 259)

Cir`cum*vest" (?), v. t. [L. circumvestire; circum + vestire to clothe.] To cover round, as woth a garment; to invest. [Obs.]

Circumvested with much prejudice. Sir H. Wotton.

Cist (Page: 259)

Cist (?), n. [L. cista box, chest, Gr. Cf. Chest.]

1. (Antiq.) A box or chest. Specifically: (a) A bronze receptacle, round or oval, frequently decorated with engravings on the sides and cover, and with feet, handles, etc., of decorative castings. (b) A cinerary urn. See Illustration in Appendix.

2. See Cyst.


Civilist (Page: 260)

Civ"il*ist (?), n. A civilian. [R.] Warburon.


Classicalist (Page: 261)

Clas"sic*al*ist, n. One who adheres to what he thinks the classical canons of art. Ruskin.


Classicist (Page: 261)

Clas"si*cist (?), n. One learned in the classics; an advocate for the classics.


Climatologist (Page: 265)

Cli`ma*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in, or who studies, climatology.


Cloud-burst (Page: 268)

Cloud"-burst` (?), n. A sudden copious rainfall, as the whole cloud had been precipitated at once.


Clubbist (Page: 269)

Club"bist (?), n. A member of a club; a frequenter of clubs. [R.] Burke.


Clubfist (Page: 269)

Club"fist` (?), n.

1. A large, heavy fist.

2. A coarse, brutal fellow. [Obs.] Mir. for Mag.


Cnidoblast (Page: 270)

Cni"do*blast (?), n. [Cnida + -blast.] (Zoöl.) One of the cells which, in the Cœlenterata, develop into cnidæ.


Co-religionist (Page: 323)

Co`-re*li"gion*ist (-l?j"?n-?st), n. One of the same religion with another.


Coadjust (Page: 270)

Co`ad*just" (?), v. t. To adjust by mutual adaptations. R. Owen.


Coafforest (Page: 270)

Co`af*for"est (?), v. t. To convert into, or add to, a forest. Howell.


Coalitionist (Page: 271)

Co`a*li"tion*ist, n. One who joins or promotes a coalition; one who advocates coalition.


Coast (Page: 271)

Coast (?), n. [OF. coste, F. c\'93te, rib, hill, shore, coast, L. costa rib, side. Cf. Accost, v. t., Cutlet.]

1. The side of a thing. [Obs.] Sir I. Newton.

2. The exterior line, limit, or border of a country; frontier border. [Obs.]

From the river, the river Euphrates, even to the uttermost sea, shall your coast be. Deut. xi. 24.

3. The seashore, or land near it.

He sees in English ships the Holland coast. Dryden.
We the Arabian coast do know At distance, when the species blow. Waller.
The coast is clear, the danger is over; no enemy in sight. Dryden. Fig.: There are no obstacles. Seeing that the coast was clear, Zelmane dismissed Musidorus." Sir P. Sidney. Coast guard. (a) A body of men originally employed along the coast to prevent smuggling; now, under the control of the admiralty, drilled as a naval reserve. [Eng.] (b) The force employed in lifesaving stations along the seacoast. [U. S.] -- Coast rat (Zoöl.), a South African mammal (Bathyergus suillus), about the size of a rabbit, remarkable for its extensive burrows; -- called also sand mole. -- Coast waiter, a customhouse officer who superintends the landing or shipping of goods for the coast trade. [Eng.]
Coast (Page: 271)

Coast (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Coasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Coasting.] [OE. costien, costeien, costen, OF. costier, costoier, F. c\'93toyer, fr. Of. coste coast, F. c\'93te. See Coast, n.]

1. To draw or keep near; to approach. [Obs.]

Anon she hears them chant it lustily, And all in haste she coasteth to the cry. Shak.

2. To sail by or near the shore.

The ancients coasted only in their navigation. Arbuthnot.

3. To sail from port to port in the same country.

4. [Cf. OF. coste, F. c\'93te, hill, hillside.] To slide down hill; to slide on a sled, upon snow or ice. [Local, U. S.]


Coast (Page: 271)

Coast, v. t.

1. To draw near to; to approach; to keep near, or by the side of. [Obs.] Hakluyt.

2. To sail by or near; to follow the coast line of.

Nearchus, . . . not knowing the compass, was fain to coast that shore. Sir T. Browne.

3. To conduct along a coast or river bank. [Obs.]

The Indians . . . coasted me along the river. Hakluyt.

Codist (Page: 273)

Co"dist (?), n. A codifier; a maker of codes. [R.]


Coexist (Page: 273)

Co`ex*ist (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Coexisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Coexisting.] To exist at the same time; -- sometimes followed by with.

Of substances no one has any clear idea, farther than of certain simple ideas coexisting together. Locke.
So much purity and integrity . . . coexisting with so much decay and so many infirmities. Warburton.

Coleopterist (Page: 276)

Co`le*op"ter*ist, n. One versed in the study of the Coleoptera.


Collectivist (Page: 278)

Col*lect"iv*ist, n. [Cf. F. collectiviste.] An advocate of collectivism. -- a. Relating to, or characteristic of, collectivism.


Colloquist (Page: 279)

Col"lo*quist (?), n. A speaker in a colloquy or dialogue. Malone.


Collybist (Page: 279)

Col"ly*bist (?), n. [Gr. , fr. a small coin.] A money changer. [Obs.]

In the face of these guilty collybists. Bp. Hall.

Colonist (Page: 279)

Col"o*nist (?), n. A member or inhabitant of a colony.


Colonizationist (Page: 279)

Col`o*ni*za"tion*ist, n. A friend to colonization, esp. (U. S. Hist) to the colonization of Africa by emigrants from the colored population of the United States.


Colorist (Page: 280)

Col"or*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. coloriste.] One who colors; an artist who excels in the use of colors; one to whom coloring is of prime importance.

Titian, Paul Veronese, Van Dyck, and the rest of the good colorists. Dryden.

Combust (Page: 282)

Com*bust" (?), a. [L. combustus, p. p. of comburere to burn up; com- + burere (only in comp.), of uncertian origin; cf. bustum fineral pyre, prurire to itch, pruna a live coal, Gr. firebrand, Skr. plush to burn.]

1. Burnt; consumed. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. (Astron.) So near the sun as to be obscured or eclipsed by his light, as the moon or planets when not more than eight degrees and a half from the sun. [Obs.]

Planets that are oft combust. Milton.

Communalist (Page: 287)

Com"mu*nal*ist, n. [Cf. F. communaliste.] An advocate of communalism.


Communist (Page: 287)

Com"mu*nist (?), n. [F. communiste.]

1. An advocate for the theory or practice of communism.

2. A supporter of the commune of Paris.


Compost (Page: 292)

Com"post (?; 277), n.[OF. compost, fr. L. compositus, p. p. See Composite.]

1. A mixture; a compound. [R.]

A sad compost of more bitter than sweet. Hammond.

2. (Agric.) A mixture for fertilizing land; esp., a composition of various substances (as muck, mold, lime, and stable manure) thoroughly mingled and decomposed, as in a compost heap.

And do not spread the compost on the weeds To make them ranker. Shak.

Compost (Page: 292)

Com"post, v. t.

1. To manure with compost.

2. To mingle, as different fertilizing substances, in a mass where they will decompose and form into a compost.


Computist (Page: 292)

Com"pu*tist (?), n. A computer.


Comtist (Page: 292)

Com"tist (?), n. A disciple of Comte; a positivist.


Conceptionalist (Page: 295)

Con*cep"tion*al*ist, n. A conceptualist.


Conceptualist (Page: 295)

Con*cep"tu*al*ist, n. (Metaph.) One who maintains the theory of conceptualism. Stewart.


Concessionist (Page: 295)

Con*ces"sion*ist, n. One who favors concession.


Conchologist (Page: 295)

Con*chol"o*gist (?), n. (Zoöl.) One who studies, or is versed in, conchology.


Conclavist (Page: 296)

Con"cla`vist (?), n. [Cf. F. conclaviste, It. conclavista.] One of the two ecclesiastics allowed to attend a cardinal in the conclave.


Concordist (Page: 296)

Con*cord"ist (?), n. The compiler of a concordance.


Confessionalist (Page: 300)

Con*fes"sion*al*ist, n. A priest hearing, or sitting to hear, confession. [R.] Boucher


Confessionist (Page: 300)

Con*fes"sion*ist, n. [Cf. F. confessioniste.] One professing a certain faith. Bp. Montagu.


Congest (Page: 300)

Con*gest" (#), v. t. [L. congestus, p. p. of congere to bring together; con- + gerere. See Gerund.]

1. To collect or gather into a mass or aggregate; to bring together; to accumulate.

To what will thy congested guilt amount? Blackmore.

2. (Med.) To cause an overfullness of the blood vessels (esp. the capillaries) of an organ or part.


Congregationalist (Page: 303)

Con`gre*ga"tion*al*ist, n. One who belongs to a Congregational church or society; one who holds to Congregationalism.


Conjecturalist (Page: 304)

Con*jec"tur*al*ist, n. A conjecturer. [R.] Month. rev.


Conquest (Page: 304)

Con"quest (?), n. [OF. conquest, conqueste, F. conqu\'88te, LL. conquistum, conquista, prop. p.p. from L. conquirere. See Conquer.]

1. The act or process of conquering, or acquiring by force; the act of overcoming or subduing opposition by force, whether physical or moral; subjection; subjugation; victory.

In joys of conquest he resigns his breath. Addison.
Three years sufficed for the conquest of the country. Prescott.

2. That which is conquered; possession gained by force, physical or moral.

Wherefore rejoice? What conquest brings he home? Shak.

3. (Feudal Law) The acquiring of property by other means than by inheritance; acquisition. Blackstone.

4. The act of gaining or regaining by successful strugle; as, the conquest of liberty or peace. The Conquest (Eng. Hist.), the subjugation of England by William of Normandy in 1066. Syn. -- Victory; triumph; mastery; reduction; subjugation; subjection.


Consist (Page: 307)

Con*sist" (?), v. i. [imp. & p.p. Consisted; p.pr. & vb.n. Consisting.] [L. consistere to stand still or firm; con- + sistere to stand, cause to stand, stare to stand: cf. F. consister. See Stand.]

1. To stand firm; to be in a fixed or permanent state, as a body composed of parts in union or connection; to hold together; to be; to exist; to subsist; to be supported and maintained.

He is before all things, and by him all things consist. Col. i. 17.

2. To be composed or made up; -- followed by of.

The land would consist of plains and valleys. T. Burnet.

3. To have as its substance or character, or as its foundation; to be; -- followed by in.

If their purgation did consist in words. Shak.
A man's life consisteth not in the abudance of the things which he possesseth. Luke xii. 15.

4. To be cosistent or harmonious; to be in accordance; -- formerly used absolutely, now followed by with.

This was a consisting story. Bp. Burnet.
Health consists with temperance alone. Pope.
For orders and degrees Jar not with liberty, but well consist. Milton.

5. To insist; -- followed by on. [Obs.] Shak. Syn. -- To Consist, Consist of, Consist in. The verb consist is employed chiefly for two purposes, which are marked and distinguished by the prepositions used. When we wish to indicate the parts which unite to compose a thing, we use of; as when we say, Macaulay's Miscellanies consist chiefly of articles which were first published in the Edinburgh Review." When we wish to indicate the true nature of a thing, or that on which it depends, we use in; as, There are some artists whose skill consists in a certain manner which they have affected." Our safety consists in a strict adherence to duty."


Constitutionalist (Page: 310)

Con`sti*tu"tion*al*ist, n. One who advocates a constitutional form of government; a constitutionalist.


Constitutionist (Page: 310)

Con`sti*tu"tion*ist, n. One who adheres to the constitution of the country. Bolingbroke.


Constructionist (Page: 310)

Con*struc"tion*ist, n. One who puts a certain construction upon some writing or instrument, as the Constitutions of the United States; as, a strict constructionist; a broad constructionist.


Consubstantialist (Page: 310)

Con`sub*stan"tial*ist, n. One who believes in consubstantiation. Barrow.


Contagionist (Page: 311)

Con*ta"gion*ist, n. One who believes in the contagious character of certain diseases, as of yellow fever.


Contemplatist (Page: 311)

Con*tem"pla*tist (?), n. A contemplator. [R.] I. Taylor.


Contertionist (Page: 314)

Con*ter"tion*ist, n. One who makes or practices contortions.


Contest (Page: 313)

Con*test" (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Contested; p.pr. & vb.n. Contesting.] [F. contester, fr. L. contestari to call to witness, contestari litem to introduce a lawsuit by calling witnesses, to bring an action; con- + testari to be a witness, testic witness. See Testify.]

1. To make a subject of dispute, contention, litigation, or emulation; to contend for; to call in question; to controvert; to oppose; to dispute.

The people . . . contested not what was done. Locke.
Few philosophical aphorisms have been more frequenty repeated, few more contested than this. J. D. Morell.

2. To strive earnestly to hold or maintain; to struggle to defend; as, the troops contested every inch of ground.

3. (Law) To make a subject of litigation; to defend, as a suit; to dispute or resist; as a claim, by course of law; to controvert. To contest an election. (Polit.) (a) To strive to be elected. (b) To dispute the declared result of an election. Syn. -- To dispute; controvert; debate; litigate; oppose; argue; contend.


Contest (Page: 313)

Con*test", v. i. To engage in contention, or emulation; to contend; to strive; to vie; to emulate; -- followed usually by with.

The difficulty of an argument adds to the pleasure of contesting with in, when there are hopes of victory. Bp. Burnet.
Of man, who dares in pomp with Jove contest? Pope.

Contest (Page: 313)

Con"test (?), n.

1. Earnest dispute; strife in argument; controversy; debate; altercation.

Leave all noisy contests, all immodest clamors and brawling language. I. Watts.

2. Earnest struggle for superiority, victory, defense, etc.; competition; emulation; strife in arms; conflict; combat; encounter.

The late battle had, in effect, been a contest between one usurper and another. Hallam.
It was fully expected that the contest there would be long and fierce. Macaulay.
Syn. -- Conflict; combat; battle; encounter; shock; struggle; dispute; altercation; debate; controvesy; difference; disagreement; strife. -- Contest, Conflict, Combat, Encounter. Contest is the broadest term, and had originally no reference to actual fighting. It was, on the contrary, a legal term signifying to call witnesses, and hence came to denote first a struggle in argument, and then a struggle for some common object between opposing parties, usually one of considerable duration, and implying successive stages or acts. Conflict denotes literally a close personal engagement, in which sense it is applied to actual fighting. It is, however, more commonly used in a figurative sense to denote strenuous or direct opposition; as, a mental conflict; conflicting interests or passions; a conflict of laws. An encounter is a direct meeting face to face. Usually it is a hostile meeting, and is then very nearly coincident with conflict; as, an encounter of opposing hosts. Sometimes it is used in a looser sense; as, this keen encounter of our wits." Shak. Combat is commonly applied to actual fighting, but may be used figuratively in reference to a strife or words or a struggle of feeling.
Contrabandist (Page: 314)

Con"tra*band`ist (?), n. One who traffic illegaly; a smuggler.


Contrapuntist (Page: 314)

Con`tra*pun"tist (?), n. [It. contrappuntista.] (Mus.) One skilled in counterpoint. L. Mason.


Contrast (Page: 314)

Con*trast" (?), v. i. [imp. & p.p. Contrasted; p.pr. & vb.n. Contrasting.] [F. contraster, LL. contrastare to resist, withstand, fr. L. contra + stare to stand. See Stand.] To stand in opposition; to exhibit difference, unlikeness, or opposition of qualities.

The joints which divide the sandstone contrast finely with the divisional planes which separate the basalt into pillars. Lyell.

Contrast (Page: 314)

Con*trast", v. t.

1. To set in opposition, or over against, in order to show the differences between, or the comparative excellences and defects of; to compare by difference or contrariety of qualities; as, to contrast the present with the past.

2. (Fine Arts) To give greater effect to, as to a figure or other object, by putting it in some relation of opposition to another figure or object.

the figures of the groups must not be all on side . . . but must contrast each other by their several position. Dryden.

Contrist (Page: 316)

Con*trist" (?), v. t. [Cf. F. contrister. See Contristate.] To make sad. [Obs.]

To deject and contrist myself. Sterne.

Controversialist (Page: 316)

Con`tro*ver"sial*ist, n. One who carries on a controversy; a disputant.

He [Johnson] was both intellectually and morally of the stuff of which controversialists are made. Macaulay.

Controvertist (Page: 316)

Con"tro*ver`tist (?), n. One skilled in or given to controversy; a controversialist.

How unfriendly is the controvertist to the discernment of the critic! Campbell.

Conventionalist (Page: 316)

Con*ven"tion*al*ist, n.

1. One who adheres to a convention or treaty.

2. One who is governed by conventionalism.


Conventionist (Page: 316)

Con*ven"tion*ist (?), n. One who enters into a convention, covenant, or contract.


Conversationalist (Page: 318)

Con`ver*sa"tion*al*ist, n. A conversationist.


Conversationist (Page: 318)

Con`ver*sa"tion*ist, n. One who converses much, or who excels in conversation. Byron.


Convivialist (Page: 319)

Con*viv"i*al*ist, n. A person of convivial habits.


Convocationist (Page: 319)

Con`vo*ca"tion*ist, n. An advocate or defender of convocation.


Convulsionist (Page: 319)

Con*vul"sion*ist, n. One who has convulsions; esp., one of a body of fanatics in France, early in the eighteenth century, who went into convulsions under the influence of religious emotion; as, the Convulsionists of St. Médard.


Copist (Page: 319)

Cop"ist (?), n. [F. copiste. See Copy.] A copier. [Obs.] A copist after nature." Shaftesbury.


Copple dust (Page: 319)

Cop"ple dust` (?). Cupel dust. [Obs.]

Powder of steel, or copple dust. Bacon.

Copyist (Page: 319)

Cop"y*ist, n. A copier; a transcriber; an imitator; a plagiarist.


Cornist (Page: 324)

Cor"nist, n. A performer on the cornet or horn.


Corporealist (Page: 326)

Cor*po"re*al*ist (k?r-p?"r?-a]/>l-?st), n. One who denies the reality of spiritual existences; a materialist.

Some corporealists pretended . . . to make a world without a God. Bp. Berkeley.

Correligionist (Page: 326)

Cor`re*li"gion*ist (k?r`r?-l?j"?n-?st), n. A co-religionist.


Corruptionist (Page: 327)

Cor*rup"tion*ist, n. One who corrupts, or who upholds corruption. Sydney Smith.


Cosmogonist (Page: 328)

Cos*mog"o*nist (k?z-m?g"?-n?st), n. One who treats of the origin of the universe; one versed in cosmogony.<-- cosmologist -->


Cosmologist (Page: 328)

Cos*mol"o*gist (k?z-m?l"?-j?st), n. One who describes the universe; one skilled in cosmology.


Cost (Page: 329)

Cost (k?st; 115), n. [L. costa rib. See Coast.]

1. A rib; a side; a region or coast. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

Betwixt the costs of a ship. B. Jonson.

2. (Her.) See Cottise.


Cost (Page: 329)

Cost (k?st; 115), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cost; p. pr. & vb. n. Costing.] [OF. coster, couster, F. coter, fr. L. constare to stand at, to cost; con- + stare to stand. See Stand, and cf. Constant.]

1. To require to be given, expended, or laid out therefor, as in barter, purchase, acquisition, etc.; to cause the cost, expenditure, relinquishment, or loss of; as, the ticket cost a dollar; the effort cost his life.

A d'amond gone, cost me two thousand ducats. Shak.
Though it cost me ten nights' watchings. Shak.

2. To require to be borne or suffered; to cause.

To do him wanton rites, whichcost them woe. Milton.
To cost dear, to require or occasion a large outlay of money, or much labor, self-denial, suffering, etc.
Cost (Page: 329)

Cost, n. [OF. cost, F. cot. See Cost, v. t. ]

1. The amount paid, charged, or engaged to be paid, for anything bought or taken in barter; charge; expense; hence, whatever, as labor, self-denial, suffering, etc., is requisite to secure benefitt.

One day shall crown the alliance on 't so please you, Here at my house, and at my proper cost. Shak.
At less cost of life than is often expended in a skirmish, [Charles V.] saved Europe from invasion. Prescott.

2. Loss of any kind; detriment; pain; suffering.

I know thy trains, Though dearly to my cost, thy gins and toils. Milton.

3. pl. (Law) Expenses incurred in litigation. &hand; Costs in actions or suits are either between attorney and client, being what are payable in every case to the attorney or counsel by his client whether he ultimately succeed or not, or between party and party, being those which the law gives, or the court in its discretion decrees, to the prevailing, against the losing, party. Bill of costs. See under Bill. -- Cost free, without outlay or expense. Her duties being to talk French, and her privileges to live cost free and to gather scraps of knowledge." Thackeray.


Councilist (Page: 331)

Coun"cil*ist (koun"s?l-?st), n. One who belong to a council; one who gives an opinion. [Obs.]

I will in three months be an expert counsilist. Milton.

Countercast (Page: 332)

Coun"ter*cast` (koun"t?r-k?st`), n. A trick; a delusive contrivance. [Obs.] Spenser.


Cranioclast (Page: 339)

Cra"ni*o*clast (-kl?st), n. (Med.) An instrument for crushing the head of a fetus, to facilitate delivery in difficult eases.


Craniologist (Page: 339)

Cra`ni*ol"o*gist (-?l"?-j?st), n. One proficient in craniology; a phrenologist.


Cranioscopist (Page: 339)

Cra`ni*os"co*pist (kr?`n?-?s"k?-p?st), n. One skilled in, or who practices, cranioscopy.

It was found of equal dimension in a literary man whose skull puzzied the cranioscopists. Coleridge.

Cremationist (Page: 343)

Cre*ma"tion*ist, n. One who advocates the practice of cremation.


Crest (Page: 343)

Crest (kr?st), n. [OF. creste, F. crte, L. crista.]

1. A tuft, or other excrescence or natural ornament, growing on animal's head; the comb of a cock; the swelling on the head of a serpent; the lengthened feathers of the crown or nape of bird, etc. Darwin.

[Attack] his rising crest, and drive the serpent back. C. Pitt.

2. The plume of feathers, or other decoration, worn on a helmet; the distinctive ornament of a helmet, indicating the rank of the weare; hence, also, the helmet.

Stooping low his lofty crest. Sir W. Scott.
And on his head there stood upright A crest, in token of a knight. Gower.

3. (Her.) A bearing worn, not upon the shield, but usually above it, or separately as an ornament for plate, liveries, and the like. It is a relic of the ancient cognizance. See Cognizance, 4.

4. The upper curve of a horse's neck.

Throwing the base thong from his bending crest. Shak.

5. The ridge or top of wave.

Like wave with crest of sparkling foam. Sir W. Scott.

6. The summit of a hill or mountain ridge.

7. The helm or head, as typical of a high spirit; pride; courage.

Now the time is come That France must vail her lofty plumed crest. Shak.

8. (Arch.) The ornamental finishing which surmounts the ridge of a roof, canopy, etc.

The finials of gables and pinnacles are sometimes called crest. Parker.

9. (Engin.) The top line of a slope or embankment. Crest tile, a tile made to cover the ridge of a roof, fitting upon it like a saddle. -- Interior crest (Fort.), the highest line of the parapet.


Crest (Page: 343)

Crest, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Crested; p. pr. & vb. n. Cresting.]

1. To furnish with, or surmount as, a crest; to serve as a crest for. [344]

His legs bestrid the ocean, his reared arm Crested the world. Shak.
Mid groves of clouds that crest the mountain's brow. Wordsworth.

2. To mark with lines or streaks, like, or regarded as like, waving plumes.

Like as the shining sky in summer's night, . . . Is crested with lines of fiery light. Spenser.

Crest (Page: 344)

Crest (kr?st), v. i. To form a crest.


Criminalist (Page: 344)

Crim"i*nal*ist, n. One versed in criminal law. [R.] [345]


Crow's-nest (Page: 350)

Crow's-nest` (kr?z"n?st`), n. (Naut.) A box or perch near the top of a mast, esp. in whalers, to shelter the man on the lookout.


Crown-post (Page: 350)

Crown"-post` (kroun"p?st`), n. Same as King-post.


Crust (Page: 351)

Crust (kr?st), n. [L. crusta: cf. OF. crouste, F. crote; prob. akin to Gr. ice, E. crystal, from the same root as E. crude, raw. See Raw, and cf. Custard.]

1. The hard external coat or covering of anything; the hard exterior surface or outer shell; an incrustation; as, a crust of snow.

I have known the statute of an emperor quite hid under a crust of dross. Addison.
Below this icy crust of conformity, the waters of infidelity lay dark and deep as ever. Prescott.

2. (Cookery) (a) The hard exterior or surface of bread, in distinction from the soft part or crumb; or a piece of bread grown dry or hard. (b) The cover or case of a pie, in distinction from the soft contents. (c) The dough, or mass of doughy paste, cooked with a potpie; -- also called dumpling.

Th' impenetrable crust thy teeth defies. Dryden.
He that keeps nor crust nor crumb. Shak.
They . . . made the crust for the venison pasty. Macualay.

3. (Geol.) The exterior portion of the earth, formerly universally supposed to inclose a molten interior.

4. (Zoöl.) The shell of crabs, lobsters, etc.

5. (Med.) A hard mass, made up of dried secretions blood, or pus, occurring upon the surface of the body.

6. An incrustation on the interior of wine bottles, the result of the ripening of the wine; a deposit of tartar, etc. See Beeswing.


Crust (Page: 351)

Crust, v. t. [imp. & p.p. Crusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Crusting.] [Cf. OF. crouster, L. crustare. See Crust, n. ] To cover with a crust; to cover or line with an incrustation; to incrust.

The whole body is crusted over with ice. Boyle.
And now their legs, and breast, and bodies stood Crusted with bark. Addison.
Very foul and crusted bottles. Swift.
Their minds are crusted over, like diamonds in the rock. Felton.

Crust (Page: 351)

Crust, v. i. To gather or contract into a hard crust; to become incrusted.

The place that was burnt . . . crusted and healed. Temple.

Crustaceologist (Page: 351)

Crus*ta`ce*ol"o*gist (-?ll"?-j?st), n. One versed in crustaceology; a crustalogist.


Crustalogist (Page: 351)

Crus*tal"o*gist (-tl"-jst), n. One versed in crustalogy. [352]


Cryptogamist (Page: 352)

Cryp*tog"a*mist (-m?st), n. One skilled in cryptogamic botany.


Cryptographist (Page: 352)

Cryp*tog"ra*phist (kr?p-t?g"r?-f?st), n. Same as Cryptographer.


Ctenocyst (Page: 353)

Cte"no*cyst (t?"n?-s?st), n. [Gr. , , comb + bladder.] (Zoöl.) An organ of the Ctenophora, supposed to be sensory.


Culturist (Page: 355)

Cul"tur*ist, n.

1. A cultivator.

2. One who is an advocate of culture.

The culturists, by which term I mean not those who esteem culture (as what intelligent man does not) but those its exclusive advocates who recommend it as the panacea for all the ills of humanity, for its effects in cultivating the whole man. J. C. Shairp

Cumulatist (Page: 355)

Cu"mu*la*tist (k?"m?-l?-t?st), n. One who accumulates; one who collects. [R.]


Curialist (Page: 357)

Cu"ri*a*list (k?"r?-?-l?st), n. One who belongs to the ultramontane party in the Latin Church. Shipley.


Curst (Page: 357)

Curst (k?rst), imp. & p.p. of Curse.


Curst (Page: 357)

Curst, a. [SeeCurse.] Froward; malignant; mischievous; malicious; snarling. [Obs.]

Though his mind Be ne'er so curst, his tonque is kind. Crashaw.

Cyclist (Page: 361)

Cy"clist (s?"kl?st), n. A cycler.


Cyclopedist (Page: 361)

Cy`clo*pe"dist (-p?"d?st), n. A maker of, or writer for, a cyclopedia.


Cymbalist (Page: 361)

Cym"bal*ist, n. A performer upon cymbals.


Cyst (Page: 363)

Cyst (s?st), n. [Gr. bladder, bag, pouch, fr. to be pregnant. Cf. Cyme.]

1. (Med.) (a) A pouch or sac without opening, usually membranous and containing morbid matter, which is accidentally developed in one of the natural cavaties or in the substance of an organ. (b) In old authors, the urinary bladder, or the gall bladder. [Written also cystis.]

2. (Bot.) One of the bladders or air vessels of certain algæ, as of the great kelp of the Pacific, and common rockweeds (Fuci) of our shores. D. C. Eaton.

3. (Zoöl.) (a) A small capsule or sac of the kind in which many immature entozoans exit in the tissues of living animals; also, a similar form in Rotifera, etc. (b) A form assumed by Protozoa inwhich they become saclike and quiescent. It generally precedes the production of germs. See Encystment.


Cystoplast (Page: 363)

Cys"to*plast (-pl?st), n. [Gr. bladder + to form.] (Biol.) A nucleated cell having an envelope or cell wall, as a red blood corpuscle or an epithelial cell; a cell concerned in growth.


Cytoblast (Page: 363)

Cy"to*blast (s?"t?-bl?st), n. [Gr. hollow vessel + -blast.] (Biol.) The nucleus of a cell; the germinal or active spot of a cellule, through or in which cell development takes place.


Dactylist (Page: 364)

Dac"tyl*ist (?), n. A writer of dactylic verse.


Daguerreotyper, Daguerreotypist (Page: 364)

Da*guerre"o*ty`per (?), Da*guerre"o*ty`pist (?), n. One who takes daguerreotypes.


Damianist (Page: 364)

Da"mi*an*ist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Damian, patriarch of Alexandria in the 6th century, who held heretical opinions on the doctrine of the Holy Trinity.


Decadist (Page: 374)

Dec"a*dist (?), n. A writer of a book divided into decades; as, Livy was a decadist. [R.]


Decalogist (Page: 374)

De*cal"o*gist (?), n. One who explains the decalogue. J. Gregory.


Decretist (Page: 378)

De*cre"tist (?), n. [LL. decretista, fr. decretum: cf. F. décrétiste. See Decree, n.] One who studies, or professes the knowledge of, the decretals.


Defectionist (Page: 381)

De*fec"tion*ist, n. One who advocates or encourages defection.


Deforest (Page: 383)

De*for"est (?), v. t. To clear of forests; to disorest. U. S. Agric. Reports.


Degenerationist (Page: 383)

De*gen`er*a"tion*ist, n. (Biol.) A believer in the theory of degeneration, or hereditary degradation of type; as, the degenerationists hold that savagery is the result of degeneration from a superior state.


Degust (Page: 384)

De*gust" (?), v. t. [L. degustare: cf. F. déguster. See Gust to taste.] To taste. [Obs.] Cockeram.


Deipnosophist (Page: 384)

Deip*nos"o*phist (?), n. [Gr. ; a meal + a wise man, sophist.] One of an ancient sect of philosophers, who cultivated learned conversation at meals.


Deist (Page: 384)

De"ist (?), n. [L. deus god: cf. F. déiste. See Deity.] One who believes in the existence of a God, but denies revealed religion; a freethinker. &hand; A deist, as denying a revelation, is opposed to a Christian; as, opposed to the denier of a God, whether atheist or patheist, a deist is generally denominated theist. Latham. Syn. -- See Infidel.


Democratist (Page: 388)

De*moc"ra*tist (?), n. A democrat. [R.] Burke.


Demolitionist (Page: 389)

Dem`o*li"tion*ist, n. A demolisher. [R.] Carlyle.


Demonist (Page: 389)

De"mon*ist, n. A believer in, or worshiper of, demons.


Demonologist (Page: 389)

De`mon*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who writes on, or is versed in, demonology.


Demonomist (Page: 389)

De*mon"o*mist (?) n. One in subjection to a demon, or to demons. [R.] Sir T. Herbert.


Dendrologist (Page: 390)

Den*drol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in the natural history of trees.


Denominationalist (Page: 390)

De*nom`i*na"tion*al*ist, n. One imbued with a denominational spirit. The Century.


Dentiloquist (Page: 391)

Den*til"o*quist (?), n. One who speaks through the teeth, that is, with the teeth closed.


Dentist (Page: 391)

Den"tist (?), n. [From L. dens, dentis, tooth: cf. F. dentiste. See Tooth.] One whose business it is to clean, extract, or repair natural teeth, and to make and insert artificial ones; a dental surgeon.


Deontologist (Page: 391)

De`on*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in deontology.


Dermatologist (Page: 396)

Der`ma*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who discourses on the skin and its diseases; one versed in dermatology.


Desist (Page: 398)

De*sist" (?; 277), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Desisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Desisting.] [L. desistere; de- + sistere to stand, stop, fr. stare to stand: cf. F. désister. See Stand.] To cease to proceed or act; to stop; to forbear; -- often with from.

Never desisting to do evil. E. Hall.
To desist from his bad practice. Massinger.
Desist (thou art discern'd, And toil'st in vain). Milton.

Despotist (Page: 399)

Des"po*tist, n. A supporter of despotism. [R.]


Destinist (Page: 399)

Des"ti*nist (?), n. A believer in destiny; a fatalist. [R.]


Destructionist (Page: 400)

De*struc"tion*ist, n.

1. One who delights in destroying that which is valuable; one whose principles and influence tend to destroy existing institutions; a destructive.

2. (Theol.) One who believes in the final destruction or complete annihilation of the wicked; -- called also annihilationist. Shipley.


Determinist (Page: 401)

De*ter"min*ist, n. (Metaph.) One who believes in determinism. Also adj.; as, determinist theories.


Detest (Page: 401)

De*test" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Detested; p. pr. & vb. n. Detesting.] [L. detestare, detestatum, and detestari, to curse while calling a deity to witness, to execrate, detest; de + testari to be a witness, testify, testis a witness: cf. F. détester. See Testify.]

1. To witness against; to denounce; to condemn. [Obs.]

The heresy of Nestorius . . . was detested in the Eastern churches. Fuller.
God hath detested them with his own mouth. Bale.

2. To hate intensely; to abhor; to abominate; to loathe; as, we detest what is contemptible or evil.

Who dares think one thing, and another tell, My heart detests him as the gates of hell. Pope.
Syn. -- To abhor; abominate; execrate. See Hate.
Deuterogamist (Page: 402)

Deu`ter*og"a*mist (?), n. [See Deuterogamy.] One who marries the second time.


Deuteronomist (Page: 402)

Deu`ter*on"o*mist (?), n. The writer of Deuteronomy.


Devast (Page: 402)

De*vast" (?), v. t. [Cf. F. dévaster. See Devastate.] To devastate. [Obs.] Bolingbroke.


Devest (Page: 402)

De*vest" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Devested; p. pr. & vb. n. Devesting.] [L. devestire to undress; de + vestire to dress: cf. OF. devestir, F. dév\'88tir. Cf. Divest.]

1. To divest; to undress. Shak.

2. To take away, as an authority, title, etc., to deprive; to alienate, as an estate. &hand; This word is now generally written divest, except in the legal sense.


Devest (Page: 402)

De*vest", v. i. (Law) To be taken away, lost, or alienated, as a title or an estate.


Devotionalist, Devotionist (Page: 404)

De*vo"tion*al*ist, De*vo"tion*ist, n. One given to devotion, esp. to excessive formal devotion.


Dialist (Page: 406)

Di"al*ist, n. A maker of dials; one skilled in dialing.


Dialogist (Page: 406)

Di*al"o*gist (?), n. [L. dialogista: cf. F. dialogiste.]

1. A speaker in a dialogue.

2. A writer of dialogues. P. Skelton.


Diarist (Page: 407)

Di"a*rist (?), n. One who keeps a diary.


Diatribist (Page: 407)

Di*at"ri*bist (?), n. One who makes a diatribe or diatribes.


Dicast (Page: 408)

Di"cast (?), n. [Gr. , fr. to judge, right, judgment, justice.] A functionary in ancient Athens answering nearly to the modern juryman.


Dichotomist (Page: 408)

Di*chot"o*mist (?), n. One who dichotomizes. Bacon.


Didst (Page: 409)

Didst (?), the 2d pers. sing. imp. of Do.


Dietetist (Page: 409)

Di`e*tet"ist, n. A physician who applies the rules of dietetics to the cure of diseases. Dunglison.


Digamist (Page: 411)

Dig"a*mist (?), n. [Gr. = twice + to marry. Cf. Bigamist.] One who marries a second time; a deuterogamist. Hammond.


Digest (Page: 411)

Di*gest" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Digested; p. pr. & vb. n. Digesting.] [L. digestus, p. p. of digerere to separate, arrange, dissolve, digest; di- = dis- + gerere to bear, carry, wear. See Jest.]

1. To distribute or arrange methodically; to work over and classify; to reduce to portions for ready use or application; as, to digest the laws, etc.

Joining them together and digesting them into order. Blair.
We have cause to be glad that matters are so well digested. Shak.

2. (Physiol.) To separate (the food) in its passage through the alimentary canal into the nutritive and nonnutritive elements; to prepare, by the action of the digestive juices, for conversion into blood; to convert into chyme.

3. To think over and arrange methodically in the mind; to reduce to a plan or method; to receive in the mind and consider carefully; to get an understanding of; to comprehend.

Feelingly digest the words you speak in prayer. Sir H. Sidney.
How shall this bosom multiplied digest The senate's courtesy? Shak.

4. To appropriate for strengthening and comfort.

Grant that we may in such wise hear them [the Scriptures], read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest them. Book of Common Prayer.

5. Hence: To bear comfortably or patiently; to be reconciled to; to brook.

I never can digest the loss of most of Origin's works. Coleridge.

6. (Chem.) To soften by heat and moisture; to expose to a gentle heat in a boiler or matrass, as a preparation for chemical operations.

7. (Med.) To dispose to suppurate, or generate healthy pus, as an ulcer or wound.

8. To ripen; to mature. [Obs.]

Well-digested fruits. Jer. Taylor.

9. To quiet or abate, as anger or grief.


Digest (Page: 411)

Di*gest" (?), v. i.

1. To undergo digestion; as, food digests well or ill.

2. (Med.) To suppurate; to generate pus, as an ulcer.


Digest (Page: 411)

Di"gest (?), n. [L. digestum, pl. digesta, neut., fr. digestus, p. p.: cf. F. digeste. See Digest, v. t.] That which is digested; especially, that which is worked over, classified, and arranged under proper heads or titles; esp. (Law), a compilation of statutes or decisions analytically arranged. The term is applied in a general sense to the Pandects of Justinian (see Pandect), but is also specially given by authors to compilations of laws on particular topics; a summary of laws; as, Comyn's Digest; the United States Digest.

A complete digest of Hindu and Mahommedan laws after the model of Justinian's celebrated Pandects. Sir W. Jones.
They made a sort of institute and digest of anarchy, called the Rights of Man. Burke.

Diluvialist (Page: 413)

Di*lu"vi*al*ist, n. One who explains geological phenomena by the Noachian deluge. Lyell.


Diplomatist (Page: 415)

Di*plo"ma*tist (?), n. [Cf. F. diplomatiste a student of diplomatics.] A person employed in, or skilled in, diplomacy; a diplomat.

In ability, Avaux had no superior among the numerous able diplomatics whom his country then possessed. Macaulay.

Disafforest (Page: 417)

Dis`af*for"est (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Disafforested; p. pr. & vb. n. Disafforesting.] [Pref. dis- + afforest: cf. OF. desaforester.] (Eng. Law) To reduce from the privileges of a forest to the state of common ground; to exempt from forest laws.

By charter 9 Henry III. many forests were disafforested. Blackstone.
[418]


Discoast (Page: 420)

Dis*coast" (?), v. i. [Pref. dis- + coast: cf. It. discostare.] To depart; to quit the coast (that is, the side or border) of anything; to be separated. [Obs.]

As far as heaven and earth discoasted lie. G. Fletcher.
To discoast from the plain and simple way of speech. Barrow.

Discost (Page: 421)

Dis*cost" (?), v. i. Same as Discoast. [Obs.]


Discursist (Page: 423)

Dis*cur"sist, n. A discourser. [Obs.] L. Addison.


Disdiaclast (Page: 423)

Dis*di"a*clast (?), n. [Gr. twice + to break in twain; through + to break.] (Physiol.) One of the dark particles forming the doubly refracting disks of muscle fibers.


Disforest (Page: 424)

Dis*for"est (?), v. t.

1. To disafforest. Fuller.

2. To clear or deprive of forests or trees.


Disgest (Page: 425)

Dis*gest" (?), v. t. To digest. [Obs.] Bacon.


Disgust (Page: 425)

Dis*gust" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Disgusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Disgusting.] [OF. desgouster, F. dégo\'96ter; pref. des- (L. dis-) + gouster to taste, F. go\'96ter, fr. L. gustare, fr. gustus taste. See Gust to taste.] To provoke disgust or strong distaste in; to cause (any one) loathing, as of the stomach; to excite aversion in; to offend the moral taste of; -- often with at, with, or by.

To disgust him with the world and its vanities. Prescott.
ærius is expressly declared . . . to have been disgusted at failing. J. H. Newman.
Alarmed and disgusted by the proceedings of the convention. Macaulay.

Disgust (Page: 425)

Dis*gust", n. [Cf. OF. desgoust, F. dégo\'96t. See Disgust, v. t.] Repugnance to what is offensive; aversion or displeasure produced by something loathsome; loathing; strong distaste; -- said primarily of the sickening opposition felt for anything which offends the physical organs of taste; now rather of the analogous repugnance excited by anything extremely unpleasant to the moral taste or higher sensibilities of our nature; as, an act of cruelty may excite disgust.

The manner of doing is more consequence than the thing done, and upon that depends the satisfaction or disgust wherewith it is received. Locke.
In a vulgar hack writer such oddities would have excited only disgust. Macaulay.
Syn. -- Nausea; loathing; aversion; distaste; dislike; disinclination; abomination. See Dislike.
Dishonest (Page: 425)

Dis*hon"est (?), a. [Pref. dis- + honest: cf. F. déshonn\'88te, OF. deshoneste.]

1. Dishonorable; shameful; indecent; unchaste; lewd. [Obs.]

Inglorious triumphs and dishonest scars. Pope.
Speak no foul or dishonest words before them [the women]. Sir T. North.

2. Dishonored; disgraced; disfigured. [Obs.]

Dishonest with lopped arms the youth appears, Spoiled of his nose and shortened of his ears. Dryden.

3. Wanting in honesty; void of integrity; faithless; disposed to cheat or defraud; not trustworthy; as, a dishonest man.

4. Characterized by fraud; indicating a want of probity; knavish; fraudulent; unjust.

To get dishonest gain. Ezek. xxii. 27.
The dishonest profits of men in office. Bancroft.

Dishonest (Page: 425)

Dis*hon"est, v. t. [Cf. OF. deshonester.] To disgrace; to dishonor; as, to dishonest a maid. [Obs.]

I will no longer dishonest my house. Chapman.

Disinterest (Page: 426)

Dis*in"ter*est (?), p. a. Disinterested. [Obs.]

The measures they shall walk by shall be disinterest and even. Jer. Taylor.

Disinterest (Page: 426)

Dis*in"ter*est, n.

1. What is contrary to interest or advantage; disadvantage. [Obs.] Glanvill.

2. Indifference to profit; want of regard to private advantage; disinterestedness. [Obs.] Johnson.


Disinterest (Page: 426)

Dis*in"ter*est, v. t. To divest of interest or interested motives. [Obs.] Feltham.


Dismast (Page: 427)

Dis*mast" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Dismasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Dismasting.] [Pref. dis- + mast: cf. F. démâter.] To deprive of a mast of masts; to break and carry away the masts from; as, a storm dismasted the ship.


Dispost (Page: 430)

Dis*post" (?), v. t. To eject from a post; to displace. [R.] Davies (Holy Roode).


Dissertationist (Page: 432)

Dis`ser*ta"tion*ist, n. A writer of dissertations.


Distributionist (Page: 436)

Dis`tri*bu"tion*ist, n. A distributer. [R.] Dickens.


Distrust (Page: 436)

Dis*trust" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Distrusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Distrusting.] [Cf. Mistrust.] To feel absence of trust in; not to confide in or rely upon; to deem of questionable sufficiency or reality; to doubt; to be suspicious of; to mistrust.

Not distrusting my health. 2 Mac. ix. 22.
To distrust the justice of your cause. Dryden.
He that requireth the oath doth distrust that other. Udall.
Of all afraid, Distrusting all, a wise, suspicious maid. Collins.
&hand; Mistrust has been almost wholly driven out by distrust. T. L. K. Oliphant.
Distrust (Page: 436)

Dis*trust", n.

1. Doubt of sufficiency, reality, or sincerity; want of confidence, faith, or reliance; as, distrust of one's power, authority, will, purposes, schemes, etc.

2. Suspicion of evil designs.

Alienation and distrust . . . are the growth of false principles. D. Webster.

3. State of being suspected; loss of trust. Milton.


Disunionist (Page: 436)

Dis*un"ion*ist, n. An advocate of disunion, specifically, of disunion of the United States.


Ditheist (Page: 436)

Di"the*ist, n. One who holds the doctrine of ditheism; a dualist. Cudworth.


Diurnalist (Page: 437)

Di*ur"nal*ist, n. A journalist. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


Divast (Page: 437)

Di*vast" (?), a. Devastated; laid waste. [Obs.]


Divest (Page: 438)

Di*vest" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Divested; p. pr. & vb. n. Divesting.] [LL. divestire (di- = dis- + L. vestire to dress), equiv. to L. devestire. It is the same word as devest, but the latter is rarely used except as a technical term in law. See Devest, Vest.]

1. To unclothe; to strip, as of clothes, arms, or equipage; -- opposed to invest.

2. Fig.: To strip; to deprive; to dispossess; as, to divest one of his rights or privileges; to divest one's self of prejudices, passions, etc.

Wretches divested of every moral feeling. Goldsmith.
The tendency of the language to divest itself of its gutturals. Earle.

3. (Law) See Devest. Mozley & W.


Dogmatist (Page: 442)

Dog"ma*tist (?), n. [L. dogmatistes, Gr. , fr. .] One who dogmatizes; one who speaks dogmatically; a bold and arrogant advancer of principles.

I expect but little success of all this upon the dogmatist; his opinioned assurance is paramount to argument. Glanvill.

Donatist (Page: 444)

Don"a*tist (?), n. [LL. Donatista: cf. F. Donatiste.] (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Donatus, the leader of a body of North African schismatics and purists, who greatly disturbed the church in the 4th century. They claimed to be the true church.


Doorpost (Page: 445)

Door"post` (?), n. The jamb or sidepiece of a doorway.


Dost (Page: 446)

Dost (?), 2d pers. sing. pres. of Do.


Double first (Page: 447)

Dou"ble first` (?). (Eng. Universities) (a) A degree of the first class both in classics and mathematics. (b) One who gains at examinations the highest honor both in the classics and the mathematics. Beaconsfield.


Downcast (Page: 449)

Down"cast` (?), a. Cast downward; directed to the ground, from bashfulness, modesty, dejection, or guilt.

'T is love, said she; and then my downcast eyes, And guilty dumbness, witnessed my surprise. Dryden.
- Down"cast`ly, adv. -- Down"cast`ness, n.
Downcast (Page: 449)

Down"cast`, n.

1. Downcast or melancholy look.

That downcast of thine eye. Beau. & Fl.

2. (mining) A ventilating shaft down which the air passes in circulating through a mine.


Dowst (Page: 449)

Dowst (?), n. A dowse. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


Dramatist (Page: 451)

Dram"a*tist (?), n. [Cf. F. dramatiste.] The author of a dramatic composition; a writer of plays.


Dramaturgist (Page: 451)

Dram"a*tur`gist (?), n. One versed in dramaturgy. Carlyle.


Drest (Page: 454)

Drest (?), p. p. of Dress.


Drier, compar., Driest (Page: 454)

Dri"er, compar., Dri"est, superl., of Dry, a.


Drollist (Page: 456)

Droll"ist, n. A droll. [R.] Glanvill.


Druggist (Page: 457)

Drug"gist (?), n. [F. droguiste, fr. drogue. See 3d Drug.] One who deals in drugs; especially, one who buys and sells drugs without compounding them; also, a pharmaceutist or apothecary. &hand; The same person often carries on the business of the druggist and the apothecary. See the Note under Apothecary.


Dualist (Page: 458)

Du"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. dualiste.]

1. One who believes in dualism; a ditheist.

2. One who administers two offices. Fuller.


Duelist (Page: 459)

Du"el*ist (?), n. [F. duelliste.] One who fights in single combat. [Written also duellist.]

A duelist . . . always values himself upon his courage, his sense of honor, his fidelity and friendship. Hume.

Durst (Page: 462)

Durst (?), imp. of Dare. See Dare, v. i.


Dust (Page: 462)

Dust (?), n. [AS. dust; cf. LG. dust, D. duist meal dust, OD. doest, donst, and G. dunst vapor, OHG. tunist, dunist, a blowing, wind, Icel. dust dust, Dan. dyst mill dust; perh. akin to L. fumus smoke, E. fume. .]

1. Fine, dry particles of earth or other matter, so comminuted that they may be raised and wafted by the wind; that which is crumbled too minute portions; fine powder; as, clouds of dust; bone dust.

Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. Gen. iii. 19.
Stop! -- for thy tread is on an empire's dust. Byron.

2. A single particle of earth or other matter. [R.] To touch a dust of England's ground." Shak.

3. The earth, as the resting place of the dead.

For now shall sleep in the dust. Job vii. 21.

4. The earthy remains of bodies once alive; the remains of the human body.

And you may carve a shrine about my dust. Tennyson.

5. Figuratively, a worthless thing.

And by the merit of vile gold, dross, dust. Shak.

6. Figuratively, a low or mean condition.

[God] raiseth up the poor out of the dust. 1 Sam. ii. 8.

7. Gold dust; hence: (Slang) Coined money; cash. Down with the dust, deposit the cash; pay down the money. [Slang] My lord, quoth the king, presently deposit your hundred pounds in gold, or else no going hence all the days of your life. . . . The Abbot down with his dust, and glad he escaped so, returned to Reading." Fuller. -- Dust brand (Bot.), a fungous plant (Ustilago Carbo); -- called also smut. -- Gold dust, fine particles of gold, such as are obtained in placer mining; -- often used as money, being transferred by weight. -- In dust and ashes. See under Ashes. -- To bite the dust. See under Bite, v. t. -- To raise, ∨ kick up, dust, to make a commotion. [Colloq.] -- To throw dust in one's eyes, to mislead; to deceive. [Colloq.]


Dust (Page: 462)

Dust (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Dusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Dusting.]

1. To free from dust; to brush, wipe, or sweep away dust from; as, to dust a table or a floor.

2. To sprinkle with dust.

3. To reduce to a fine powder; to levigate. Sprat. To dyst one's jacket, to give one a flogging. [Slang.]


Dynamist (Page: 463)

Dy"na*mist (?), n. One who accounts for material phenomena by a theory of dynamics.

Those who would resolve matter into centers of force may be said to constitute the school of dynamists. Ward (Dyn. Sociol. ).

Dynast (Page: 463)

Dy"nast (?), n. [L. dynastes, Gr. , fr. to be able or strong: cf. F. dynaste. See Dynamic.]

1. A ruler; a governor; a prince.

2. A dynasty; a government. [Obs.]


Earnest (Page: 465)

Ear"nest (?), n. [AS. eornost, eornest; akin to OHG. ernust, G. ernst; cf. Icel. orrosta battle, perh. akin to Gr. to excite, L. oriri to rise.] Seriousness; reality; fixed determination; eagerness; intentness.

Take heed that this jest do not one day turn to earnest. Sir P. Sidney.
And given in earnest what I begged in jest. Shak.
In earnest, serious; seriously; not in jest; earnestly.
Earnest (Page: 465)

Ear"nest, a.

1. Ardent in the pursuit of an object; eager to obtain or do; zealous with sincerity; with hearty endeavor; heartfelt; fervent; hearty; -- used in a good sense; as, earnest prayers.

An earnest advocate to plead for him. Shak.

2. Intent; fixed closely; as, earnest attention.

3. Serious; important. [Obs.]

They whom earnest lets do often hinder. Hooker.
Syn. -- Eager; warm; zealous; ardent; animated; importunate; fervent; sincere; serious; hearty; urgent. See Eager.
Earnest (Page: 465)

Ear"nest, v. t. To use in earnest. [R.]

To earnest them [our arms] with men. Pastor Fido (1602).

Earnest (Page: 465)

Ear"nest, n. [Prob. corrupted fr. F. arrhes, L. arra, arrha, arrhabo, Gr. , of Semitic origin, cf. Heb. rāvn; or perh. fr. W. ernes, akin to Gael. earlas, perh. fr. L. arra. Cf. Arles, Earles penny.]

1. Something given, or a part paid beforehand, as a pledge; pledge; handsel; a token of what is to come.

Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. 2 Cor. i. 22.
And from his coffers Received the golden earnest of our death. Shak.

2. (Law) Something of value given by the buyer to the seller, by way of token or pledge, to bind the bargain and prove the sale. Kent. Ayliffe. Benjamin. Earnest money (Law), money paid as earnest, to bind a bargain or to ratify and prove a sale. Syn. -- Earnest, Pledge. These words are here compared as used in their figurative sense. Earnest is not so strong as pledge. An earnest, like first fruits, gives assurance, or at least a high probability, that more is coming of the same kind; a pledge, like money deposited, affords security and ground of reliance for the future. Washington gave earnest of his talent as commander by saving his troops after Braddock's defeat; his fortitude and that of his soldiers during the winter at Valley Forge might rightly be considered a pledge of their ultimate triumph.


Earst (Page: 466)

Earst (?), adv. See Erst. [Obs.] Spenser.


East (Page: 467)

East (?), n. [OE. est, east, AS. eást; akin to D. oost, oosten, OHG. stan, G. ost, osten, Icel. austr, Sw. ost, Dan. öst, östen, Lith. auszra dawn, L. aurora (for ausosa), Gr. , , , Skr. ushas; cf. Skr. ush to burn, L. urere. , . Cf. Aurora, Easter, Sterling.]

1. The point in the heavens where the sun is seen to rise at the equinox, or the corresponding point on the earth; that one of the four cardinal points of the compass which is in a direction at right angles to that of north and south, and which is toward the right hand of one who faces the north; the point directly opposite to the west.

The east began kindle. E. Everett.

2. The eastern parts of the earth; the regions or countries which lie east of Europe; the orient. In this indefinite sense, the word is applied to Asia Minor, Syria, Chaldea, Persia, India, China, etc.; as, the riches of the East; the diamonds and pearls of the East; the kings of the East.

The gorgeous East, with richest hand, Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold. Milton.

3. (U. S. Hist. and Geog.) Formerly, the part of the United States east of the Alleghany Mountains, esp. the Eastern, or New England, States; now, commonly, the whole region east of the Mississippi River, esp. that which is north of Maryland and the Ohio River; -- usually with the definite article; as, the commerce of the East is not independent of the agriculture of the West. East by north, East by south, according to the notation of the mariner's compass, that point which lies 11 to the north or south, respectively, of the point due east. -- East-northeast, East-southeast, that which lie 22 to the north or south of east, or half way between east and northeast or southeast, respectively. See Illust. of Compass.


East (Page: 467)

East (?), a. Toward the rising sun; or toward the point where the sun rises when in the equinoctial; as, the east gate; the east border; the east side; the east wind is a wind that blows from the east.


East (Page: 467)

East, adv. Eastward.


East (Page: 467)

East, v. i. To move toward the east; to veer from the north or south toward the east; to orientate.


Easternmost (Page: 467)

East"ern*most` (?), a. Most eastern.


Ebonist (Page: 467)

Eb"on*ist (?), n. One who works in ebony.


Ecclesiast (Page: 468)

Ec*cle"si*ast (?), n.

1. An ecclesiastic. Chaucer.

2. The Apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus. [Obs.]


Ecclesiologist (Page: 468)

Ec*cle`si*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in ecclesiology.


Economist (Page: 469)

E*con"o*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. économiste.]

1. One who economizes, or manages domestic or other concerns with frugality; one who expends money, time, or labor, judiciously, and without waste. Economists even to parsimony." Burke.

2. One who is conversant with political economy; a student of economics.


Ectoblast (Page: 470)

Ec"to*blast (?), n. [Ecto- + Gr. bud, germ.] (Biol.) (a) The outer layer of the blastoderm; the epiblast; the ectoderm. (b) The outer envelope of a cell; the cell wall. Agassiz.


Ectocyst (Page: 470)

Ec"to*cyst (?), n. [Ecto- + Gr. bladder.] (Zoöl.) The outside covering of the Bryozoa.


Educationist (Page: 471)

Ed`u*ca"tion*ist, n. One who is versed in the theories of, or who advocates and promotes, education.


Egest (Page: 473)

E*gest" (?), v. t. [L. egestus, p. p. of egerere to carry out, to discharge; e out + gerere to carry.] (Physiol.) To cast or throw out; to void, as excrement; to excrete, as the indigestible matter of the food; in an extended sense, to excrete by the lungs, skin, or kidneys.


Egoist (Page: 474)

E"go*ist, n. [F. égo\'8bste. See Egoism.]

1. One given overmuch to egoism or thoughts of self.

I, dullard egoist, taking no special recognition of such nobleness. Carlyle.

2. (Philos.) A believer in egoism.


Egotist (Page: 474)

E"go*tist (?), n. [L. ego I + ending -tist for -ist. See Egotism, and cf. Egoist.] One addicted to egotism; one who speaks much of himself or magnifies his own achievements or affairs.


Egyptologer, Egyptologist (Page: 474)

E`gyp*tol"o*ger (?), E`gyp*tol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in the antiquities of Egypt; a student of Egyptology.


Eldest (Page: 476)

Eld"est (?), a. [AS. yldest, superl. of eald old. See Elder, a.]

1. Oldest; longest in duration. Shak.

2. Born or living first, or before the others, as a son, daughter, brother, etc.; first in origin. See Elder. My lady's eldest son." Shak.

Their eldest historians are of suspected credit. Bp. Stillingfleet.
Eldest hand (Card Playing), the player on the dealer's left hand. R. A. Proctor.
Electro-biologist (Page: 477)

E*lec`tro-bi*ol"o*gist (?), n. (Biol.) One versed in electro-biology.


Elegiast (Page: 478)

E*le"gi*ast (?), n. One who composes elegies. Goldsmith.


Elegist (Page: 478)

El"e*gist (?), n. A write of elegies. T. Warton.


Elocutionist (Page: 481)

El`o*cu"tion*ist, n. One who is versed in elocution; a teacher of elocution.


Elogist (Page: 481)

El"o*gist (?), n. [F. élogiste.] One who pronounces an éloge.


Elohist (Page: 481)

E*lo"hist (?), n. The writer, or one of the writers, of the passages of the Old Testament, notably those of Elohim instead of Jehovah, as the name of the Supreme Being; -- distinguished from Jehovist. S. Davidson.


Emancipationist (Page: 482)

E*man`ci*pa"tion*ist, n. An advocate of emancipation, esp. the emancipation of slaves.


Emancipist (Page: 482)

E*man"ci*pist (?), n. A freed convict. [Australia]


Emblematist (Page: 483)

Em*blem"a*tist (?), n. A writer or inventor of emblems. Sir T. Browne.


Embryologist (Page: 484)

Em`bry*ol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in embryology.


Emigrationist (Page: 485)

Em`i*gra"tion*ist, n. An advocate or promoter of emigration.


Emong, Emongst (Page: 485)

E*mong" (?), E*mongst" (?), (), prep. Among. [Obs.]


Empiricist (Page: 486)

Em*pir"i*cist (?), n. An empiric.


Enameler, Enamelist (Page: 488)

En*am"el*er (?), En*am"el*ist, n. One who enamels; a workman or artist who applies enamels in ornamental work. [Written also enameller, enamellist.]


Enchest (Page: 488)

En*chest" (?), v. t. [Cf. Inchest.] To inclose in a chest. Vicars.


Encomiast (Page: 489)

En*co"mi*ast (?), n. [Gr. , fr. to praise, fr. encomium: cf. F. encomiaste. See Encomium.] One who praises; a panegyrist. Locke.


Encrust (Page: 489)

En*crust" (?), v. t. To incrust. See Incrust.


Encyclopedist (Page: 489)

En*cy`clo*pe"dist (?), n. [Cf. F. encyclopédiste.] The compiler of an encyclopedia, or one who assists in such compilation; also, one whose knowledge embraces the whole range of the sciences. The Encyclopedists, the writers of the great French encyclopedia which appeared in 1751-1772. The editors were Diderot and D'Alembert. Among the contributors were Voltaire and Rousseau.


Encyst (Page: 489)

En*cyst" (?), v. t. To inclose in a cyst.


Endmost (Page: 490)

End"most` (?), a. Farthest; remotest; at the very end. Tylor.


Endoblast (Page: 490)

En"do*blast (?), n. [Endo- + -blast.] (Biol.) Entoblast; endoplast. See Nucleus,


Endocyst (Page: 490)

En"do*cyst (?), n. [Endo- + Gr. bladder, a bag.] (Zoöl.) The inner layer of the cells of Bryozoa.


Endoplast (Page: 491)

En"do*plast (?), n. [Endo- + Gr. to form.] (Biol.) See Nucleus.


Enforest (Page: 492)

En*for"est (?), v. t. To turn into a forest.


Enigmatist (Page: 494)

E*nig"ma*tist (?), n. [Gr. .] One who makes, or talks in, enigmas. Addison.


Enlist (Page: 494)

En*list" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enlisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Enlisting.]

1. To enter on a list; to enroll; to register.

2. To engage for military or naval service, the name being entered on a list or register; as, to enlist men.

3. To secure the support and aid of; to employ in advancing interest; as, to enlist persons in the cause of truth, or in a charitable enterprise.


Enlist (Page: 494)

En*list", v. i.

1. To enroll and bind one's self for military or naval service; as, he enlisted in the regular army; the men enlisted for the war.

2. To enter heartily into a cause, as if enrolled.


Enmist (Page: 494)

En*mist" (?), v. t. To infold, as in a mist.


Enthusiast (Page: 497)

En*thu"si*ast (?), n. [Gr. : cf. F. enthousiaste.] One moved or actuated by enthusiasm; as: (a) One who imagines himself divinely inspired, or possessed of some special revelation; a religious madman; a fanatic. (b) One whose mind is wholly possessed and heated by what engages it; one who is influenced by a peculiar; fervor of mind; an ardent and imaginative person.

Enthusiasts soon understand each other. W. Irving.
Syn. -- Visionary; fanatic; devotee; zealot.
Entoblast (Page: 497)

En"to*blast (?), n. [Ento- + -blast.] (Biol.) The inner germ layer; endoderm. See Nucleolus.


Entomologist (Page: 497)

En`to*mol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. entomologiste.] One versed in entomology.


Entomotomist (Page: 498)

En`to*mot"o*mist (?), n. One who practices entomotomy.


Entosthoblast (Page: 498)

En*tos"tho*blast (?), n. [Gr. 'e`ntosthe from within + -blast.] (Biol.) The granule within the nucleolus or entoblast of a nucleated cell. Agassiz.


Entozoölogist (Page: 498)

En`to*zo*öl"o*gist (?), n. [Entozoön + -logy + -ist.] One versed in the science of the Entozoa.


Entrust (Page: 498)

En*trust" (?), v. t. See Intrust.


Entwist (Page: 498)

En*twist" (?), v. t. To twist or wreathe round; to intwine. Shak.


Ephemerist (Page: 500)

E*phem"er*ist (?), n.

1. One who studies the daily motions and positions of the planets. Howell.

2. One who keeps an ephemeris; a journalist.


Epiblast (Page: 500)

Ep"i*blast (?), n. [Pref. epi- + -blast.] (Biol.) The outer layer of the blastoderm; the ectoderm. See Blastoderm, Delamination.


Epidemiologist (Page: 501)

Ep`i*de`mi*ol"o*gist (?), n. A person skilled in epidemiology.


Epigenesist (Page: 501)

Ep`i*gen"e*sist (?), n. (Biol.) One who believes in, or advocates the theory of, epigenesis.


Epigrammatist (Page: 501)

Ep`i*gram"ma*tist (?), n. [L. epigrammatista: cf. F. épigrammatiste.] One who composes epigrams, or makes use of them.

The brisk epigrammatist showing off his own cleverness. Holmes.

Epigrammist (Page: 501)

Ep"i*gram`mist (?), n. An epigrammatist. Jer. Taylor.


Epigraphist (Page: 501)

E*pig"ra*phist (?), n. A student of, or one versed in, epigraphy.


Epitaphist (Page: 503)

Ep"i*taph`ist (?), n. An epitapher.


Epitomist (Page: 503)

E*pit"o*mist (?), n. One who makes an epitome; one who abridges; an epitomizer. Milton.


Eponymist (Page: 503)

E*pon"y*mist (?), n. One from whom a race, tribe, city, or the like, took its name; an eponym.


Equilibrist (Page: 504)

E*quil"i*brist (?), n. One who balances himself in unnatural positions and hazardous movements; a balancer.

When the equilibrist balances a rod upon his finger. Stewart.

Ernest > Er"nest (?), n. See Earnest. [Obs.] Chaucer.
Erpetologist > Er`pe*tol"o*gist (?), n. Herpetologist.
Errorist (Page: 508)

Er"ror*ist, n. One who encourages and propagates error; one who holds to error.


Erst (Page: 508)

Erst (?), adv. [Orig. superlative of ere; AS. rest. See Ere.] [Archaic]

1. First. Chaucer.

2. Previously; before; formerly; heretofore. Chaucer.

Tityrus, with whose style he had erst disclaimed all ambition to match his pastoral pipe. A. W. Ward.
At erst, at first; at the beginning. -- Now at erst, at this present time. Chaucer.
Essayist (Page: 509)

Es"say*ist (?; 277), n. A writer of an essay, or of essays. B. Jonson.


Est (Page: 511)

Est (?), n. & adv. East. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Etacist (Page: 512)

E"ta*cist (?), n. One who favors etacism.


Eternalist (Page: 512)

E*ter"nal*ist, n. One who holds the existence of matter to be from eternity. T. Burnet.


Ethicist (Page: 513)

Eth"i*cist (?), n. One who is versed in ethics, or has written on ethics.


Ethnologist (Page: 513)

Eth*nol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in ethnology; a student of ethnology.


Ethologist (Page: 513)

E*thol"o*gist (?) n. One who studies or writes upon ethology.


Etymologist (Page: 513)

Et`y*mol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. étymologiste.] One who investigates the derivation of words.


Eucharist (Page: 513)

Eu"cha*rist (?), n. [L. euchaistia, Gr. , lit., a giving of banks; + favor, grace, banks; akin to to rejoice, nd prob. to yearn: cf. F. euchaistie.]

1. The act of giving thanks; thanksgiving. [Obs.]

Led through the vale of tears to the region of eucharist and hallelujahs. South.

2. (Eccl.) The sacrament of the Lord's Supper; the solemn act of ceremony of commemorating the death of Christ, in the use of bread and wine, as the appointed emblems; the communion. -- See Sacrament.


Eudemonist, Eudæmonist (Page: 513)

Eu*de"mon*ist, Eu*dæ"mon*ist, n. One who believes in eudemonism.

I am too much of a eudæmonist; I hanker too much after a state of happiness both for myself and others. De Quincey.

Euhemerist (Page: 513)

Eu*hem"er*ist, n. One who advocates euhemerism.


Eulogist (Page: 513)

Eu"lo*gist (?) n. One who eulogizes or praises; panegyrist; encomiast. Buckle.


Euphuist (Page: 515)

Eu"phu*ist, n. One who affects excessive refinement and elegance of language; -- applied esp. to a class of writers, in the age of Elizabeth, whose productions are marked by affected conceits and high-flown diction.


Evangelist (Page: 515)

E*van"gel*ist, n. [F. évangéliste, L. evangelista, fr. Gr. .] A bringer of the glad tidings of Church and his doctrines. Specially: (a) A missionary preacher sent forth to prepare the way for a resident pastor; an itinerant missionary preacher. (b) A writer of one of the four Gospels (With the definite article); as, the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. (c) A traveling preacher whose efforts are chiefly directed to arouse to immediate repentance.

The Apostles, so far as they evangelized, might claim the tittle though there were many evangelists who were not Apistles. Plumptre.

Evolutionist > Ev`o*lu"tion*ist (?), n.

1. One skilled in evolutions.

2. one who holds the doctrine of evolution, either in biology or in metaphysics. Darwin.


Exclusionist (Page: 521)

Ex*clu"sion*ist, n. One who would exclude another from some right or privilege; esp., one of the anti-popish politicians of the time of Charles .


Exclusivist (Page: 521)

Ex*clu"siv*ist, n. One who favor or practices any from of exclusiveness or exclusivism.

The field of Greek mythology . . . the favorite sporting ground of the exclusivists of the solar theory. Gladstone.

Excursionist (Page: 521)

Ex*cur"sion*ist, n. One who goes on an excursion, or pleasure trip.


Exegetist (Page: 523)

Ex`e*ge"tist (?), n. One versed in the science of exegesis or interpretation; -- also called exegete.


Exhaust (Page: 523)

Ex*haust" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Exhausted; p. pr. & vb. n. Exhausting.] [L. exhaustus, p.p. of exhaurire; ex out + haurire, haustum, to draw, esp. water; perhaps akin to Icel. asua to sprinkle, pump.]

1. To draw or let out wholly; to drain off completely; as, to exhaust the water of a well; the moisture of the earth is exhausted by evaporation.

2. To empty by drawing or letting out the contents; as, to exhaust a well, or a treasury.

3. To drain, metaphorically; to use or expend wholly, or till the supply comes to an end; to deprive wholly of strength; to use up; to weary or tire out; to wear out; as, to exhaust one's strength, patience, or resources.

A decrepit, exhausted old man at fifty-five. Motley.

4. To bring out or develop completely; to discuss thoroughly; as, to exhaust a subject.

5. (Chem.) To subject to the action of various solvents in order to remove all soluble substances or extractives; as, to exhaust a drug successively with water, alcohol, and ether. Exhausted receiver. (Physics) See under Receiver. Syn. -- To spend; consume; tire out; weary.


Exhaust (Page: 523)

Ex*haust", a. [L. exhaustus, p.p.]

1. Drained; exhausted; having expended or lost its energy.

2. Pertaining to steam, air, gas, etc., that is released from the cylinder of an engine after having preformed its work. Exhaust draught, a forced draught produced by drawing air through a place, as through a furnace, instead of blowing it through. -- Exhaust fan, a fan blower so arranged as to produce an exhaust draught, or to draw air or gas out of a place, as out of a room in ventilating it. -- Exhaust nozzle, Exhaust orifice (Steam Engine), the blast orifice or nozzle. -- Exhaust pipe (Steam Engine), the pipe that conveys exhaust steam from the cylinder to the atmosphere or to the condenser. Exhaust port (Steam Engine), the opening, in the cylinder or valve, by which the exhaust steam escapes. -- Exhaust purifier (Milling), a machine for sorting grains, or purifying middlings by an exhaust draught. Knight. -- Exhaust steam (Steam Engine), steam which is allowed to escape from the cylinder after having been employed to produce motion of the piston. -- Exhaust valve (Steam Engine), a valve that lets exhaust steam escape out of a cylinder.


Exhaust (Page: 523)

Ex*haust", n. (Steam Engine)

1. The steam let out of a cylinder after it has done its work there.

2. The foul air let out of a room through a register or pipe provided for the purpose.


Exist (Page: 523)

Ex*ist" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Existed; p. pr. & vb. n. Existing.] [L. existere, exsistere, to step out or forth, emerge, appear, exist; ex out + sistere to cause to stand, to set, put, place, stand still, fr. stare to stand: cf. F. exister. See Stand.]

1. To be as a fact and not as a mode; to have an actual or real being, whether material or spiritual.

Who now, alas! no more is missed Than if he never did exist. Swift.
To conceive the world . . . to have existed from eternity. South.

2. To be manifest in any manner; to continue to be; as, great evils existed in his reign.

3. To live; to have life or the functions of vitality; as, men can not exist water, nor fishes on land. Syn. -- See Be.


Exor-cist (Page: 523)

Ex"or-cist (?), n. [L. exorcista, Gr. : cf. F. exorciste.]

1. One who expels evil spirits by conjuration or exorcism.

Certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists. Acts xix. 13.

2. A conjurer who can raise spirits. [R.]

Thou, like an exorcist, hast conjured up My mortified spirit. Shak.

Expeditoinist (Page: 523)

Ex`pe*di"toin*ist, n. One who goes upon an expedition. [R].


Experientiallist (Page: 523)

Ex*pe`ri*en"tial*list, n. One who accepts the doctrine of experientialism. Also used adjectively.


Experimentist (Page: 528)

Ex*per"i*men`tist (?), n. An experimenter.


Experimetalist (Page: 523)

Ex*per`i*me"tal*ist, n. One who makes experiments; an experimenter. Whaterly.


Expiatist (Page: 528)

Ex"pi*a*tist (?), n. An expiator. [R.]


Extensionist (Page: 529)

Ex*ten"sion*ist, n. One who favors or advocates extension.


Extremist (Page: 529)

Ex*trem"ist (?), n. A supporter of extreme doctrines or practice; one who holds extreme opinions.


Fabulist (Page: 535)

Fab"u*list (?), n. [Cf. F. fabuliste, fr. L. fabula. See Fable.] One who invents or writes fables.


Factionist (Page: 536)

Fac"tion*ist, n. One who promotes faction.


Fallowist (Page: 540)

Fal"low*ist (?), n. One who favors the practice of fallowing land. [R.] Sinclair.


Familist (Page: 541)

Fam"i*list (?), n. [From Family.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of afanatical Antinomian sect originating in Holland, and existing in England about 1580, called the Family of Love, who held that religion consists wholly in love.


Famulist (Page: 541)

Fam"u*list (?), n. [L. famulus servant.] A collegian of inferior rank or position, corresponding to the sizar at Cambridge. [Oxford Univ., Eng.]


Fantast (Page: 542)

Fan"tast (?), n. One whose manners or ideas are fantastic. [R.] Coleridge.


Farmost (Page: 543)

Far"most` (?), a. Most distant; farthest.

A spacious cave within its farmost part. Dryden.

Farthermost (Page: 544)

Far"ther*most` (?), a. Most distant or remote; as, the farthest degree. See Furthest.


Fashionist (Page: 544)

Fash"ion*ist (?), n. An obsequious follower of the modes and fashions. [R.] Fuller.


Fast (Page: 544)

Fast (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Fasting.] [AS. f&ae;stan; akin to D. vasten, OHG. fast&emac;n, G. fasten, Icel. & Sw. fasta, Dan. faste, Goth. fastan to keep, observe, fast, and prob. to E. fast firm.]

1. To abstain from food; to omit to take nourishment in whole or in part; to go hungry.

Fasting he went to sleep, and fasting waked. Milton.

2. To practice abstinence as a religious exercise or duty; to abstain from food voluntarily for a time, for the mortification of the body or appetites, or as a token of grief, or humiliation and penitence.

Thou didst fast and weep for the child. 2 Sam. xii. 21.
Fasting day, a fast day; a day of fasting.
Fast (Page: 544)

Fast, n. [OE. faste, fast; cf. AS. fsten, OHG. fasta, G. faste. See Fast, v. i.]

1. Abstinence from food; omission to take nounrishment.

Surfeit is the father of much fast. Shak.

2. Voluntary abstinence from food, for a space of time, as a spiritual discipline, or as a token of religious humiliation.

3. A time of fasting, whether a day, week, or longer time; a period of abstinence from food or certain kinds of food; as, an annual fast. Fast day, a day appointed for fasting, humiliation, and religious offices as a means of invoking the favor of God. -- To break one's fast, to put an end to a period of abstinence by taking food; especially, to take one's morning meal; to breakfast. Shak.


Fast (Page: 544)

Fast, a. [Compar. Faster (?); superl. Fastest (?).] [OE., firm, strong, not loose, AS. fst; akin to OS. fast, D. vast, OHG. fasti, festi, G. fest, Isel. fastr, Sw. & Dan. fast, and perh. to E. fetter. The sense swift comes from the idea of keeping close to what is pursued; a Scandinavian use. Cf. Fast, adv., Fast, v., Avast.]

1. Firmly fixed; closely adhering; made firm; not loose, unstable, or easily moved; immovable; as, to make fast the door.

There is an order that keeps things fast. Burke.

2. Firm against attack; fortified by nature or art; impregnable; strong.

Outlaws . . . lurking in woods and fast places. Spenser.

3. Firm in adherence; steadfast; not easily separated or alienated; faithful; as, a fast friend.

4. Permanent; not liable to fade by exposure to air or by washing; durable; lasting; as, fast colors.

5. Tenacious; retentive. [Obs.]

Roses, damask and red, are fast flowers of their smells. Bacon.

6. Not easily disturbed or broken; deep; sound.

All this while in a most fast sleep. Shak.

7. Moving rapidly; quick in mition; rapid; swift; as, a fast horse.

8. Given to pleasure seeking; disregardful of restraint; reckless; wild; dissipated; dissolute; as, a fast man; a fast liver. Thackeray. Fast and loose, now cohering, now disjoined; inconstant, esp. in the phrases to play at fast and loose, to play fast and loose, to act with giddy or reckless inconstancy or in a tricky manner; to say one thing and do another Play fast and loose with faith." Shak. Fast and loose pulleys (Mach.), two pulleys placed side by side on a revolving shaft, which is driven from another shaft by a band, and arranged to disengage and reëngage the machinery driven thereby. When the machinery is to be stopped, the band is transferred from the pulley fixed to the shaft to the pulley which revolves freely upon it, and vice versa. -- Hard and fast (Naut.), so completely aground as to be immovable. -- To make fast (Naut.), to make secure; to fasten firmly, as a vessel, a rope, or a door. [545]


Fast (Page: 545)

Fast (?), adv. [OE. Faste firmly, strongly, quickly, AS. faste. See Fast, a.]

1. In a fast, fixed, or firmly established manner; fixedly; firmly; immovably.

We will bind thee fast. Judg. xv. 13.

2. In a fast or rapid manner; quickly; swiftly; extravagantly; wildly; as, to run fast; to live fast. Fast by, ∨ Fast beside, close or near to; near at hand.

He, after Eve seduced, unminded slunk Into the wood fast by. Milton.
Fast by the throne obsequious Fame resides. Pope.

Fast (Page: 545)

Fast, n. That which fastens or holds; especially, (Naut.) a mooring rope, hawser, or chain; -- called, according to its position, a bow, head, quarter, breast, or stern fast; also, a post on a pier around which hawsers are passed in mooring.


Fast (Page: 605)

Fast (?), n. [OF. fust, F. ft, fr. L. fustis stick staff.] (Arch.) The shaft of a column, or trunk of pilaster. Gwilt.


Fatalist (Page: 545)

Fa"tal*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. fataliste.] One who maintains that all things happen by inevitable necessity.


Fatiloquist (Page: 546)

Fa*til"o*quist (?), n. [L. fatiloquus declaring fate; fatum fate+ Loqui to speak.] A fortune teller.


Faunist (Page: 546)

Fau"nist (?), n. One who describes the fauna of country; a naturalist. Gilbert White.


Feast (Page: 548)

Feast (?), n. [OE. feste festival, holiday, feast, OF. feste festival, F. f\'88te, fr. L. festum, pl. festa, fr. festus joyful, festal; of uncertain origin. Cf. Fair, n., Festal, Fte.]

1. A festival; a holiday; a solemn, or more commonly, a joyous, anniversary.

The seventh day shall be a feast to the Lord. Ex. xiii. 6.
Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover. Luke ii. 41.
&hand; Ecclesiastical fasts are called immovable when they always occur on the same day of the year; otherwise they are called movable.

2. A festive or joyous meal; a grand, ceremonious, or sumptuous entertainment, of which many guests partake; a banquet characterized by tempting variety and abundance of food.

Enough is as good as a feast. Old Proverb.
Belshazzar the King made a great feast to a thousand of his lords. Dan. v. 1.

3. That which is partaken of, or shared in, with delight; something highly agreeable; entertainment.

The feast of reason, and the flow of soul. Pope.
Feast day, a holiday; a day set as a solemn commemoative festival. Syn. -- Entertainment; regale; banquet; treat; carousal; festivity; festival. -- Feast, Banquet, Festival, Carousal. A feast sets before us viands superior in quantity, variety, and abudance; a banquet is a luxurious feast; a festival is the joyful celebration by good cheer of some agreeable event. Carousal is unrestrained indulgence in frolic and drink.
Feast (Page: 548)

Feast, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Feasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Feasting.] [OE. festen, cf. OF. fester to rest from work, F. f\'88ter to celebrate a holiday. See Feast, n.]

1. To eat sumptuously; to dine or sup on rich provisions, particularly in large companies, and on public festivals.

And his sons went and feasted in their houses. Job. i. 4.

2. To be highly gratified or delighted.

With my love's picture then my eye doth feast. Shak.

Feast (Page: 548)

Feast, v. t.

1. To entertain with sumptuous provisions; to treat at the table bountifully; as, he was feasted by the king. Hayward.

2. To delight; to gratify; as, to feast the soul.

Feast your ears with the music a while. Shak.

Federalist (Page: 549)

Fed"er*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. fédéraliste.] An advocate of confederation; specifically (Amer. Hist.), a friend of the Constitution of the United States at its formation and adoption; a member of the political party which favored the administration of president Washington.


Femal-ist (Page: 551)

Fe"mal-ist (?), n. A gallant. [Obs.]

Courting her smoothly like a femalist. Marston.

Ferrest (Page: 553)

Fer"rest (?), a. & adv. Obs. superl. of Fer. Chaucer.


Fest (Page: 554)

Fest (?), n. [See Fist.] The fist. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Fetichist, Fetishist (Page: 554)

Fe"tich*ist, Fe"tish*ist, n.A believer in fetiches.

He was by nature a fetichist. H. Holbeach.

Feudalist (Page: 555)

Feu"dal*ist, n. An upholder of feudalism.


Feudist (Page: 555)

Feud"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. feudiste.] A writer on feuds; a person versed in feudal law. Spelman.


Feuilltonist (Page: 555)

Feuill"ton*ist (?), n. [F. feuilletoniste.] A writer of feuilletons. F. Harrison.


Fictionist (Page: 556)

Fic"tion*ist, n. A writer of fiction. [R.] Lamb.


Figurist (Page: 558)

Fig"ur*ist (?), n. One who uses or interprets figurative expressions. Waterland.


Financialist (Page: 560)

Fi*nan"cial*ist, n. A financier.


Firecrest (Page: 562)

Fire"crest` (?), n. (Zoöl.) A small European kinglet (Regulus ignicapillus), having a bright red crest; -- called also fire-crested wren.


First (Page: 563)

First (?), a. [OE. first, furst, AS. fyrst; akin to Icel. fyrstr, Sw. & Dan. förste, OHG. furist, G. f\'81rst prince; a superlatiye form of E. for, fore. See For, Fore, and cf. Formeer, Foremost.]

1. Preceding all others of a series or kind; the ordinal of one; earliest; as, the first day of a month; the first year of a reign.

2. Foremost; in front of, or in advance of, all others.

3. Most eminent or exalted; most excellent; chief; highest; as, Demosthenes was the first orator of Greece. At first blush. See under Blush. -- At first hand, from the first or original source; without the intervention of any agent.

It is the intention of the person to reveal it at first hand, by way of mouth, to yourself. Dickens.
-- First coat (Plastering), the solid foundation of coarse stuff, on which the rest is placed; it is thick, and crossed with lines, so as to give a bond for the next coat. -- First day, Sunday; -- so called by the Friends. -- First floor. (a) The ground floor. [U.S.] (b) The floor next above the ground floor. [Eng.] -- First fruit ∨ fruits. (a) The fruits of the season earliest gathered. (b) (Feudal Law) One year's profits of lands belonging to the king on the death of a tenant who held directly from him. (c) (Eng. Eccl. Law) The first year's whole profits of a benefice or spiritual living. (d) The earliest effects or results.
See, Father, what first fruits on earth are sprung From thy implanted grace in man! Milton.
-- First mate, an officer in a merchant vessel next in rank to the captain. -- First name, same as Christian name. See under Name, n. -- First officer (Naut.), in the merchant service, same as First mate (above). -- First sergeant (Mil.), the ranking non-commissioned officer in a company; the orderly sergeant. Farrow. -- First watch (Naut.), the watch from eight to twelve at midnight; also, the men on duty during that time. -- First water, the highest quality or purest luster; -- said of gems, especially of diamond and pearls. Syn. -- Primary; primordial; primitive; primeval; pristine; highest; chief; principal; foremost.
First (Page: 563)

First (?), adv. Before any other person or thing in time, space, rank, etc.; -- much used in composition with adjectives and participles.

Adam was first formed, then Eve. 1 Tim. ii. 13.
At first, At the first, at the beginning or origin. -- First or last, at one time or another; at the beginning or end.
And all are fools and lovers first or last. Dryden.

First (Page: 563)

First, n. (Mus.) The upper part of a duet, trio, etc., either vocal or instrumental; -- so called because it generally expresses the air, and has a preëminence in the combined effect.


Fist (Page: 564)

Fist (?), n. [OE. fist, fust, AS. fst; akin to D. vuist, OHG. fst, G. faust, and prob. to L. pugnus, Gr. fist, with the fist. Cf. Pugnacious, Pigmy.]

1. The hand with the fingers doubled into the palm; the closed hand, especially as clinched tightly for the purpose of striking a blow.

Who grasp the earth and heaven with my fist. Herbert.

2. The talons of a bird of prey. [Obs.]

More light than culver in the falcon's fist. Spenser.

3. (print.) the index mark [&hand;], used to direct special attention to the passage which follows. Hand over fist (Naut.), rapidly; hand over hand.


Fist (Page: 564)

Fist, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Fisting.]

1. To strike with the fist. Dryden.

2. To gripe with the fist. [Obs.] Shak.


Flabbergast (Page: 565)

Flab"ber*gast (?), v. t. [Cf. Flap, and Aghast.] To astonish; to strike with wonder, esp. by extraordinary statements. [Jocular] Beaconsfield.


Flautist (Page: 568)

Flau"tist (?), n. [It. flauto a flute See Flute.] A player on the flute; a flutist.


Flingdust (Page: 571)

Fling"dust` (?), n. One who kicks up the dust; a streetwalker; a low manner. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


Floriculturist (Page: 572)

Flo`ri*cul"tur*ist (?), n. One skilled in the cultivation of flowers; a florist.


Florist (Page: 573)

Flo"rist (? ∨ ?; 277), n. [Cf. F. fleuriste, floriste, fr. F. fleur flower. See Flower.]

1. A cultivator of, or dealer in, flowers.

2. One who writes a flora, or an account of plants.


Flutist (Page: 575)

Flut"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. fl\'96tiste.] A performer on the flute; a flautist. Busby. [576]

2. To move with quick vibrations or undulations; as, a sail flutters in the wind; a fluttering fan.

3. To move about briskly, irregularly, or with great bustle and show, without much result.

No rag, no scrap, of all the beau, or wit, That once so fluttered, and that once so writ. Pope.

4. To be in agitation; to move irregularly; to flucttuate; to be uncertainty.

Long we fluttered on the wings of doubtful success. Howell.
His thoughts are very fluttering and wandering. I. Watts.

Fluvialist (Page: 576)

Flu"vi*al*ist, n. One who exlpains geological phenomena by the action of streams. [R.]


Fluxionist (Page: 576)

Flux"ion*ist, n. One skilled in fluxions. Berkeley.


Fohist (Page: 578)

Fo"hist (?), n. A Buddhist priest. See Fo.


Foist (Page: 578)

Foist (foist), n. [OF. fuste stick, boat, fr. L. fustis cudgel. Cf. 1st Fust.] A light and fast-sailing ship. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


Foist (Page: 578)

Foist, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Foisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Foisting.] [Cf. OD. vysten to fizzle, D. veesten, E. fizz, fitchet, bullfist.] To insert surreptitiously, wrongfully, or without warrant; to interpolate; to pass off (something spurious or counterfeit) as genuine, true, or worthy; -- usually followed by in.

Lest negligence or partiality might admit or fois? in abuses corruption. R. Carew.
When a scripture has been corrupted . . . by a supposititious foisting of some words in. South.

Foist (Page: 578)

Foist, n.

1. A foister; a sharper. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

2. A trick or fraud; a swindle. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


Fore-topmast (Page: 585)

Fore`-top"mast (?), n. (Naut.) The mast erected at the head of the foremast, and at the head of which stands the fore-topgallant mast. See Ship.


Forecast (Page: 583)

Fore*cast" (?), v. t.

1. To plan beforehand; to scheme; to project.

He shall forecast his devices against the strongholds. Dan. xi. 24.

2. To foresee; to calculate beforehand, so as to provide for.

It is wisdom to consider the end of things before we embark, and to forecast consequences. L'Estrange.

Forecast (Page: 583)

Fore*cast", v. i. To contrive or plan beforehand.

If it happen as I did forecast. Milton.

Forecast (Page: 583)

Fore"cast (?), n. Previous contrivance or determination; predetermination.

He makes this difference to arise from the forecast and predetermination of the gods themselves. Addison.

2. Foresight of consequences, and provision against them; prevision; premeditation.

His calm, deliberate forecast better fitted him for the council than the camp. Prescott.

Foremast (Page: 584)

Fore"mast` (?), n. (Naut.) The mast nearest the bow. Foremast hand ∨ man (Naut.), a common sailor; also, a man stationed to attend to the gear of the foremast.


Foremost (Page: 584)

Fore"most` (?), a. [OE. formest first, AS. formest, fyrmest, superl. of forma first, which is a superl. fr. fore fore; cf. Goth. frumist, fruma, first. See Fore, adv., and cf. First, Former, Frame, v. t., Prime, a.] First in time or place; most advanced; chief in rank or dignity; as, the foremost troops of an army.

THat struck the foremost man of all this world. Shak.

Forenenst (Page: 584)

Fore*nenst" (?), prep. [See Fore, and Anent.] Over against; opposite to. [Now dialectic]

The land forenenst the Greekish shore. Fairfax.

Forepast (Page: 584)

Fore"past` (?), a. Bygone. [Obs.] Shak.


Forest (Page: 584)

For"est (?), n. [OF. forest, F. for\'88t, LL. forestis, also, forestus, forestum, foresta, prop., open ground reserved for the chase, fr. L. foris, foras, out of doors, abroad. See Foreign.]

1. An extensive wood; a large tract of land covered with trees; in the United States, a wood of native growth, or a tract of woodland which has never been cultivated.

2. (Eng. Law) A large extent or precinct of country, generally waste and woody, belonging to the sovereign, set apart for the keeping of game for his use, not inclosed, but distinguished by certain limits, and protected by certain laws, courts, and officers of its own. Burrill.


Forest (Page: 584)

For"est, a. Of or pertaining to a forest; sylvan. Forest fly. (Zoöl.) (a) One of numerous species of blood-sucking flies, of the family Tabanidæ, which attack both men and beasts. See Horse fly. (b) A fly of the genus Hippobosca, esp. H. equina. See Horse tick. -- Forest glade, a grassy space in a forest. Thomson. -- Forest laws, laws for the protection of game, preservation of timber, etc., in forests. -- Forest tree, a tree of the forest, especially a timber tree, as distinguished from a fruit tree.


Forest (Page: 584)

For"est, v. t. To cover with trees or wood.


Formalist (Page: 587)

Form"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. formaliste.] One overattentive to forms, or too much confined to them; esp., one who rests in external religious forms, or observes strictly the outward forms of worship, without possessing the life and spirit of religion.

As far a formalist from wisdom sits, In judging eyes, as libertines from wits. Young.

Forncast (Page: 587)

Forn*cast" (?), p. p. [OE. foren + cast. See Forecast.] Predestined. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Fossilist (Page: 589)

Fos"sil*ist, n. One who is versed in the science of fossils; a paleontologist. Joseph Black.


Fragmentist (Page: 592)

Frag"ment*ist, n. A writer of fragments; as, the fragmentist of Wolfenb\'81ttel. [R.]


Frist (Page: 597)

Frist (?), v. t. [OE. fristen, firsten, to lend, give respite, postpone, AS. firstan to give respite to; akin to first time, G. frist, Icel. frest delay.] To sell upon credit, as goods. [R.] Crabb.


Frost (Page: 599)

Frost (?), n. [OE. frost, forst, AS. forst, frost. fr. freósan to freeze; akin to D. varst, G., OHG., Icel., Dan., & Sw. frost. √18. See Freeze, v. i.]

1. The act of freezing; -- applied chiefly to the congelation of water; congelation of fluids.

2. The state or temperature of the air which occasions congelation, or the freezing of water; severe cold or freezing weather.

The third bay comes a frost, a killing frost. Shak.

3. Frozen dew; -- called also hoarfrost or white frost.

He scattereth the frost like ashes. Ps. cxlvii. 16.

4. Coldness or insensibility; severity or rigidity of character. [R.]

It was of those moments of intense feeling when the frost of the Scottish people melts like a snow wreath. Sir W. Scott.
Black frost, cold so intense as to freeze vegetation and cause it to turn black, without the formation of hoarfrost. -- Frost bearer (Physics), a philosophical instrument illustrating the freezing of water in a vacuum; a cryophous. -- Frost grape (Bot.), an American grape, with very small, acid berries. -- Frost lamp, a lamp placed below the oil tube of an Argand lamp to keep the oil limpid on cold nights; -- used especially in lighthouses. Knight. -- Frost nail, a nail with a sharp head driven into a horse's shoe to keen him from slipping. -- Frost smoke, an appearance resembling smoke, caused by congelation of vapor in the atmosphere in time of severe cold.
The brig and the ice round her are covered by a strange black obscurity: it is the frost smoke of arctic winters. Kane.
-- Frost valve, a valve to drain the portion of a pipe, hydrant, pump, etc., where water would be liable to freeze. -- Jack Frost, a popular personification of frost.
Frost (Page: 599)

Frost (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Frostted; p. pr. & vb. n. Frosting.]

1. To injure by frost; to freeze, as plants.

2. To cover with hoarfrost; to produce a surface resembling frost upon, as upon cake, metals, or glass.

While with a hoary light she frosts the ground. Wordsworth.

3. To roughen or sharpen, as the nail heads or calks of horseshoes, so as to fit them for frosty weather.


Fuguist (Page: 601)

Fu"guist (?), n. (Mus.) A musician who composes or performs fugues. Busby.


Fumifugist (Page: 602)

Fu*mif"u*gist (?), n. [L. fumus smoke + fugare to put to flight, fugere to flee.] One who, or that which, drives away smoke or fumes.


Funambulist (Page: 603)

Fu*nam"bu*list (?), n. A ropewalker or ropedancer.


Funest (Page: 603)

Fu*nest" (?), a. [L. funestus, fr. funus a funeral, destruction: cf. F. funeste.] Lamentable; doleful. [R.] Funest and direful deaths." Coleridge.

A forerunner of something very funest. Evelyn.

Fungologist (Page: 603)

Fun*gol"o*gist (?), n. A mycologist.


Furthermost (Page: 605)

Fur"ther*most" (?), a. Most remote; furthest.


Furthest (Page: 605)

Fur"thest (?), a. superl. Most remote; most in advance; farthest. See Further, a.


Furthest (Page: 605)

Fur"thest, adv. At the greatest distance; farthest.


Fust (Page: 605)

Fust, n. [OF. fust cask, F. ft cask, taste or smell of the caak, fustiness, cf. sentir le ft to taste of the cask. See 1st Fust.] A strong, musty smell; mustiness.


Fust (Page: 605)

Fust, v. i. To become moldy; to smell ill. [Obs.]


Fustianist (Page: 605)

Fus"tian*ist, n. A writer of fustian. [R.] Milton.


Futurist (Page: 606)

Fu"tur*ist, n.

1. One whose chief interests are in what is to come; one who anxiously, eagerly, or confidently looks forward to the future; an expectant.

2. (Theol.) One who believes or maintains that the fulfillment of the prophecies of the Bible is to be in the future.


Galactophagist (Page: 608)

Gal`ac*toph"a*gist (?), n. [Gr. , , milk + to eat: cf. to live on milk.] One who eats, or subsists on, milk.


Galenist (Page: 608)

Ga*len*ist, n. A follower of Galen.


Galvanist (Page: 610)

Gal"va*nist (?), n. One versed in galvanism.


Galvanologist (Page: 610)

Gal`va*nol"o*gist (?), n. One who describes the phenomena of galvanism; a writer on galvanism.


Gambist (Page: 610)

Gam"bist (?), n. [It. gamba leg.] (Mus.) A performer upon the viola di gamba. See under Viola.


Gast (Page: 614)

Gast (?), v. t. [OE. gasten, gsten to frighten, akin to Goth. usgaisjan. See Aghast, Ghastly, and cf. Gaze.] To make aghast; to frighten; to terrify. See Aghast. [Obs.] Chaucer. Shak.


Gastriloquist (Page: 614)

Gas*tril"o*quist (?), n. [Gr. gasth`r, gastro`s, stomach + L. loqui to speak.] One who appears to speak from his stomach; a ventriloquist.


Gastronomist (Page: 614)

Gas*tron"o*mist (?), n. A gastromomer.


Gatepost (Page: 615)

Gate"post` (?), n.

1. A post to which a gate is hung; -- called also swinging ∨ hinging post.

2. A post against which a gate closes; -- called also shutting post.


Geest (Page: 617)

Geest (?), n. [Cf. LG. geest, geestland, sandy, dry and, OFries. g&emac;st, g&amac;st, g&emac;stlond, g&amac;stlond, fr. Fries. g&amac;st barren. Cf. Geason.] Alluvial matter on the surface of land, not of recent origin. R. Jameson.


Gemarist (Page: 617)

Ge*ma"rist (?), n. One versed in the Gemara, or adhering to its teachings.


Genealogist (Page: 618)

Gen`e*al"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. généalogiste.] One who traces genealogies or the descent of persons or families.


Geodesist (Page: 621)

Ge*od"e*sist (?), n. One versed in geodesy.


Geognost (Page: 621)

Ge"og*nost (?), n. [Cf. F. géognoste.] One versed in geognosy; a geologist. [R.]


Geologist (Page: 621)

Ge*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. Géologiste.] One versed in the science of geology.


Geophagist (Page: 622)

Ge*oph"a*gist (?), n. One who eats earth, as dirt, clay, chalk, etc.


Gest (Page: 623)

Gest (?), n. A guest. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Gest (Page: 623)

Gest (?), n. [OF. geste exploit. See Jest.]

1. Something done or achieved; a deed or an action; an adventure. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. An action represented in sports, plays, or on the stage; show; ceremony. [Obs.] Mede.

3. A tale of achievements or adventures; a stock story. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.

4. Gesture; bearing; deportment. [Archaic]

Through his heroic grace and honorable gest. Spenser.

Gest (Page: 623)

Gest (?), n. [Cf. Gist a resting place.]

1. A stage in traveling; a stop for rest or lodging in a journey or progress; a rest. [Obs.] Kersey.

2. A roll recting the several stages arranged for a royal progress. Many of them are extant in the herald's office. [Obs.] Hanmer.


Ghast (Page: 624)

Ghast (?), v. t. [OE. gasten. See Ghastly, a.] To strike aghast; to affright. [Obs.]

Ghasted by the noise I made. Full suddenly he fled. Shak.

Ghost (Page: 624)

Ghost (?), n. [OE. gast, gost, soul, spirit, AS. gāst breath, spirit, soul; akin to OS. gst spirit, soul, D. geest, G. geist, and prob. to E. gaze, ghastly.]

1. The spirit; the soul of man. [Obs.]

Then gives her grieved ghost thus to lament. Spenser.

2. The disembodied soul; the soul or spirit of a deceased person; a spirit appearing after death; an apparition; a specter.

The mighty ghosts of our great Harrys rose. Shak.
I thought that I had died in sleep, And was a blessed ghost. Coleridge.

3. Any faint shadowy semblance; an unsubstantial image; a phantom; a glimmering; as, not a ghost of a chance; the ghost of an idea.

Each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor. Poe.

4. A false image formed in a telescope by reflection from the surfaces of one or more lenses. Ghost moth (Zoöl.), a large European moth (Hepialus humuli); so called from the white color of the male, and the peculiar hovering flight; -- called also great swift. -- Holy Ghost, the Holy Spirit; the Paraclete; the Comforter; (Theol.) the third person in the Trinity. -- To give up ∨ yield up the ghost, to die; to expire.

And he gave up the ghost full softly. Chaucer.
Jacob . . . yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people. Gen. xlix. 33.

Ghost (Page: 624)

Ghost, v. i. To die; to expire. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.


Ghost (Page: 624)

Ghost, v. t. To appear to or haunt in the form of an apparition. [Obs.] Shak.


Girondist (Page: 626)

Gi*ron"dist (?), n. [F. Girondiste.] A member of the moderate republican party formed in the French legislative assembly in 1791. The Girondists were so called because their leaders were deputies from the department of La Gironde.


Girondist (Page: 626)

Gi*ron"dist, a. Of or pertaining to the Girondists. [Written also Girondin.]


Gist (Page: 627)

Gist (?), n. [OF. giste abode, lodgings, F. g\'8cte, fr. gésir to lie, L. jacre, prop., to be thrown, hence, to lie, fr. jacre to throw. In the second sense fr. OF. gist, F. g\'8ct, 3d pers. sing. ind. of gésir to lie, used in a proverb, F., c'est là que g\'8ct le li\'8avre, it is there that the hare lies, i. e., that is the point, the difficulty. See Jet a shooting forth, and cf. Agist, Joist, n., Gest a stage in traveling.]

1. A resting place. [Obs.]

These quails have their set gists; to wit, ordinary resting and baiting places. Holland.

2. The main point, as of a question; the point on which an action rests; the pith of a matter; as, the gist of a question.


Glacialist (Page: 627)

Gla"cial*ist, n. One who attributes the phenomena of the drift, in geology, to glaciers.


Glassologist (Page: 632)

Glas*sol"o*gist (?), n. One who defines and explains terms; one who is versed in glossology.


Glist (Page: 630)

Glist (?), n. [From Glisten.] Glimmer; mica.


Glossarist (Page: 632)

Glos"sa*rist (?), n. A writer of glosses or of a glossary; a commentator; a scholiast. Tyrwhitt.


Glossist (Page: 632)

Gloss"ist, n. A writer of comments. [Obs.] Milton.


Glottologist (Page: 632)

Glot*tol"o*gist (?), n. A linguist; a philologist.


Gnomonist (Page: 634)

Gno"mon*ist (?), n. One skilled in gnomonics. Boyle.


Goldcrest (Page: 637)

Gold"crest` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The European golden-crested kinglet (Regulus cristatus, or R. regulus); -- called also golden-crested wren, and golden wren. The name is also sometimes applied to the American golden-crested kinglet. See Kinglet.


Goost (Page: 639)

Goost (?), n. Ghost; spirit. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Gothamist (Page: 640)

Go"tham*ist (?), n. A wiseacre; a person deficient in wisdom; -- so called from Gotham, in Nottinghamshire, England, noted for some pleasant blunders. Bp. Morton.


Grammatist (Page: 644)

Gram"ma*tist (?), n. [L. grammatista schoolmaster, Gr. , from to teach the letters, to be a scribe: cf. F. grammatiste. See Grammatical.] A petty grammarian. [R] Tooke.


Grist (Page: 651)

Grist (?), n. [AS. grist, fr. grindan. See Grind.]

1. Ground corn; that which is ground at one time; as much grain as is carried to the mill at one time, or the meal it produces.

Get grist to the mill to have plenty in store. Tusser. Q.

2. Supply; provision. Swift.

3. In rope making, a given size of rope, common grist being a rope three inches in circumference, with twenty yarns in each of the three strands. Knight. All is grist that comes to his mill, all that he has anything to do with is a source of profit. [Colloq.] -- To bring grist to the maill, to bring profitable business into one's hands; to be a source of profit. [Colloq.] Ayliffe.


Guest (Page: 656)

Guest (?), n. [OE. gest, AS. gæst, gest; akin to OS., D., & G. gust, Icel gestr, Sw. gäst, Dan. Gjäst, Goth. gast, Russ. goste, and to L. hostis enemy, stranger; the meaning stranger is the older one, but the root is unknown. Cf. Host an army, Hostile.]

1. A visitor; a person received and entertained in one's house or at one's table; a visitor entertained without pay.

To cheer his gueste, whom he had stayed that night. Spenser.
True friendship's laws are by this rule exprest. Welcome the coming, speed the parting guest. Pope.

Guest (Page: 656)

Guest (?), v. t. To receive or entertain hospitably. [Obs.] Sylvester.


Guest (Page: 656)

Guest, v. i. To be, or act the part of, a guest. [Obs.]

And tell me, best of princes, who he was That guested here so late. Chapman.

Guidepost (Page: 656)

Guide"post` (?), n. A post at the fork of a road, with a guideboard on it, to direct travelers.


Guist (Page: 627)

Guist (?), n. [Obs.] Same as Joust. Spenser.


Gulist (Page: 657)

Gu"list (?), n. [L. gulo.] A glutton. [Obs.]


Gust (Page: 659)

Gust (?), n. [Icel. gustr a cool breeze. Cf. Gush.]

1. A sudden squall; a violent blast of wind; a sudden and brief rushing or driving of the wind. Snow, and hail, stormy gust and flaw. Milton.

2. A sudden violent burst of passion. Bacon.


Gust (Page: 659)

Gust, n. [L. gustus; cf. It. & Sp. gusto. &root;46.]

1. The sense or pleasure of tasting; relish; gusto.

An ox will relish the tender flesh of kids with as much gust and appetite. Jer. Taylor.

2. Gratification of any kind, particularly that which is exquisitely relished; enjoyment.

Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust. Pope.

3. Intellectual taste; fancy.

A choice of it may be made according to the gust and manner of the ancients. Dryden.

Gust (Page: 659)

Gust, v. t. [Cf. L. gustare, It. gustare, Sp. gustar. See GUST a relish.] To taste; to have a relish for. [Obs.]


Gymnast (Page: 660)

Gym"nast (), n. [Gr. a trainer of athletes: cf. F. gymnaste. See Gymnasium.] One who teaches or practices gymnastic exercises; the manager of a gymnasium; an athlete.


Gymnoplast (Page: 660)

Gym"no*plast (?), n. [Gr. gymno`s naked + pla`ssein to shape, mold.] (Biol.) A cell or mass of protoplasm devoid of an envelope, as a white blood corpuscle.


Gymnosophist (Page: 660)

Gym*nos"o*phist (?), n. [Gr. ; gymno`s naked + philosopher; cf. F. gymnosophisle.] One of a sect of philosophers, said to have been found in India by Alexander the Great, who went almost naked, denied themselves the use of flesh, renounced bodily pleasures, and employed themselves in the contemplation of nature.


Gypsoplast (Page: 660)

Gyp"so*plast (?), n. [Gypsum + Gr. to mold.] A cast taken in plaster of Paris, or in white lime.


Hæmatoblast (Page: 663)

Hæm"a*to*blast (?), n. [Hæmato- + -blast.] (Anat.) One of the very minute, disk-shaped bodies found in blood with the ordinary red corpuscles and white corpuscles; a third kind of blood corpuscle, supposed by some to be an early stage in the development of the red corpuscles; -- called also blood plaque, and blood plate.<-- = hemocytoblast, hematocytoblast. Precursor of erythroblasts, lymphoblasts, and myeloblasts, found mostly in bone marrow. Hayem's hematoblast = a platelet -->


Hæmatoplast (Page: 663)

Hæm"a*to*plast` (?), n. [Hæmato- + Gr. to mold.] (Anat.) Same as Hæmatoblast.


Hagiologist (Page: 663)

Ha`gi*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who treats of the sacred writings; a writer of the lives of the saints; a hagiographer. Tylor.

Hagiologists have related it without scruple. Southey.

Half-mast (Page: 665)

Half"-mast` (?), n. A point some distance below the top of a mast or staff; as, a flag a half-mast (a token of mourning, etc.).


Handfast (Page: 668)

Hand"fast` (?), n.

1. Hold; grasp; custody; power of confining or keeping. [Obs.] Shak.

2. Contract; specifically, espousal. [Obs.]


Handfast (Page: 668)

Hand"fast`, a. Fast by contract; betrothed by joining hands. [Obs.] Bale.


Handfast (Page: 668)

Hand"fast`, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Handfasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Handfasting.] To pledge; to bind; to betroth by joining hands, in order to cohabitation, before the celebration of marriage. [Obs.]<-- ##?? to allow cohabitation? -->


Handfast (Page: 668)

Hand"fast`, n. [G. handfest; hand hand + fest strong. See Fast.] Strong; steadfast.[R.] Carlyle.


Hangnest (Page: 669)

Hang"nest` (?), n.

1. A nest that hangs like a bag or pocket.

2. A bird which builds such a nest; a hangbird.


Harmonist (Page: 671)

Har"mo*nist (?), n. [Cf. F. harmoniste.]

1. One who shows the agreement or harmony of corresponding passages of different authors, as of the four evangelists.

2. (Mus.) One who understands the principles of harmony or is skillful in applying them in composition; a musical composer.


Harmost (Page: 672)

Har"most (?), n. [Gr. , fr. to join, arrange, command: cf. F. harmoste. See Harmony.] (Gr. Antiq.) A governor or prefect appointed by the Spartans in the cities subjugated by them.


Harpist (Page: 672)

Harp"ist, n. [Gf. F. harpiste.] A player on the harp; a harper. W. Browne.


Hartbeest (Page: 672)

Hart"beest` (?), n. [D. hertebeest. See Hart, and Beast.] (Zoöl.) A large South African antelope (Alcelaphus caama), formerly much more abundant than it is now. The face and legs are marked with black, the rump with white. [Written also hartebeest, and hartebest.]


Harvest (Page: 673)

Har"vest (?), n. [OE. harvest, hervest, AS. hærfest autumn; akin to LG. harfst, D. herfst, OHG. herbist, G. herbst, and prob. to L. carpere to pluck, Gr. fruit. Cf. Carpet.]

1. The gathering of a crop of any kind; the ingathering of the crops; also, the season of gathering grain and fruits, late summer or early autumn.

Seedtime and harvest . . . shall not cease. Gen viii. 22.
At harvest, when corn is ripe. Tyndale.

2. That which is reaped or ready to be reaped or gathed; a crop, as of grain (wheat, maize, etc.), or fruit.

Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe. Joel iii. 13.
To glean the broken ears after the man That the main harvest reaps. Shak.

3. The product or result of any exertion or labor; gain; reward.

The pope's principal harvest was in the jubilee. Fuller.
The harvest of a quiet eye. Wordsworth.
Harvest fish (Zoöl.), a marine fish of the Southern United States (Stromateus alepidotus); -- called whiting in Virginia. Also applied to the dollar fish. -- Harvest fly (Zoöl.), an hemipterous insect of the genus Cicada, often called locust. See Cicada. -- Harvest lord, the head reaper at a harvest. [Obs.] Tusser. -- Harvest mite (Zoöl.), a minute European mite (Leptus autumnalis), of a bright crimson color, which is troublesome by penetrating the skin of man and domestic animals; -- called also harvest louse, and harvest bug. -- Harvest moon, the moon near the full at the time of harvest in England, or about the autumnal equinox, when, by reason of the small angle that is made by the moon's orbit with the horizon, it rises nearly at the same hour for several days. -- Harvest mouse (Zoöl.), a very small European field mouse (Mus minutus). It builds a globular nest on the stems of wheat and other plants. -- Harvest queen, an image pepresenting Ceres, formerly carried about on the last day of harvest. Milton. -- Harvest spider. (Zoöl.) See Daddy longlegs.
Harvest (Page: 673)

Har"vest, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Harvested; p. pr. & vb. n. Harvesting.] To reap or gather, as any crop.


Hast (Page: 673)

Hast (?), 2d pers. sing. pres. of. Fave, contr. of havest. [Archaic]


Hautboyist (Page: 674)

Haut"boy*ist (-&icr;st), n. [Cf. F. hautbo\'8bste.] A player on the hautboy.


Headfirst, Headforemost (Page: 677)

Head`first" (?), Head`fore"most` (?), adv. With the head foremost.


Headmost (Page: 677)

Head"most` (?), a. Most advanced; most forward; as, the headmost ship in a fleet.


Hebraist (Page: 680)

He"bra*ist, n. [Cf. F. hébra\'8bste.] One versed in the Hebrew language and learning.


Heelpost (Page: 681)

Heel"post` (?), n.

1. (Naut.) The post supporting the outer end of a propeller shaft.

2. (Carp.) The post to which a gate or door is hinged.

3. (Engineering) The quoin post of a lock gate.


Hellenist (Page: 683)

Hel"len*ist (?), n. [Gr. : cf. F. Helléniste.]

1. One who affiliates with Greeks, or imitates Greek manners; esp., a person of Jewish extraction who used the Greek language as his mother tongue, as did the Jews of Asia Minor, Greece, Syria, and Egypt; distinguished from the Hebraists, or native Jews (Acts vi. 1).

2. One skilled in the Greek language and literature; as, the critical Hellenist.


Helminthologist (Page: 683)

Hel`min*thol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. helminthologiste.] One versed in helminthology.


Henroost (Page: 686)

Hen"roost` (?), n. A place where hens roost.


Heptarchist (Page: 686)

Hep"tarch*ist (?), n. A ruler of one division of a heptarchy. [Written also heptarch.]


Herbalist (Page: 687)

Herb"al*ist, n. One skilled in the knowledge of plants; a collector of, or dealer in, herbs, especially medicinal herbs.


Herbarist (Page: 687)

Herb"a*rist (?), n. A herbalist. [Obs.]


Herbist (Page: 687)

Herb"ist (?), n. A herbalist.


Herborist (Page: 687)

Her"bo*rist (?), n. [F. herboriste.] A herbalist. Ray.


Heroölogist (Page: 689)

He`ro*öl"o*gist (?), n. [Gr. + discourse.] One who treats of heroes. [R.] T. Warton.


Herpetologist (Page: 689)

Her`pe*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in herpetology, or the natural history of reptiles.


Herpetotomist (Page: 689)

Her`pe*tot"o*mist (?), n. One who dissects, or studies the anatomy of, reptiles.


Hest (Page: 689)

Hest (?), n. [AS. hs, fr. htan to call, bid. See Hight, and cf. Behest.] Command; precept; injunction. [Archaic] See Behest. At thy hest." Shak.

Let him that yields obey the victor's hest. Fairfax.
Yet I thy hest will all perform, at full. Tennyson.

Hesychast (Page: 689)

Hes"y*chast (?), n. [Gr. hermit, fr. to be still or quiet, fr. still, calm.] One of a mystical sect of the Greek Church in the fourteenth century; a quietist. Brande & C.


Heterocyst (Page: 690)

Het"er*o*cyst (?), n. [Hetero- + cyst.] (Bot.) A cell larger than the others, and of different appearance, occurring in certain algæ related to nostoc.


Heterogenist (Page: 690)

Het`er*og"e*nist (?), n. (Biol.) One who believes in the theory of spontaneous generation, or heterogenesis. Bastian.


Heterophemist (Page: 690)

Het`er*oph"e*mist (?), n. One liable to the fault of heterophemy.


Hexametrist (Page: 691)

Hex*am"e*trist (?), n. One who writes in hexameters. The Christian hexametrists." Milman.


Hieroglyphist (Page: 692)

Hi`er*og"ly*phist (?; 277), n. One versed in hieroglyphics. Gliddon.


Hierogrammatist (Page: 692)

Hi`er*o*gram"ma*tist (?), n. [Cf. F. hiérogrammatiste.] A writer of hierograms; also, one skilled in hieroglyphics. Greenhill.


Hierologist (Page: 692)

Hi`er*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in, or whostudies, hierology.


High priest (Page: 693)

High" priest` (?). (Eccl.) A chief priest; esp., the head of the Jewish priesthood.


Highmost (Page: 693)

High"most` (?), a. Highest. [Obs.] Shak.


Hinderest (Page: 694)

Hind"er*est (?), a. Hindermost; -- superl. of Hind, a. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Hindermost, Hindmost (Page: 694)

Hind"er*most`, Hind"most` (?), a. [The superlative of hind. See Hind, a.] [Cf. AS. hindema (akin to Goth. hindumists), a superlative from the same source as the comparative hinder. See Hinder, a., and cf. Aftermost.] Furthest in or toward the rear; last. Rachel and Joseph hindermost." Gen. xxxiii. 2.


Hippophagist (Page: 695)

Hip*poph"a*gist (?), n. One who eats horseflesh.


Hist (Page: 695)

Hist (?), interj. [Cf. Dan. hys. . Cf. Hush, Whist.] Hush; be silent; -- a signal for silence. Milton.


Histologist (Page: 695)

His*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in histology.


Hithermost (Page: 696)

Hith"er*most` (?), a. Nearest on this side. Sir M. Hale.


Hoarfrost (Page: 696)

Hoar"frost` (?), n. The white particles formed by the congelation of dew; white frost. [Written also horefrost. See Hoar, a.]

He scattereth the hoarfrost like ashes. Ps. cxlvii. 16.

Hobbist (Page: 697)

Hob"bist (?), n. One who accepts the doctrines of Thomas Hobbes.


Hoist (Page: 698)

Hoist (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Hoisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Hoisting.] [OE. hoise, hyse, OD. hyssen, D. hijshen; akin to LG. hissen, Dan. hisse, Sw. hissa.] To raise; to lift; to elevate; esp., to raise or lift to a desired elevation, by means of tackle, as a sail, a flag, a heavy package or weight.

They land my goods, and hoist my flying sails. Pope.
Hoisting him into his father's throne. South.
Hoisting engine, a steam engine for operating a hoist.
Hoist (Page: 698)

Hoist, n.

1. That by which anything is hoisted; the apparatus for lifting goods.

2. The act of hoisting; a lift. [Collog.]

3. ()() The perpendicular height of a flag, as opposed to the fly, or horizontal length when flying from a staff. (b) The height of a fore-and-aft sail next the mast or stay. Totten. Hoist bridge, a drawbridge that is lifted instead of being swung or drawn aside.


Hoist (Page: 698)

Hoist, p. p. Hoisted. [Obs.]

'Tis the sport to have the enginer Hoist with his own petar. Shak.

Holdfast (Page: 698)

Hold"fast` (?), n.

1. Something used to secure and hold in place something else, as a long fiat-headed nail, a catch a hook, a clinch, a clamp, etc.; hence, a support. His holdfast was gone." Bp. Montagu.

2. (Bot.) A conical or branching body, by which a seaweed is attached to its support, and differing from a root in that it is not specially absorbent of moisture.


Holoblast (Page: 699)

Hol"o*blast (?), n. [Holo + -blast.] (Biol.) an ovum composed entirely of germinal matter. See Meroblast.


Holocaust (Page: 699)

Hol"o*caust (?), n. [L. holocaustum, Gr. , neut. of , , burnt whole; "o'los whole + kaysto`s burnt, fr. kai`ein to burn (cf. Caustic): cf. F. holocauste.]

1. A burnt sacrifice; an offering, the whole of which was consumed by fire, among the Jews and some pagan nations. Milton.

2. Sacrifice or loss of many lives, as by the burning of a theater or a ship. [An extended use not authorized by careful writers.]


Homeopathist (Page: 701)

Ho`me*op"a*thist (?), n. A believer in, or practitioner of, homeopathy. [Written also homœpathist.]


Homilist (Page: 701)

Hom"i*list (?), n. One who prepares homilies; one who preaches to a congregation.


Homoplast (Page: 702)

Hom"o*plast (?), n. (Biol.) One of the plastids composing the idorgan of Haeckel; -- also called homoörgan.


Honest (Page: 702)

Hon"est (?), a. [OE. honest, onest, OF. honeste, oneste, F. honn\'88te, L. honestus, fr. honos, honor, honor. See Honor.]

1. Decent; honorable; suitable; becoming. Chaucer.

Belong what honest clothes you send forth to bleaching! Shak.

2. Characterized by integrity or fairness and straightforwardness in conduct, thought, speech, etc.; upright; just; equitable; trustworthy; truthful; sincere; free from fraud, guile, or duplicity; not false; -- said of persons and acts, and of things to which a moral quality is imputed; as, an honest judge or merchant; an honest statement; an honest bargain; an honest business; an honest book; an honest confession.

An honest man's the noblest work of God. Pope.
An honest physician leaves his patient when he can contribute no farther to his health. Sir W. Temple.
Look ye out among you seven men of honest report. Acts vi. 3.
Provide things honest in the sight of all men. Rom. xii. 17.

3. Open; frank; as, an honest countenance.

4. Chaste; faithfuk; virtuous.

Wives may be merry, and yet honest too. Shak.
Syn. -- Upright; ingenuous; honorable; trusty; faithful; equitable; fair; just; rightful; sincere; frank; candid; genuine.
Honest (Page: 702)

Hon"est, v. t. [L. honestare to clothe or adorn with honor: cf. F. honester. See Honest, a.] To adorn; to grace; to honor; to make becoming, appropriate, or honorable. [Obs.] Abp. Sandys.


Horologist (Page: 706)

Ho*rol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in horology.


Horoscoper, Horoscopist (Page: 706)

Hor"o*sco`per (?), Ho*ros"co*pist (?), n. One versed in horoscopy; an astrologer.


Horticulturist (Page: 708)

Hor`ti*cul"tur*ist (?), n. One who practices horticulture.


Host (Page: 708)

Host (?), n. [LL. hostia sacrifice, victim, from hostire to strike.] (R. C. Ch.) The consecrated wafer, believed to be the body of Christ, which in the Mass is offered as a sacrifice; also, the bread before consecration. &hand; In the Latin Vulgate the word was applied to the Savior as being an offering for the sins of men.


Host (Page: 708)

Host, n. [OE. host, ost, OF. host, ost, fr. L. hostis enemy, LL., army. See Guest, and cf. Host a landlord.]

1. An army; a number of men gathered for war.

A host so great as covered all the field. Dryden.

2. Any great number or multitude; a throng.

And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God. Luke ii. 13.
All at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils. Wordsworth.

Host (Page: 708)

Host, n. [OE. host, ost, OF. hoste, oste, F. h\'93te, from L. hospes a stranger who is treated as a guest, he who treats another as his guest, a hostl prob. fr. hostis stranger, enemy (akin to E. guest a visitor) + potis able; akin to Skr. pati master, lord. See Host an army, Possible, and cf. Hospitable, Hotel.] One who receives or entertains another, whether gratuitosly or for compensation; one from whom another receives food, lodging, or entertainment; a landlord. Chaucer. Fair host and Earl." Tennyson.

Time is like a fashionable host, That slightly shakes his parting guest by the hand. Shak.

Host (Page: 708)

Host, v. t. To give entertainment to. [Obs.] Spenser.


Host (Page: 708)

Host, v. i. To lodge at an inn; to take up entertainment. [Obs.] Where you shall host." Shak.


Hot blast (Page: 708)

Hot" blast` (?). See under Blast.


Huloist (Page: 711)

Hu"lo*ist (?), n. See Hyloist.


Humanist (Page: 712)

Hu"man*ist, n. [Cf. F. humaniste.]

1. One of the scholars who in the field of literature proper represented the movement of the Renaissance, and early in the 16th century adopted the name Humanist as their distinctive title. Schaff-Herzog.

2. One who purposes the study of the humanities, or polite literature.

3. One versed in knowledge of human nature.


Humoralist (Page: 713)

Hu"mor*al*ist, n. One who favors the humoral pathology or believes in humoralism.


Humorist (Page: 713)

Hu"mor*ist, n. [Cf. F. humoriste.]

1. (Med.) One who attributes diseases of the state of the humors.

2. One who has some peculiarity or eccentricity of character, which he indulges in odd or whimsical ways.

He [Roger de Coverley] . . . was a great humorist in all parts of his life. Addison.

3. One who displays humor in speaking or writing; one who has a facetious fancy or genius; a wag; a droll.

The reputation of wits and humorists. Addison.

Hurst (Page: 714)

Hurst (?), n. [OE. hurst, AS. hyrst; akin to OHG. hurst, horst, wood, thicket, G. horst the nest of a bird of prey, an eyerie, thicket.] A wood or grove; -- a word used in the composition of many names, as in Hazlehurst.


Hybridist (Page: 715)

Hy"brid*ist, n. One who hybridizes.


Hydrologist (Page: 717)

Hy*drol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in hydrology.


Hydropathist (Page: 717)

Hy*drop"a*thist (?), n. One who practices hydropathy; a water-cure doctor.


Hygeist (Page: 718)

Hy"ge*ist (?), n. One skilled in hygiena; a hygienist.


Hygieist (Page: 718)

Hy"gie*ist (?), n. A hygienist.


Hygienist (Page: 718)

Hy"gi*en*ist, n. One versed in hygiene.


Hylicist (Page: 718)

Hy"li*cist (?), n. [Gr. adj., material, fr. wood, matter.] A philosopher who treats chiefly of matter; one who adopts or teaches hylism. [719]


Hyloist (Page: 719)

Hy"lo*ist, n. [Gr. wood, matter.] Same as Hylotheist.


Hylopathist (Page: 719)

Hy*lop"a*thist (?), n. One who believes in hylopathism.


Hylotheist (Page: 719)

Hy"lo*the*ist, n. One who believes in hylotheism.


Hylozoist (Page: 719)

Hy`lo*zo"ist, n. A believer in hylozoism. A. Tucker.


Hymnist (Page: 719)

Hym"nist (?), n. A writer of hymns.


Hymnologist (Page: 719)

Hym*nol"o*gist (?), n. A composer or compiler of hymns; one versed in hymnology. Busby.


Hypaspist (Page: 719)

Hy*pas"pist (?), n. [Gr. .] (Gr. Antiq.) A shield-bearer or armor-bearer. Mitford.


Hyperaspist (Page: 719)

Hy`per*as"pist (?), n. [Gr. , fr. to cover with a shield; over + shield.] One who holds a shield over another; hence, a defender. [Obs.] Chillingworth.


Hyperbolist (Page: 720)

Hy*per"bo*list (?), n. One who uses hyperboles.


Hypnocyst (Page: 720)

Hyp"no*cyst (?), n. [Gr. sleep + E. cyst.] (Biol.) A cyst in which some unicellular organisms temporarily inclose themselves, from which they emerge unchanged, after a period of drought or deficiency of food. In some instances, a process of spore formation seems to occur within such cysts.


Hypnologist (Page: 720)

Hyp*nol"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in hypnology.


Hypoblast (Page: 720)

Hy"po*blast (?), n. [Pref. hypo- + -blast.] (Biol.) The inner or lower layer of the blastoderm; -- called also endoderm, entoderm, and sometimes hypoderm. See Illust. of Blastoderm, Delamination, and Ectoderm.


Hypocaust (Page: 721)

Hyp"o*caust (?), n. [L. hypocaustum, Gr. ; under + to burn: cf. F. hypocauste.] (Anc. Arch.) A furnace, esp. one connected with a series of small chambers and flues of tiles or other masonry through which the heat of a fire was distributed to rooms above. This contrivance, first used in bath, was afterwards adopted in private houses.


Hypocist (Page: 721)

Hyp"o*cist (?), n. [Gr. a plant growing on the roots of the Cistus.] An astringent inspissated juice obtained from the fruit of a plant (Cytinus hypocistis), growing from the roots of the Cistus, a small European shrub.


Hypothetist (Page: 722)

Hy*poth"e*tist (?), n. One who proposes or supports an hypothesis. [R.]


Hyrst (Page: 722)

Hyrst (?), n. A wood. See Hurst.


Iatrochemist (Page: 723)

I*a`tro*chem"ist (?), n. [Gr. physician + E. chemist.] A physician who explained or treated diseases upon chemical principles; one who practiced iatrochemistry.


Ichthyologist (Page: 724)

Ich`thy*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. ichthyologiste.] One versed in, or who studies, ichthyology.


Ichthyophagist (Page: 724)

Ich`thy*oph"a*gist (?), n. [See Ichthyophagous.] One who eats, or subsists on, fish.


Ichthyotomist (Page: 724)

Ich`thy*ot"o*mist (?), n. One skilled in ichthyotomy.


Iconoclast (Page: 724)

I*con"o*clast (?), n. [Gr. image + to break: cf. F. iconoclaste.]

1. A breaker or destroyer of images or idols; a determined enemy of idol worship.

2. One who exposes or destroys impositions or shams; one who attacks cherished beliefs; a radical.


Iconodule, Iconodulist (Page: 724)

I*con"o*dule (?), I*con"o*du`list (?), n. [Gr. an image + a slave.] (Eccl. Hist.) One who serves images; -- opposed to an iconoclast. Schaff-Herzog Encyc.


Iconophilist (Page: 724)

I`co*noph"i*list (?), n. [Gr. an image + to love.] A student, or lover of the study, of iconography.


Idealist (Page: 725)

I*de"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. idéaliste.]

1. One who idealizes; one who forms picturesque fancies; one given to romantic expectations.

2. One who holds the doctrine of idealism.


Ideologist (Page: 725)

I`de*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who treats of ideas; one who theorizes or idealizes; one versed in the science of ideas, or who advocates the doctrines of ideology. <-- idealogue n. one who adheres to an ideology -->


Idioblast (Page: 725)

Id"i*o*blast (?), n. [Ideo- + -blast.] (Bot.) An individual cell, differing greatly from its neighbours in regard to size, structure, or contents.


Idolist (Page: 726)

I"dol*ist, n. A worshiper of idols. [Obs.] Milton.


Idoloclast (Page: 726)

I*dol"o*clast (?), n. [Gr. idol + to break.] A breaker of idols; an iconoclast.


Ignicolist (Page: 727)

Ig*nic"o*list (?), n. [L. ignis fire + colere to worship.] A worshiper of fire. [R.]


Ignorantist (Page: 727)

Ig"no*rant*ist, n. One opposed to the diffusion of knowledge; an obscuriantist.


Illusionist (Page: 729)

Il*lu"sion*ist, n. One given to illusion; a visionary dreamer.


Immanifest (Page: 731)

Im*man"i*fest (?), a. Not manifest. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


Immaterialist (Page: 731)

Im`ma*te"ri*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. immatérialiste.] (Philos.) One who believes in or professes, immaterialism.


Immersionist (Page: 732)

Im*mer"sion*ist, n. (Eccl.) One who holds the doctrine that immersion is essential to Christian baptism.


Immodest (Page: 732)

Im*mod"est (?), a. [F. immodeste, L. immodestus immoderate; pref. im- not + modestus modest. See Modest.]

1. Not limited to due bounds; immoderate.

2. Not modest; wanting in the reserve or restraint which decorum and decency require; indecent; indelicate; obscene; lewd; as, immodest persons, behavior, words, pictures, etc.

Immodest deeds you hinder to be wrought, But we proscribe the least immodest thought. Dryden.
Syn. -- Indecorous; indelicate; shameless; shameful; impudent; indecent; impure; unchaste; lewd; obscene.
Immortalist (Page: 732)

Im*mor"tal*ist, n. One who holds the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. [R.] Jer. Taylor.


Impartialist (Page: 733)

Im*par"tial*ist, n. One who is impartial. [R.] Boyle.


Imperialist (Page: 735)

Im*pe"ri*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. impérialiste.] One who serves an emperor; one who favors imperialism.


Impest (Page: 735)

Im*pest" (?), v. t. To affict with pestilence; to infect, as with plague. [Obs.]


Impost (Page: 737)

Im"post (?), n. [OF. impost, F. impot, LL. impostus, fr. L. impostus, p. p. of imponere to impose. See Impone.]

1. That which is imposed or levied; a tax, tribute, or duty; especially, a duty or tax laid by goverment on goods imported into a country.

Even the ship money . . . Johnson could not pronounce to have been an unconstitutional impost. Macaulay.

2. (Arch.) The top member of a pillar, pier, wall, etc., upon which the weight of an arch rests. &hand; The impost is called continuous, if the moldings of the arch or architrave run down the jamb or pier without a break. Syn. -- Tribute; excise; custom; duty; tax.


Impressionist (Page: 738)

Im*pres"sion*ist, n. [F. impressionniste.] (Fine Arts) One who adheres to the theory or method of impressionism, so called.


Imprest (Page: 738)

Im*prest" (), v. t. [ imp. & p. p. Imprested; p. pr. & vb. n. Impresting.] [Pref. im- + prest: cf. It. imprestare. See Prest, n.] To advance on loan. Burke.


Imprest (Page: 738)

Im"prest (?), n. [Cf. It. impresto, imprestito, LL. impraestitum. See Imprest, v. t., and Impress compulsion to serve.] A kind of earnest money; loan; -- specifically, money advanced for some public service, as in enlistment. Burke.

The clearing of their imprests for what little of their debts they have received. Pepys.

Inburst (Page: 742)

In"burst` (?), n. A bursting in or into.


Incest (Page: 743)

In"cest (?), n. [F. inceste, L. incestum unchastity, incest, fr. incestus unchaste; pref. in- not + castus chaste. See Chaste.] The crime of cohabitation or sexual commerce between persons related within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by law. Shak. Spiritual incest. (Eccl. Law) (a) The crime of cohabitation committed between persons who have a spiritual alliance by means of baptism or confirmation. (b) The act of a vicar, or other beneficiary, who holds two benefices, the one depending on the collation of the other.


Inchest (Page: 743)

In*chest" (?), v. t. To put into a chest.


Incorporealist (Page: 747)

In`cor*po"re*al*ist, n. One who believes in incorporealism. Cudworth.


Increst (Page: 748)

In*crest" (?), v. t. To adorn with a crest. [R.] Drummond.


Incrust (Page: 748)

In*crust" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Incrusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Incrusting.] [L. incrustare; pref. in- in + crustare to cover with a crust: cf. F. incruster. See Crust.] [Written also encrust.]

1. To cover or line with a crust, or hard coat; to form a crust on the surface of; as, iron incrusted with rust; a vessel incrusted with salt; a sweetmeat incrusted with sugar.

And by the frost refin'd the whiter snow, Incrusted hard. Thomson.

2. (Fine Arts) To inlay into, as a piece of carving or other ornamental object.


Incyst (Page: 749)

In*cyst" (?), v. t. See Encyst.


Indifferentist (Page: 752)

In*dif"fer*ent*ist, n. One governed by indifferentism.


Indigest (Page: 752)

In`di*gest" (?), a. [L. indigestus unarranged. See Indigested.] Crude; unformed; unorganized; undigested. [Obs.] A chaos rude and indigest." W. Browne. Monsters and things indigest." Shak.


Indigest (Page: 752)

In`di*gest", n. Something indigested. [Obs.] Shak.


Inexist (Page: 757)

In`ex*ist" (?), v. i. [Pref. in- in + exist.] To exist within; to dwell within. [Obs.]

Substances inexisting within the divine mind. A. Tucker.

Infallibilist (Page: 758)

In*fal"li*bil*ist (?), n. One who accepts or maintains the dogma of papal infallibility.


Infaust (Page: 758)

In*faust" (?), a. [L. infaustus; pref. in- not + faustus fortunate, lucky.] Not favorable; unlucky; unpropitious; sinister. [R.] Ld. Lytton.


Infest (Page: 759)

In*fest" (?), a. [L. infestus. See Infest, v. t.] Mischievous; hurtful; harassing. [Obs.] Spenser.


Infest (Page: 759)

In*fest", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Infested; p. pr. & vb. n. Infesting.] [L. infestare, fr. infestus disturbed, hostile, troublesome; in in, against + the root of defendere: cf. F. infester. See Defend.] To trouble greatly by numbers or by frequency of presence; to disturb; to annoy; to frequent and molest or harass; as, fleas infest dogs and cats; a sea infested with pirates.

To poison vermin that infest his plants. Cowper.
These, said the genius, are envy, avarice, superstition, love, with the like cares and passions that infest human life. Addison.
And the cares, that infest the day, Shall fold their tents, like the Arabs, And as silently steal away. Longfellow.

Inflationist (Page: 760)

In*fla"tion*ist, n. One who favors an increased or very large issue of paper money. [U.S.]


Ingest (Page: 762)

In*gest" (?), v. t. [L. ingenium, p. p. of ingerere to put in; pref. in- in + gerere to bear.] To take into, or as into, the stomach or alimentary canal. Sir T. Browne.


Inlist (Page: 765)

In*list" (?), v. t. See Enlist.


Inmost (Page: 765)

In"most` (?), a. [OE. innemest, AS. innemest, a double superlative form fr. inne within, fr. in in. The modern form is due to confusion with most. See In, and cf. Aftermost, Foremost, Innermost.] Deepest within; farthest from the surface or external part; innermost.

And pierce the inmost center of the earth. Shak.
The silent, slow, consuming fires, Which on my inmost vitals prey. Addison.

Innermost (Page: 766)

In"ner*most` (?), a. [A corruption of inmost due to influence of inner. See Inmost.] Farthest inward; most remote from the outward part; inmost; deepest within. Prov. xviii. 8.


Innovationist (Page: 766)

In`no*va"tion*ist, n. One who favors innovation.


Inquest (Page: 767)

In"quest (?), n. [OE. enqueste, OF. enqueste, F. enqu\'88te, LL. inquesta, for inquisita, fr. L. inquisitus, p.p. of inquirere. See Inquire.]

1. Inquiry; quest; search. [R.] Spenser.

The laborious and vexatious inquest that the soul must make after science. South.

2. (Law) (a) Judicial inquiry; official examination, esp. before a jury; as, a coroner's inquest in case of a sudden death. (b) A body of men assembled under authority of law to inquire into any matterm civil or criminal, particularly any case of violent or sudden death; a jury, particularly a coroner's jury. The grand jury is sometimes called the grand inquest. See under Grand. (c) The finding of the jury upon such inquiry. Coroner's inquest, an inquest held by a coroner to determine the cause of any violent, sudden, or mysterious death. See Coroner. -- Inquest of office, an inquiry made, by authority or direction of proper officer, into matters affecting the rights and interests of the crown or of the state. Craig. Bouvier.


Insist (Page: 770)

In*sist" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Insisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Insisting.] [F. insister, L. insistere to set foot upon, follow, persist; pref. in- in + sistere to stand, cause to stand. See Stand.]

1. To stand or rest; to find support; -- with in, on, or upon. [R.] Ray.

2. To take a stand and refuse to give way; to hold to something firmly or determinedly; to be persistent, urgent, or pressing; to persist in demanding; -- followed by on, upon, or that; as, he insisted on these conditions; he insisted on going at once; he insists that he must have money.

Insisting on the old prerogative. Shak.
Without further insisting on the different tempers of Juvenal and Horace. Dryden.
Syn. -- Insist, Persist. -- Insist implies some alleged right, as authority or claim. Persist may be from obstinacy alone, and either with or against rights. We insist as against others; we persist in what exclusively relates to ourselves; as, he persisted in that course; he insisted on his friend's adopting it. C. J. Smith.
Inspirationist (Page: 770)

In`spi*ra"tion*ist, n. One who holds to inspiration.


Institutist (Page: 772)

In"sti*tu`tist (?), n. A writer or compiler of, or a commentator on, institutes. [R.] Harvey.


Instrumentalist (Page: 772)

In`stru*men"tal*ist, n. One who plays upon an instrument of music, as distinguished from a vocalist.


Instrumentist (Page: 772)

In"stru*men`tist (?), n. A performer on a musical instrument; an instrumentalist.


Insurrectionist (Page: 773)

In`sur*rec"tion*ist, n. One who favors, or takes part in, insurrection; an insurgent.


Intellectualist (Page: 774)

In`tel*lec"tu*al*ist (?), n.

1. One who overrates the importance of the understanding. [R.] Bacon.

2. One who accepts the doctrine of intellectualism.


Interest (Page: 776)

In"ter*est (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Interested (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Interesting.] [From interess'd, p. p. of the older form interess, fr. F. intéresser, L. interesse. See Interest, n.]

1. To engage the attention of; to awaken interest in; to excite emotion or passion in, in behalf of a person or thing; as, the subject did not interest him; to interest one in charitable work.

To love our native country . . . to be interested in its concerns is natural to all men. Dryden.
A goddess who used to interest herself in marriages. Addison.

2. To be concerned with or engaged in; to affect; to concern; to excite; -- often used impersonally. [Obs.]

Or rather, gracious sir, Create me to this glory, since my cause Doth interest this fair quarrel. Ford.

3. To cause or permit to share. [Obs.]

The mystical communion of all faithful men is such as maketh every one to be interested in those precious blessings which any one of them receiveth at God's hands. Hooker.
Syn. -- To concern; excite; attract; entertain; engage; occupy; hold.
Interest (Page: 776)

In"ter*est, n. [OF. interest, F. intér\'88t, fr. L. interest it interests, is of interest, fr. interesse to be between, to be difference, to be importance; inter between + esse to be; cf. LL. interesse usury. See Essence.]

1. Excitement of feeling, whether pleasant or painful, accompanying special attention to some object; concern. &hand; Interest expresses mental excitement of various kinds and degrees. It may be intellectual, or sympathetic and emotional, or merely personal; as, an interest in philosophical research; an interest in human suffering; the interest which an avaricious man takes in money getting.

So much interest have I in thy sorrow. Shak.
[777]

2. Participation in advantage, profit, and responsibility; share; portion; part; as, an interest in a brewery; he has parted with his interest in the stocks.

3. Advantage, personal or general; good, regarded as a selfish benefit; profit; benefit.

Divisions hinder the common interest and public good. Sir W. Temple.
When interest calls of all her sneaking train. Pope.

4. Premium paid for the use of money, -- usually reckoned as a percentage; as, interest at five per cent per annum on ten thousand dollars.

They have told their money, and let out Their coin upon large interest. Shak.

5. Any excess of advantage over and above an exact equivalent for what is given or rendered.

You shall have your desires with interest. Shak.

6. The persons interested in any particular business or measure, taken collectively; as, the iron interest; the cotton interest. Compound interest, interest, not only on the original principal, but also on unpaid interest from the time it fell due. -- Simple interest, interest on the principal sum without interest on overdue interest.


Interjoist (Page: 777)

In"ter*joist` (?), n. (Carp.)

1. The space or interval between two joists. Gwilt.

2. A middle joist or crossbeam. De Colange.


Internationalist (Page: 779)

In`ter*na"tion*al*ist, n.

1. One who is versed in the principles of international law.

2. A member of the International; one who believes in, or advocates the doctrines of, the International.


Intertwist (Page: 780)

In`ter*twist" (?), v. t. To twist together one with another; to intertwine.


Inthirst (Page: 781)

In*thirst" (?), v. t. To make thirsty. [Obs.]


Introspectionist (Page: 783)

In`tro*spec"tion*ist, n. (Metaph.) One given to the introspective method of examining the phenomena of the soul.


Intrusionist (Page: 783)

In*tru"sion*ist, n. One who intrudes; especially, one who favors the appointment of a clergyman to a parish, by a patron, against the wishes of the parishioners.


Intrust (Page: 783)

In*trust" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Intrusted, p. pr. & vb. n. Intrusting.] To deliver (something) to another in trust; to deliver to (another) something in trust; to commit or surrender (something) to another with a certain confidence regarding his care, use, or disposal of it; as, to intrust a servant with one's money or intrust money or goods to a servant. Syn. -- To commit; consign; confide. See Commit.


Intuitionalist (Page: 783)

In`tu*i"tion*al*ist, n. One who holds the doctrine of intuitionalism.


Intuitionist (Page: 783)

In`tu*i"tion*ist, n. Same as Intuitionalist. Bain.


Intwist (Page: 784)

In*twist" (?), v. t. [Cf. Entwist.] To twist into or together; to interweave. [Written also entwist.]


Inust (Page: 784)

In*ust" (?), a. [L. inurere, inustum, to burn in; pref. in- in + urere to burn.] Burnt in. [Obs.]


Invest (Page: 785)

In*vest" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Invested; p. pr. & vb. n. Investing.] [L. investire, investitum; pref. in- in + vestire to clothe, fr. vestis clothing: cf. F. investir. See Vest.]

1. To put garments on; to clothe; to dress; to array; -- opposed to divest. Usually followed by with, sometimes by in; as, to invest one with a robe.

2. To put on. [Obs.]

Can not find one this girdle to invest. Spenser.

3. To clothe, as with office or authority; to place in possession of rank, dignity, or estate; to endow; to adorn; to grace; to bedeck; as, to invest with honor or glory; to invest with an estate.

I do invest you jointly with my power. Shak.

4. To surround, accompany, or attend.

Awe such as must always invest the spectacle of the guilt. Hawthorne.

5. To confer; to give. [R.]

It investeth a right of government. Bacon.

6. (Mil.) To inclose; to surround of hem in with troops, so as to intercept succors of men and provisions and prevent escape; to lay siege to; as, to invest a town.

7. To lay out (money or capital) in business with the iew of obtaining an income or profit; as, to invest money in bank stock.


Invest (Page: 785)

In*vest" (?), v. i. To make an investment; as, to invest in stocks; -- usually followed by in.


Ironist (Page: 788)

I"ron*ist (?), n. One who uses irony.


Irregularist (Page: 789)

Ir*reg"u*lar*ist, n. One who is irregular. Baxter.


Irreligionist (Page: 789)

Ir`re*li"gion*ist, n. One who is irreligious.


Itacist (Page: 793)

I"ta*cist (?), n. [Cf. F. itaciste.] One who is in favor of itacism.


Jansenist (Page: 797)

Jan"sen*ist, n. [F. Janséniste.] (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Cornelius Jansen, a Roman Catholic bishop of Ypres, in Flanders, in the 17th century, who taught certain doctrines denying free will and the possibility of resisting divine grace.


Jargonist (Page: 797)

Jar"gon*ist (?), n. One addicted to jargon; one who uses cant or slang. Macaulay.


Jehovist (Page: 798)

Je*ho"vist (?), n.

1. One who maintains that the vowel points of the word Jehovah, in Hebrew, are the proper vowels of that word; -- opposed to adonist.

2. The writer of the passages of the Old Testament, especially those of the Pentateuch, in which the Supreme Being is styled Jehovah. See Elohist.

The characteristic manner of the Jehovist differs from that of his predecessor [the Elohist]. He is fuller and freer in his descriptions; more reflective in his assignment of motives and causes; more artificial in mode of narration. S. Davidson.

Jest (Page: 799)

Jest (?), n. [OE. jeste, geste, deed, action, story, tale, OF. geste, LL. gesta, orig., exploits, neut. pl. from L. gestus, p. p. of gerere to bear, carry, accomplish, perform; perh. orig., to make to come, bring, and perh. akin to E. come. Cf. Gest a deed, Register, n.]

1. A deed; an action; a gest. [Obs.]

The jests or actions of princes. Sir T. Elyot.

2. A mask; a pageant; an interlude. [Obs.] Nares.

He promised us, in honor of our guest, To grace our banquet with some pompous jest. Kyd.

3. Something done or said in order to amuse; a joke; a witticism; a jocose or sportive remark or phrase. See Synonyms under Jest, v. i.

I must be sad . . . smile at no man's jests. Shak.
The Right Honorable gentleman is indebted to his memory for his jests, and to his imagination for his facts. Sheridan.

4. The object of laughter or sport; a laughingstock.

Then let me be your jest; I deserve it. Shak.
In jest, for mere sport or diversion; not in truth and reality; not in earnest.
And given in earnest what I begged in jest. Shak.
-- Jest book, a book containing a collection of jests, jokes, and amusing anecdotes; a Joe Miller.
Jest (Page: 799)

Jest, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jested; p. pr. & vb. n. Jesting.]

1. To take part in a merrymaking; -- especially, to act in a mask or interlude. [Obs.] Shak.

2. To make merriment by words or actions; to joke; to make light of anything.

He jests at scars that never felt a wound. Shak.
Syn. -- To joke; sport; rally. -- To Jest, Joke. One jests in order to make others laugh; one jokes to please himself. A jest is usually at the expense of another, and is often ill-natured; a joke is a sportive sally designed to promote good humor without wounding the feelings of its object. Jests are, therefore, seldom harmless; jokes frequently allowable. The most serious subject may be degraded by being turned into a jest." Crabb.
Joist (Page: 802)

Joist (?), n. [OE. giste, OF. giste, F. g\'8cte, fr. gesir to lie, F. gésir. See Gist.] (Arch.) A piece of timber laid horizontally, or nearly so, to which the planks of the floor, or the laths or furring strips of a ceiling, are nailed; -- called, according to its position or use, binding joist, bridging joist, ceiling joist, trimming joist, etc. See Illust. of Double-framed floor, under Double, a.


Joist (Page: 802)

Joist, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Joisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Joisting.] To fit or furnish with joists. Johnson.


Journalist (Page: 803)

Jour"nal*ist, n. [Cf. F. journaliste.]

1. One who keeps a journal or diary. [Obs.] Mickle.

2. The conductor of a public journal, or one whose business it to write for a public journal; an editorial or other professional writer for a periodical. Addison.


Joust (Page: 803)

Joust (?), v. i. [OE. justen, jousten, OF. jouster, jouster, joster, F. jouter, fr. L. juxta near to, nigh, from the root of jungere to join. See Join, and cf. Jostle.] To engage in mock combat on horseback, as two knights in the lists; to tilt. [Written also just.]

For the whole army to joust and tourney. Holland.

Joust (Page: 803)

Joust, n. [OE. juste, jouste, OF. juste, jouste, joste, F. joute. See Joust, v. i.] A tilting match; a mock combat on horseback between two knights in the lists or inclosed field. [Written also just.]

Gorgeous knights at joust and tournament. Milton.

Jovialist (Page: 803)

Jo"vi*al*ist (?), n. One who lives a jovial life. Bp. Hall.


Jovinianist (Page: 803)

Jo*vin"ian*ist (?), n. (Script. Hist.) An adherent to the doctrines of Jovinian, a monk of the fourth century, who denied the virginity of Mary, and opposed the asceticism of his time.


Judaist (Page: 803)

Ju"da*ist, n. One who believes and practices Judaism.


Jurist (Page: 806)

Ju`rist (?), n. [F. juriste, LL. jurista, fr. L. jus, juris, right, law. See Just, a.] One who professes the science of law; one versed in the law, especially in the civil law; a writer on civil and international law.

It has ever been the method of public jurists to raw a great part of the analogies on which they form the law of nations from the principles of law which prevail in civil community. Burke.

Just (Page: 806)

Just (?), a. [F. juste, L. justus, fr. jus right, law, justice; orig., that which is fitting; akin to Skr. yu to join. Cf. Injury, Judge, Jury, Giusto.]

1. Conforming or conformable to rectitude or justice; not doing wrong to any; violating no right or obligation; upright; righteous; honest; true; -- said both of persons and things. O just but severe law!" Shak.

There is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not. Eccl. vii. 20.
Just balances, just weights, . . . shall ye have. Lev. xix. 36.
How should man be just with God? Job ix. 2.
We know your grace to be a man. Just and upright. Shak.

2. Not transgressing the requirement of truth and propriety; conformed to the truth of things, to reason, or to a proper standard; exact; normal; reasonable; regular; due; as, a just statement; a just inference.

Just of thy word, in every thought sincere. Pope.
The prince is here at hand: pleaseth your lordship To meet his grace just distance 'tween our armies. Shak.
He was a comely personage, a little above just stature.q> Bacon.
Fire fitted with just materials casts a constant heat. Jer. Taylor.
When all The war shall stand ranged in its just array. Addison.
Their named alone would make a just volume. Burton.

3. Rendering or disposed to render to each one his due; equitable; fair; impartial; as, just judge.

Men are commonly so just to virtue and goodness as to praise it in others, even when they do not practice it themselves. Tillotson.
Just intonation. (Mus.) (a) The correct sounding of notes or intervals; true pitch. (b) The giving all chords and intervals in their purity or their exact mathematical ratio, or without temperament; a process in which the number of notes and intervals required in the various keys is much greater than the twelve to the octave used in systems of temperament. H. W. Poole. Syn. -- Equitable; upright; honest; true; fair; impartial; proper; exact; normal; orderly; regular.

Just (Page: 806)

Just, adv.

1. Precisely; exactly; -- in place, time, or degree; neither more nor less than is stated.

And having just enough, not covet more. Dryden.
The god Pan guided my hand just to the heart of the beast. Sir P. Sidney.
To-night, at Herne's oak, just 'twixt twelve and one. Shak.

2. Closely; nearly; almost.

Just at the point of death. Sir W. Temple.

3. Barely; merely; scarcely; only; by a very small space or time; as, he just missed the train; just too late.

A soft Etesian gale But just inspired and gently swelled the sail. Dryden.
Just now, the least possible time since; a moment ago.
Just (Page: 806)

Just, v. i. [See Joust.] To joust. Fairfax.


Just (Page: 806)

Just, n. A joust. Dryden.


Kantist (Page: 809)

Kant"ist n. A disciple or follower of Kant.


Kest (Page: 810)

Kest (?), imp. of Cast. [Obs.]


King-post (Page: 815)

King"-post` (?), n. (Carp.) A member of a common form of truss, as a roof truss. It is strictly a tie, intended to prevent the sagging of the tiebeam in the middle. If there are struts, supporting the main rafters, they often bear upon the foot of the king-post. Called also crown-post.


Kinkhaust (Page: 815)

Kink"haust` (?), n. [Prov. E. kink to gasp (cf. Chin cough) + haust a cough (akin to E. wheeze).] Whooping cough. [Obs.or Prov. Eng.]


Kissingcrust (Page: 815)

Kiss"ing*crust` (?), n. (Cookery) The portion of the upper crust of a loaf which has touched another loaf in baking. Lamb.

A massy fragment from the rich kissingcrust that hangs like a fretted cornice from the upper half of the loaf. W. Howitt.

Kist (Page: 815)

Kist (?), n. [See Chest.] A chest; hence, a coffin. [Scot. & Prov. End.] Jamieson. Halliwell.


Kist (Page: 815)

Kist, n. [Ar. gist.] A stated payment, especially a payment of rent for land; hence, the time for such payment. [India]


Labadist (Page: 821)

Lab"a*dist, n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Jean de Labadie, a religious teacher of the 17th century, who left the Roman Catholic Church and taught a kind of mysticism, and the obligation of community of property among Christians.


Lamp-post (Page: 826)

Lamp"-post` (?), n. A post (generally a pillar of iron) supporting a lamp or lantern for lighting a street, park, etc.


Lampadist (Page: 826)

Lam"pa*dist (?), n. [Gr. , fr. , , torch. See Lamp.] (Gr. Antiq.) One who gained the prize in the lampadrome.


Landscapist (Page: 828)

Land"scap`ist (?), n. A painter of landscapes.


Lapidist (Page: 829)

Lap"i*dist (?), n. [L. lapis, -idis, a stone.] A lapidary. Ray.


Larcener, Larcenist (Page: 830)

Lar"ce*ner (?), Lar"ce*nist (?), n. One who commits larceny.


Laryngologist (Page: 831)

Lar`yn*gol"o*gist (?), n. One who applies himself to laryngology.


Laryngoscopist (Page: 831)

Lar`yn*gos"co*pist (?), n. One skilled in laryngoscopy.


Last (Page: 831)

Last (?), 3d pers. sing. pres. of Last, to endure, contracted from lasteth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Last (Page: 831)

Last (), a. [OE. last, latst, contr. of latest, superl. of late; akin to OS. lezt, lazt, last, D. laatst, G. letzt. See Late, and cf. Latest.]

1. Being after all the others, similarly classed or considered, in time, place, or order of succession; following all the rest; final; hindmost; farthest; as, the last year of a century; the last man in a line of soldiers; the last page in a book; his last chance.

Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, he read in the book of the law of God. Neh. viii. 18.
Fairest of stars, last in the train of night. Milton.

2. Next before the present; as, I saw him last week.

3. Supreme; highest in degree; utmost.

Contending for principles of the last importance. R. Hall
.

4. Lowest in rank or degree; as, the last prize. Pope.

5. Farthest of all from a given quality, character, or condition; most unlikely; having least fitness; as, he is the last person to be accused of theft. [832]

At last, at the end of a certain period; after delay. The duke of Savoy felt that the time had at last arrived." Motley. -- At the last. [Prob. fr. AS. on lāste behind, following behind, fr. lāst race, track, footstep. See Last mold of the foot.] At the end; in the conclusion. [Obs.] Gad, a troop shall overcome him; but he shall overcome at the last." Gen. xlix. 19. -- Last heir, the person to whom lands escheat for want of an heir. [Eng.] Abbott. -- On one's last legs, at, or near, the end of one's resources; hence, on the verge of failure or ruin, especially in a financial sense. [Colloq.] -- To breathe one's last, to die. -- To the last, to the end; till the conclusion.

And blunder on in business to the last. Pope.
Syn. -- At Last, At Length. These phrases both denote that some delayed end or result has been reached. At length implies that a long period was spent in so doing; as, after a voyage of more than three months, we at Length arrived safe. At last commonly implies that something has occurred (as interruptions, disappointments, etc.) which leads us to emphasize the idea of having reached the end; as, in spite of every obstacle, we have at last arrived.<-- "eventually" also suggests a (relatively) long interval, but does not specifically imply any interruptions -->
Last (Page: 832)

Last (?), adv. [See Last, a.]

1. At a time or on an occasion which is the latest of all those spoken of or which have occurred; the last time; as, I saw him last in New York.

2. In conclusion; finally.<-- = lastly -->

Pleased with his idol, he commends, admires, Adores; and, last, the thing adored desires. Dryden.

3. At a time next preceding the present time.

How long is't now since last yourself and I Were in a mask ? Shak.

Last (Page: 832)

Last, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Lasting.] [OE. lasten, As. læstan to perform, execute, follow, last, continue, fr. lāst, lst, trace, footstep, course; akin to G. leisten to perform, Goth. laistjan to follow. See Last mold of the foot.]

1. To continue in time; to endure; to remain in existence.

[I] proffered me to be slave in all that she me would ordain while my life lasted. Testament of Love.

2. To endure use, or continue in existence, without impairment or exhaustion; as, this cloth lasts better than that; the fuel will last through the winter.


Last (Page: 832)

Last, n. [AS. lāsttrace, track, footstep; akin to D. leest a last, G. leisten, Sw. läst, Dan. læst, Icel. leistr the foot below the ankle, Goth. laists track, way; from a root signifying, to go. Cf. Last, v. i., Learn, Delirium.] A wooden block shaped like the human foot, on which boots and shoes are formed.

The cobbler is not to go beyond his last. L'Estrange.
Darning last, a smooth, hard body, often egg-shaped, put into a stocking to preserve its shape in darning.
Last (Page: 832)

Last, v. t. To shape with a last; to fasten or fit to a last; to place smoothly on a last; as, to last a boot.


Last (Page: 832)

Last, n. [As. hlæst, fr. hladan to lade; akin to OHG. hlast, G., D., Dan., & Sw. last: cf. F. laste, last, a last, of German or Dutch origin. See Lade.]

1. A load; a heavy burden; hence, a certain weight or measure, generally estimated at 4,000 lbs., but varying for different articles and in different countries. In England, a last of codfish, white herrings, meal, or ashes, is twelve barrels; a last of corn, ten quarters, or eighty bushels, in some parts of England, twenty-one quarters; of gunpowder, twenty-four barrels, each containing 100 lbs; of red herrings, twenty cades, or 20,000; of hides, twelve dozen; of leather, twenty dickers; of pitch and tar, fourteen barrels; of wool, twelve sacks; of flax or feathers, 1,700 lbs.

2. The burden of a ship; a cargo.


Latinist (Page: 833)

Lat"in*ist, n. [Cf. F. latiniste.] One skilled in Latin; a Latin scholar. Cowper.

He left school a good Latinist. Macaulay.

Least (Page: 839)

Least (?), a. [OE. last, lest, AS. lsast, lsest, superl. of lssa less. See Less, a.] [Used as the superlative of little.] Smallest, either in size or degree; shortest; lowest; most unimportant; as, the least insect; the least mercy; the least space. &hand; Least is often used with the, as if a noun.

I am the least of the apostles. 1 Cor. xv. 9.
At least, ∨ At the least, at the least estimate, consideration, chance, etc.; hence, at any rate; at all events; even. See However.
He who tempts, though in vain, at least asperses The tempted with dishonor. Milton.
Upon the mast they saw a young man, at least if he were a man, who sat as on horseback. Sir P. Sidney.
-- In least, ∨ In the least, in the least degree, manner, etc. He that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much." Luke xvi. 10. -- Least squares (Math.), a method of deducing from a number of carefully made yet slightly discordant observations of a phenomenon the most probable values of the unknown quantities. It takes as its fundamental principle that the most probable values are those which make the sum of the squares of the residual errors of the observation a minimum.
Least (Page: 839)

Least, adv. In the smallest or lowest degree; in a degree below all others; as, to reward those who least deserve it.


Least (Page: 839)

Least, conj. See Lest, conj. [Obs.] Spenser.


Legalist (Page: 841)

Le"gal*ist, n. One who practices or advocates strict conformity to law; in theology, one who holds to the law of works. See Legal, 2 (a).


Legist (Page: 841)

Le"gist (?), n. [F. légiste, LL. legista, fr. L. lex, legis, law. See Legal.] One skilled in the laws; a writer on law. Milman. J. Morley.


Legitimatist (Page: 841)

Le*git"i*ma*tist (?), n. See Legitimist.


Legitimist (Page: 841)

Le*git"i*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. légitimiste.]

1. One who supports legitimate authority; esp., one who believes in hereditary monarchy, as a divine right.

2. Specifically, a supporter of the claims of the elder branch of the Bourbon dynasty to the crown of France. [842]


Lenger, Lengest (Page: 842)

Leng"er (?), Leng"est, a. Longer; longest; -- obsolete compar. and superl. of long. Chaucer.


Lest (Page: 844)

Lest (?), v. i. To listen. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.


Lest (Page: 844)

Lest, n. [See List to choose.] Lust; desire; pleasure. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Lest (Page: 844)

Lest, a. Last; least. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Lest (Page: 844)

Lest, conj. [OE.leste, fr. AS. ls the less that, where is the instrumental case of the definite article, and is an indeclinable relative particle, that, who, which. See The, Less, a.]

1. For ear that; that . . . not; in order that . . . not.

Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty. Prov. xx. 18.
Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth he standeth take heed lest he fall. I Cor. x. 12.

2. That (without the negative particle); -- after certain expressions denoting fear or apprehension.

I feared Lest I might anger thee. Shak.

Leucoplast (Page: 845)

Leu"co*plast (?), n. (Bot.) See Leucoplast.


Lexicographist (Page: 847)

Lex`i*cog"ra*phist (?), n. A lexicographer. [R.] Southey.


Lexicologist (Page: 847)

Lex`i*col"o*gist (?), n. One versed in lexicology.


Lexiconist (Page: 847)

Lex"i*con*ist, n. A writer of a lexicon. [R.]


Libelist (Page: 848)

Li"bel*ist (?), n. A libeler.


Liberalist (Page: 848)

Lib"er*al*ist, n. A liberal.


Libidinist (Page: 848)

Li*bid"i*nist (?), n. [See Libidinous.] One given to lewdness.


Librettist (Page: 848)

Li*bret"tist (?), n. One who makes a libretto.


Lichenographist (Page: 849)

Li`chen*og"ra*phist (?), n. One who describes lichens; one versed in lichenography.


Lichenologist (Page: 849)

Li`chen*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in lichenology.


Linguist (Page: 856)

Lin"guist (?), n. [L. lingua tongue, speech, language: cf. F. linguiste.]

1. A master of the use of language; a talker. [Obs.]

I'll dispute with him; He's a rare linguist. J. Webster.

2. A person skilled in languages.

There too were Gibbon, the greatest historian, and Jones, the greatest linguist, of the age. Macaulay.

Lipogrammatist (Page: 858)

Lip`o*gram"ma*tist (?), n. [Cf. F. lipogrammatiste.] One who makes a lipogram.


List (Page: 858)

List (?), n. [F. lice, LL. liciae, pl., from L. licium thread, girdle.] A line inclosing or forming the extremity of a piece of ground, or field of combat; hence, in the plural (lists), the ground or field inclosed for a race or combat. Chaucer.

In measured lists to toss the weighty lance. Pope.
To enter the lists, to accept a challenge, or engage in contest.
List (Page: 858)

List, v. t. To inclose for combat; as, to list a field.


List (Page: 858)

List, v. i. [See Listen.] To hearken; to attend; to listen. [Obs. except in poetry.]

Stand close, and list to him. Shak.

List (Page: 858)

List, v. t. To listen or hearken to.

Then weigh what loss your honor may sustain, If with too credent ear you list his songs. Shak.

List (Page: 858)

List, v. i. [OE. listen, lusten, AS. lystan, from lust pleasure. See Lust.]

1. To desire or choose; to please.

The wind bloweth where it listeth. John iii. 8.
Them that add to the Word of God what them listeth. Hooker.
Let other men think of your devices as they list. Whitgift.

2. (Naut.) To lean; to incline; as, the ship lists to port.


List (Page: 858)

List, n.

1. Inclination; desire. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. (Naut.) An inclination to one side; as, the ship has a list to starboard.


List (Page: 858)

List, n. [AS. līst a list of cloth; akin to D. lijst, G. leiste, OHG. līsta,Icel. lista, listi, Sw. list, Dan. liste. In sense 5 from F. liste, of German origin, and thus ultimately the same word.]

1. A strip forming the woven border or selvedge of cloth, particularly of broadcloth, and serving to strengthen it; hence, a strip of cloth; a fillet. Gartered with a red and blue list. " [859]

Shak.

2. A limit or boundary; a border.

The very list, the very utmost bound, Of all our fortunes. Shak.

3. The lobe of the ear; the ear itself. [Obs.] Chaucer.

4. A stripe. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

5. A roll or catalogue, that is row or line; a record of names; as, a list of names, books, articles; a list of ratable estate.

He was the ablest emperor of all the list. Bacon.

6. (Arch.) A little square molding; a fillet; -- called also listel.

7. (Carp.) A narrow strip of wood, esp. sapwood, cut from the edge of a plank or board.

8. (Rope Making) A piece of woolen cloth with which the yarns are grasped by a workman.

9. (Tin-plate Manuf.) (a) The first thin coat of tin. (b) A wirelike rim of tin left on an edge of the plate after it is coated. Civil list (Great Britain & U.S.), the civil officers of government, as judges, ambassadors, secretaries, etc. Hence, the revenues or appropriations of public money for the support of the civil officers. More recently, the civil list, in England, embraces only the expenses of the reigning monarch's household. Free list. (a) A list of articles admitted to a country free of duty. (b) A list of persons admitted to any entertainment, as a theater or opera, without payment, or to whom a periodical, or the like, is furnished without cost. Syn. -- Roll; catalogue; register; inventory; schedule. -- List, Boll, Catalogue, Register, Inventory, Schedule. Alist is properly a simple series of names, etc., in a brief form, such as might naturally be entered in a narrow strip of paper. A roll was originally a list containing the names of persons belonging to a public body (as Parliament, etc.), which was rolled up and laid aside among its archives. A catalogue is a list of persons or things arranged in order, and usually containing some description of the same, more or less extended. A register is designed for record or preservation. An inventory is a list of articles, found on hand in a store of goods, or in the estate of a deceased person, or under similar circumstances. A schedule is a formal list or inventory prepared for legal or business purposes.


List (Page: 859)

List (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Listed; p. pr. & vb. n. Listing.] [From list a roll.]

1. To sew together, as strips of cloth, so as to make a show of colors, or form a border. Sir H. Wotton.

2. To cover with list, or with strips of cloth; to put list on; as, to list a door; to stripe as if with list.

The tree that stood white-listed through the gloom. Tennyson.

3. To enroll; to place or register in a list.

Listed among the upper serving men. Milton.

4. To engage, as a soldier; to enlist.

I will list you for my soldier. Sir W. Scott.

5. (Carp.) To cut away a narrow strip, as of sapwood, from the edge of; as, to list a board. To list a stock (Stock Exchange), to put it in the list of stocks called at the meeting of the board.<-- to put it on a list of stocks which may be traded on a specific stock exchange -->


List (Page: 859)

List, v. i. To engage in public service by enrolling one's name; to enlist.


Literalist (Page: 859)

Lit"er*al*ist, n. One who adheres to the letter or exact word; an interpreter according to the letter.


Lithoclast (Page: 860)

Lith"o*clast (?), n. [Litho- + Gr. to break.] (Surg.) An instrument for crushing stones in the bladder.


Lithocyst (Page: 860)

Lith"o*cyst (?), n. [Litho- + cyst.] (Zoöl.) A sac containing small, calcareous concretions (otoliths). They are found in many Medusæ, and other invertebrates, and are supposed to be auditory organs.


Lithologist (Page: 860)

Li*thol"o*gist (?), n. One who is skilled in lithology.


Lithontriptist (Page: 860)

Lith"on*trip"tist, n. Same as Lithotriptist.


Lithotomist (Page: 860)

Li*thot"o*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. lithotomiste.] One who performs the operation of cutting for stone in the bladder, or one who is skilled in the operation.


Lithotriptist (Page: 860)

Lith"o*trip`tist (?), n. One skilled in breaking and extracting stone in the bladder.


Lithotritist (Page: 860)

Li*thot"ri*tist (?), n. A lithotriptist.


Liturgiologist (Page: 861)

Li*tur`gi*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in liturgiology.


Liturgist (Page: 861)

Lit"ur*gist (?), n. One who favors or adheres strictly to a liturgy. Milton.


Lobbyist (Page: 863)

Lob"by*ist, n. A member of the lobby; a person who solicits members of a legislature for the purpose of influencing legislation. [U.S.]


Locust (Page: 864)

Lo"cust (?), n. [L. locusta locust, grasshopper. Cf. Lobster.]

1. (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of long-winged, migratory, orthopterous insects, of the family Acrididæ, allied to the grasshoppers; esp., (Edipoda, ∨ Pachytylus, migratoria, and Acridium perigrinum, of Southern Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the United States the related species with similar habits are usually called grasshoppers. See Grasshopper. &hand; These insects are at times so numerous in Africa and the south of Asia as to devour every green thing; and when they migrate, they fly in an immense cloud. In the United States the harvest flies are improperly called locusts. See Cicada. Locust beetle (Zoöl.), a longicorn beetle (Cyllene robiniæ), which, in the larval state, bores holes in the wood of the locust tree. Its color is brownish black, barred with yellow. Called also locust borer. -- Locust bird (Zoöl.) the rose-colored starling or pastor of India. See Pastor. -- Locust hunter (Zoöl.), an African bird; the beefeater.

2. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Bot.) The locust tree. See Locust Tree (definition, note, and phrases). Locust bean (Bot.), a commercial name for the sweet pod of the carob tree.


Logomachist (Page: 866)

Lo*gom"a*chist (?), n. [See Logomachy.] One who contends about words.


Lost (Page: 870)

Lost (?), a. [Prop. p. p. of OE. losien. See Lose, v. t.]

1. Parted with unwillingly or unintentionally; not to be found; missing; as, a lost book or sheep.

2. Parted with; no longer held or possessed; as, a lost limb; lost honor.

3. Not employed or enjoyed; thrown away; employed ineffectually; wasted; squandered; as, a lost day; a lost opportunity or benefit.

5. Having wandered from, or unable to find, the way; bewildered; perplexed; as, a child lost in the woods; a stranger lost in London.

6. Ruined or destroyed, either physically or morally; past help or hope; as, a ship lost at sea; a woman lost to virtue; a lost soul.

7. Hardened beyond sensibility or recovery; alienated; insensible; as, lost to shame; lost to all sense of honor.

8. Not perceptible to the senses; no longer visible; as, an island lost in a fog; a person lost in a crowd.

9. Occupied with, or under the influence of, something, so as to be insensible of external things; as, to be lost in thought. Lost motion (Mach.), the difference between the motion of a driver and that of a follower, due to the yielding of parts or looseness of joints.


Lowermost (Page: 872)

Low"er*most` (?), a. [Irreg. superl. of Low. Cf. Uppermost, Foremost, etc.] Lowest.


Loyalist (Page: 872)

Loy"al*ist, n. A person who adheres to his sovereign or to the lawful authority; especially, one who maintains his allegiance to his prince or government, and defends his cause in times of revolt or revolution.


Lust (Page: 876)

Lust (?), n. [AS. lust, lust, pleasure, longing; akin to OS., D., G., & Sw. lust, Dan. & Icel. lyst, Goth lustus, and perh. tom Skr. lush to desire, or to E. loose. Cf. List to please, Listless.]

1. Pleasure [Obs.] Lust and jollity." Chaucer.

2. Inclination; desire. [Obs.]

For little lust had she to talk of aught. Spenser.
My lust to devotion is little. Bp. Hall.

3. Longing desire; eagerness to possess or enjoy; -- in a had sense; as, the lust of gain.

The lust of reigning. Milton.

4. Licentious craving; sexual appetite. Milton.

5. Hence: Virility; vigor; active power. [Obs.] Bacon.


Lust (Page: 876)

Lust (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Lusting.] [AS. lystan. See Lust, n., and cf. List to choose.]

1. To list; to like. [Obs.] Chaucer. Do so if thou lust. " Latimer. &hand; In earlier usage lust was impersonal.

In the water vessel he it cast When that him luste. Chaucer.

2. To have an eager, passionate, and especially an inordinate or sinful desire, as for the gratification of the sexual appetite or of covetousness; -- often with after.

Whatsoever thy soul lusteth after. Deut. xii. 15.
Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. Matt. v. 28.
The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy. James iv. 5.

Lutanist (Page: 876)

Lut"a*nist (?), n. [LL.lutanista, fr. lutana lute. See Lute the instrument.] A person that plays on the lute. Johnson.


Lutenist (Page: 876)

Lut"e*nist (?), n. Same as Lutanist.


Lutist (Page: 877)

Lut"ist, n. One who plays on a lute.


Luxurist (Page: 877)

Lux"u*rist (?), n. One given to luxury. [Obs.] Sir W. Temple.


Lycanthropist (Page: 877)

Ly*can"thro*pist (?), n. One affected by the disease lycanthropy.


Lyrist (Page: 878)

Lyr"ist, n. [L. lyristes, Gr. : cf. F. lyriste.] A musician who plays on the harp or lyre; a composer of lyrical poetry. Shelley.


Machinist (Page: 879)

Ma*chin"ist, n. [Cf. F. machiniste.]

1. A constrictor of machines and engines; one versed in the principles of machines.

2. One skilled in the use of machine tools.

3. A person employed to shift scenery in a theater.


Madrigalist (Page: 881)

Mad"ri*gal*ist, n. A composer of madrigals.


Magazinist (Page: 881)

Mag`a*zin"ist, n. One who edits or writes for a magazine. [R.]


Magnetist (Page: 882)

Mag"net*ist, n.One versed in magnetism.


Mahometist (Page: 883)

Ma*hom"et*ist, n. A Mohammedan. [R.]


Mainmast (Page: 884)

Main"mast` (?), n. (Naut.) The principal mast in a ship or other vessel.


Malacologist (Page: 886)

Mal`a*col"o*gist (?), n. One versed in the science of malacology.


Mammalogist (Page: 888)

Mam*mal"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. mammalogiste.] One versed in mammalogy.


Mammonist (Page: 888)

Mam"mon*ist, n. A mammonite.


Mangonist (Page: 891)

Man"go*nist (?), n.

1. One who mangonizes. (Zoöl.)

2. A slave dealer; also, a strumpet. [Obs.]


Manicheist (Page: 891)

Man"i*che*ist, n. [Cf. F. manichéiste.] Manichæan.


Manifest (Page: 891)

Man"i*fest (?), a. [F. manifeste, L. manifestus, lit., struck by the hand, hence, palpable; manus hand + fendere (in comp.) to strike. See Manual, and Defend.]

1. Evident to the senses, esp. to the sight; apparent; distinctly perceived; hence, obvious to the understanding; apparent to the mind; easily apprehensible; plain; not obscure or hidden.

Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight. Heb. iv. 13.
That which may be known of God is manifest in them. Rom. i. 19.
Thus manifest to sight the god appeared. Dryden.

2. Detected; convicted; -- with of. [R.]

Calistho there stood manifest of shame. Dryden.
Syn. -- Open; clear; apparent; evident; visible; conspicuous; plain; obvious. -- Manifest, Clear, Plain, Obvious, Evident. What is clear can be seen readily; what is obvious lies directly in our way, and necessarily arrests our attention; what isevident is seen so clearly as to remove doubt; what is manifest is very distinctly evident.
So clear, so shining, and so evident, That it will glimmer through a blind man's eye. Shak.
Entertained with solitude, Where obvious duty erwhile appeared unsought. Milton.
I saw, I saw him manifest in view, His voice, his figure, and his gesture knew. Dryden.

Manifest (Page: 891)

Man"i*fest, n.; pl. Manifests (#). [Cf. F. manifeste. See Manifest, a., and cf. Manifesto.]

1. A public declaration; an open statement; a manifesto. See Manifesto. [Obs.]

2. A list or invoice of a ship's cargo, containing a description by marks, numbers, etc., of each package of goods, to be exhibited at the customhouse.<-- = ship's manifest --> Bouvier.


Manifest (Page: 891)

Man"i*fest, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Manifested (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Manifesting.]

1. To show plainly; to make to appear distinctly, -- usually to the mind; to put beyond question or doubt; to display; to exhibit.

There is nothing hid which shall not be manifested. Mark iv. 22.
Thy life did manifest thou lovedst me not. Shak.

2. To exhibit the manifests or prepared invoices of; to declare at the customhouse. Syn. -- To reveal; declare; evince; make known; disclose; discover; display.


Mannerist (Page: 892)

Man"ner*ist, n. [Cf. F. maniériste.] One addicted to mannerism; a person who, in action, bearing, or treatment, carries characteristic peculiarities to excess. See citation under Mannerism.


Mantologist (Page: 893)

Man*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who is skilled in mantology; a diviner. [R.]


Manualist (Page: 893)

Man"u*al*ist, n. One who works wih the hands; an artificer.


Mare's-nest (Page: 895)

Mare's"-nest` (?), n. A supposed discovery which turns out to be a hoax; something grosaly absurd.


Martialist (Page: 898)

Mar"tial*ist, n. A warrior. [Obs.] Fuller.


Martyrologist (Page: 898)

Mar`tyr*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. martyrologiste.] A writer of martyrology; an historian of martyrs. T. Warton.


Mast (Page: 900)

Mast (?), n. [AS. mæst, fem. ; akin to G. mast, and E. meat. See Meat.] The fruit of the oak and beech, or other forest trees; nuts; acorns.

Oak mast, and beech, . . . they eat. Chapman.
Swine under an oak filling themselves with the mast. South.

Mast (Page: 900)

Mast, n. [AS. mæst, masc.; akin to D., G., Dan., & Sw. mast, Icel. mastr, and perh. to L. malus.]

1. (Naut.) A pole, or long, strong, round piece of timber, or spar, set upright in a boat or vessel, to sustain the sails, yards, rigging, etc. A mast may also consist of several pieces of timber united by iron bands, or of a hollow pillar of iron or steel.

The tallest pine Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the mast Of some great ammiral.<--sic--> Milton.
&hand; The most common general names of masts are foremast, mainmast, and mizzenmast, each of which may be made of separate spars.

2. (Mach.) The vertical post of a derrick or crane. Afore the mast, Before the mast. See under Afore, and Before. -- Mast coat. See under Coat. -- Mast hoop, one of a number of hoops attached to the fore edge of a boom sail, which slip on the mast as the sail is raised or lowered; also, one of the iron hoops used in making a made mast. See Made.


Mast (Page: 900)

Mast, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Masted; p. pr. & vb. n. Masting.] To furnish with a mast or masts; to put the masts of in position; as, to mast a ship.


Materialist (Page: 902)

Ma*te"ri*al*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. matérialiste.]

1. One who denies the existence of spiritual substances or agents, and maintains that spiritual phenomena, so called, are the result of some peculiar organization of matter.

2. One who holds to the existence of matter, as distinguished from the idealist, who denies it. Berkeley.


Maurist (Page: 903)

Maur"ist (?), n. [From Maurus, the favorite disciple of St. Benedict.] A member of the Congregation of Saint Maur, an offshoot of the Benedictines, originating in France in the early part of the seventeenth century. The Maurists have been distinguished for their interest in literature.


Mazologist (Page: 904)

Ma*zol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in mazology or mastology.


Mechanist (Page: 906)

Mech"an*ist, n.

1. A maker of machines; one skilled in mechanics.

2. One who regards the phenomena of nature as the effects of forces merely mechanical.


Mechanographist (Page: 907)

Mech`an*og"ra*phist (?), n. An artist who, by mechanical means, multiplies copies of works of art.


Mechitarist (Page: 907)

Mech"i*tar*ist (?), n. [From Mechitar, an Armenian., who founded the congregation in the early part of the eighteenth century.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a religious congregation of the Roman Catholic Church devoted to the improvement of Armenians.


Medalist (Page: 907)

Med"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. médailliste, It. medaglista.] [Written also medallist.]

1. A person that is skilled or curious in medals; a collector of medals. Addison.

2. A designer of medals. Macaulay.

3. One who has gained a medal as the reward of merit.


Mediævalist (Page: 907)

Me`di*æ"val*ist, n. One who has a taste for, or is versed in, the history of the Middle Ages; one in sympathy with the spirit or forms of the Middle Ages. [Written also medievalist.]


Medieval, Medievalism, Medievalist (Page: 907)

Me`di*e"val, Me`di*e"val*ism, Me`di*e"val*ist. Same as Medival, Medivalism, etc.


Mediocrist (Page: 908)

Me"di*o`crist (?), n. A mediocre person. [R.]


Meditatist (Page: 908)

Med"i*ta`tist, n. One who is given to meditation.


Mekhitarist (Page: 909)

Mekh"i*tar*ist (?), n. (Ecc. Hist.) See Mechitarist.


Melancholist (Page: 909)

Mel"an*chol*ist (?), n. One affected with melancholy or dejection. [Obs.] Glanvill.


Melodist (Page: 910)

Mel"o*dist (?), n. [Cf. F. mélodiste.] A composer or singer of melodies.


Melodramatist (Page: 910)

Mel`o*dram"a*tist (?), n. One who acts in, or writes, melodramas.


Memoirist (Page: 911)

Mem"oir*ist, n. A writer of memoirs.


Memorialist (Page: 911)

Me*mo"ri*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. mémorialiste.] One who writes or signs a memorial.


Memorist (Page: 911)

Mem"o*rist (?), n. [See Memorize.] One who, or that which, causes to be remembered. [Obs.]


Mercurialist (Page: 913)

Mer*cu"ri*al*ist, n.

1. One under the influence of Mercury; one resembling Mercury in character.

2. (Med.) A physician who uses much mercury, in any of its forms, in his practice.


Meroblast (Page: 914)

Mer"o*blast (?), n. [Gr. part + -blast.] (Biol.) An ovum, as that of a mammal, only partially composed of germinal matter, that is, consisting of both a germinal portion and an albuminous or nutritive one; -- opposed to holoblast.


Mesmerist (Page: 915)

Mes"mer*ist, n. One who practices, or believes in, mesmerism.


Mesoblast (Page: 915)

Mes"o*blast (?), n. [Meso- + -blast.] (Biol.) (a) The mesoderm. (b) The cell nucleus; mesoplast.


Mesoplast (Page: 915)

Mes"o*plast (?), n. [Meso- + -plast.] (Biol.) The nucleus of a cell; mesoblast. Agassix. [916]


Mest (Page: 916)

Mest (?), a. Most. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Metallist (Page: 917)

Met"al*list (?), n. A worker in metals, or one skilled in metals.


Metallographist (Page: 917)

Met`al*log"ra*phist (?), n. One who writes on the subject of metals.


Metallurgist (Page: 917)

Met"al*lur`gist (?), n. [Cf. F. métallurgiste.] One who works in metals, or prepares them for use; one who is skilled in metallurgy.


Metamorphist (Page: 917)

Met`a*mor"phist (?), n. (Eccl.) One who believes that the body of Christ was merged into the Deity when he ascended.


Metaphorist (Page: 917)

Met"a*phor*ist (?), n. One who makes metaphors.


Metaphrast (Page: 918)

Met"a*phrast (?), n. [Gr. : cf. F. métaphraste.] A literal translator.


Metaplast (Page: 918)

Met"a*plast (?), n. [See Metaplasm.] (Gram.) A word having more than one form of the root.


Meteorologist (Page: 919)

Me`te*or*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. météorologiste.] A person skilled in meteorology.


Methodist (Page: 919)

Meth"o*dist (?), n. [Cf. F. méthodiste. See Method.]

1. One who observes method. [Obs.]

2. One of an ancient school of physicians who rejected observation and founded their practice on reasoning and theory. Sir W. Hamilton.

3. (Theol.) One of a sect of Christians, the outgrowth of a small association called the Holy Club," formed at Oxford University, A.D. 1729, of which the most conspicuous members were John Wesley and his brother Charles; -- originally so called from the methodical strictness of members of the club in all religious duties.

4. A person of strict piety; one who lives in the exact observance of religious duties; -- sometimes so called in contempt or ridicule.


Methodist (Page: 919)

Meth"o*dist, a. Of or pertaining to the sect of Methodists; as, Methodist hymns; a Methodist elder.


Metoposcopist (Page: 919)

Met`o*pos"co*pist (?), n. One versed in metoposcopy.


Metrist (Page: 920)

Me"trist (?), n. A maker of verses. Bale.

Spenser was no mere metrist, but a great composer. Lowell.

Miasmatist (Page: 920)

Mi*as"ma*tist (?), n. One who has made a special study of miasma.


Microomist (Page: 922)

Mi*cro"o*mist (?), n. One who is skilled in or practices microtomy.


Microscopist (Page: 921)

Mi*cros"co*pist (?; 277), n. One skilled in, or given to, microscopy.


Middest (Page: 922)

Mid"dest (?), a.; superl. of Mid. [See Midst.] Situated most nearly in the middle; middlemost; midmost. [Obs.] 'Mongst the middest crowd." Spenser.


Middest (Page: 922)

Mid"dest, n. Midst; middle. [Obs.] Fuller.


Middlemost (Page: 922)

Mid"dle*most` (?), a. [Cf. Midmost.] Being in the middle, or nearest the middle; midmost.


Midmost (Page: 922)

Mid"most` (?), a. [OE. middemiste. Cf. Foremost.] Middle; middlemost.

Ere night's midmost, stillest hour was past. Byron.

Midst (Page: 922)

Midst (?), n. [From middest, in the middest, for older in middes, where -s is adverbial (orig. forming a genitive), or still older a midde, a midden, on midden. See Mid, and cf. Amidst.]

1. The interior or central part or place; the middle; -- used chiefly in the objective case after in; as, in the midst of the forest.

And when the devil had thrown him in the midst, he came out of him. Luke iv. 35.
There is nothing... in the midst [of the play] which might not have been placed in the beginning. Dryden.

2. Hence, figuratively, the condition of being surrounded or beset; the press; the burden; as, in the midst of official duties; in the midst of secular affairs. &hand; The expressions in our midst, in their midst, etc., are avoided by some good writers, the forms in the midst of us, in the midst of them, etc., being preferred. Syn. -- Midst, Middle. Midst in present usage commonly denotes a part or place surrounded on enveloped by or among other parts or objects (see Amidst); while middle is used of the center of length, or surface, or of a solid, etc. We say in the midst of a thicket; in the middle of a line, or the middle of a room; in the midst of darkness; in the middle of the night.


Midst (Page: 922)

Midst, prep. In the midst of; amidst. Shak.


Midst (Page: 922)

Midst, adv. In the middle. [R.] Milton.


Milepost (Page: 923)

Mile"post` (?), n. A post, or one of a series of posts, set up to indicate spaces of a mile each or the distance in miles from a given place.


Militarist (Page: 923)

Mil"i*ta*rist (?), n. A military man. [Obs.] Shak.


Millennialist (Page: 924)

Mil*len"ni*al*ist, n. One who believes that Christ will reign personally on earth a thousand years; a Chiliast; also, a believer in the universal prevalence of Christianity for a long period.


Millennist (Page: 924)

Mil"len*nist (?), n. One who believes in the millennium. [Obs.] Johnson.


Mineralist (Page: 926)

Min"er*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. minéraliste.] One versed in minerals; mineralogist. [R.]


Mineralogist (Page: 926)

Min`er*al"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. minéralogiste.]

1. One versed in mineralogy; one devoted to the study of minerals.

2. (Zoöl.) A carrier shell (Phorus).


Miniaturist (Page: 926)

Min"i*a*tur`ist (?), n. A painter of miniatures.


Ministerialist (Page: 926)

Min`is*te"ri*al*ist, n. A supporter of the ministers, or the party in power.


Misadjust (Page: 928)

Mis`ad*just" (?), v. t. To adjust wrongly of unsuitably; to throw of adjustment. I. Taylor.


Misanthropist (Page: 928)

Mis*an"thro*pist (?), n. A misanthrope.


Miscast (Page: 928)

Mis*cast" (?), v. t. To cast or reckon wrongly.


Miscast (Page: 928)

Mis*cast", n. An erroneous cast or reckoning.


Miscellanist (Page: 928)

Mis"cel*la*nist (?), n. A writer of miscellanies; miscellanarian.


Misogamist (Page: 930)

Mi*sog"a*mist (?), n. [Gr. to hate + marriage.] A hater of marriage.


Misogynist (Page: 930)

Mi*sog"y*nist (?), n. [Gr. , ; to hate + woman: cf. F. misogyne.] A woman hater. Fuller.


Mist (Page: 931)

Mist (?), n. [AS. mist; akin to D. & Sw. mist, Icel. mistr, G. mist dung, Goth. ma\'a1hstus, AS. mīgan to make water, Icel. mīga, Lith. migla mist, Russ. mgla, L. mingere, meiere, to make water, gr. to make water, mist, Skr. mih to make water, n., a mist mgha cloud. √102. Cf. Misle, Mizzle, Mixen.]

1. Visible watery vapor suspended in the atmosphere, at or near the surface of the earth; fog.

2. Coarse, watery vapor, floating or falling in visible particles, approaching the form of rain; as, Scotch mist.

3. Hence, anything which dims or darkens, and obscures or intercepts vision.

His passion cast a mist before his sense. Dryden.
Mist flower (Bot.), a composite plant (Eupatorium cœlestinum), having heart-shaped leaves, and corymbs of lavender-blue flowers. It is found in the Western and Southern United States.
Mist (Page: 931)

Mist, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Misted; p. pr. & vb. n. Misting.] To cloud; to cover with mist; to dim. Shak.


Mist (Page: 931)

Mist, v. i.To rain in very fine drops; as, it mists.


Mistrist (Page: 932)

Mis*trist" (?), v. t. To mistrust. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Mistrust (Page: 932)

Mis*trust" (?), n. Want of confidence or trust; suspicion; distrust. Milton.


Mistrust (Page: 932)

Mis*trust", v. t.

1. To regard with jealousy or suspicion; to suspect; to doubt the integrity of; to distrust.

I will never mistrust my wife again. Shak.

2. To forebode as near, or likely to occur; to surmise.

By a divine instinct, men's minds mistrust Ensuing dangers. Shak.

Mizzenmast (Page: 933)

Miz"zen*mast (?), n. (Naut.) The hindmost mast of a three-masted vessel, or of a yawl-rigged vessel.


Modalist (Page: 934)

Mo"dal*ist, n. (Theol.) One who regards Father, Son, and Spirit as modes of being, and not as persons, thus denying personal distinction in the Trinity. Eadie.


Modernist (Page: 935)

Mod"ern*ist, n. [Cf. F. moderniste.] One who admires the moderns, or their ways and fashions.


Modest (Page: 935)

Mod"est (?), a. [F. modeste, L. modestus, fr. modus measure. See Mode.]

1. Restraining within due limits of propriety; not forward, bold, boastful, or presumptious; rather retiring than pushing one's self forward; not obstructive; as, a modest youth; a modest man.

2. Observing the proprieties of the sex; not unwomanly in act or bearing; free from undue familiarity, indecency, or lewdness; decent in speech and demeanor; -- said of a woman.

Mrs. Ford, the honest woman, the modest wife. Shak.
The blushing beauties of a modest maid. Dryden.

3. Evincing modestly in the actor, author, or speaker; not showing presumption; not excessive or extreme; moderate; as, a modest request; modest joy. Syn. -- Reserved; unobtrusive; diffident; bashful; coy; shy; decent; becoming; chaste; virtuous.


Modist (Page: 935)

Mod"ist (?), n. One who follows the fashion.


Moist (Page: 936)

Moist (?), a. [OE. moiste, OF. moiste, F. moite, fr. L. muccidus, for mucidus, moldy, musty. Cf. Mucus, Mucid.]

1. Moderately wet; damp; humid; not dry; as, a moist atmosphere or air. Moist eyes." Shak.

2. Fresh, or new. [Obs.] Shoes full moist and new." A draught of moist and corny ale." Chaucer.


Moist (Page: 936)

Moist, v. t. To moisten. [Obs.] Shak.


Molecast (Page: 936)

Mole"cast` (?), n. A little elevation of earth made by a mole; a molehill. Mortimer.


Molest (Page: 937)

Mo*lest" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Molested; p. pr. & vb. n. Molesting.] [F. molester, L. molestare, fr. molestus troublesome, fr. moles a heavy mass, load, burden. See 3d Mole.] To trouble; to disturb; to render uneasy; to interfere with; to vex.

They have molested the church with needless opposition. Hooker.
Syn. -- To trouble; disturb; incommode; inconvenience; annoy; vex; tease.
Molest (Page: 937)

Mo*lest", n. Molestation. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Molinist (Page: 937)

Mo"lin*ist, n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of the opinions of Molina, a Spanish Jesuit (in respect to grace); an opposer of the Jansenists.


Monarchist (Page: 938)

Mon"arch*ist, n. [Cf. F. monarchiste.] An advocate of, or believer in, monarchy.


Monest (Page: 938)

Mo*nest" (?), v. t. [See Admonish.] To warn; to admonish; to advise. [Obs.] Wyclif (2 Cor. v. 20).


Monist (Page: 939)

Mon"ist, n. A believer in monism.


Monodist (Page: 940)

Mon"o*dist (?), n. A writer of a monody.


Monogamist (Page: 940)

Mo*nog"a*mist (?), n. One who practices or upholds monogamy. Goldsmith.


Monogenist (Page: 940)

Mo*nog"e*nist (?), n. (Anthropol.) One who maintains that the human races are all of one species; -- opposed to polygenist.


Monographist (Page: 940)

Mo*nog"ra*phist (?), n. One who writes a monograph.


Monologist (Page: 940)

Mo*nol"o*gist (?), n. [See Monologue.] One who soliloquizes; esp., one who monopolizes conversation in company. De Quincey.


Monomachist (Page: 940)

Mo*nom"a*chist (?), n. One who fights in single combat; a duelist.


Monometallist (Page: 940)

Mon`o*met"al*list (?), n. One who believes in monometallism as opposed to bimetallism, etc.


Monoplast (Page: 940)

Mon"o*plast (?), n. [Mono- + -plast.] (Biol.) A monoplastic element.


Monopolist (Page: 941)

Mo*nop"o*list (?), n. One who monopolizes; one who has a monopoly; one who favors monopoly.


Monotheist (Page: 941)

Mon"o*the*ist, n. [Cf. F. monothéiste.] One who believes that there is but one God.


Monotonist (Page: 941)

Mo*not"o*nist (?), n. One who talks in the same strain or on the same subject until weariness is produced. Richardson.


Montanist (Page: 941)

Mon"ta*nist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Mintanus, a Phrygian enthusiast of the second century, who claimed that the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete, dwelt in him, and employed him as an instrument for purifying and guiding men in the Christian life. -- Mon`ta*nis"tic (#), Mon`ta*nis"tic*al (#), a.


Moralist (Page: 943)

Mor"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. moraliste.]

1. One who moralizes; one who teaches or animadverts upon the duties of life; a writer of essays intended to correct vice and inculcate moral duties. Addison.

2. One who practices moral duties; a person who lives in conformity with moral rules; one of correct deportment and dealings with his fellow-creatures; -- sometimes used in contradistinction to one whose life is controlled by religious motives.

The love (in the moralist of virtue, but in the Christian) of God himself. Hammond.

Morphologist (Page: 945)

Mor*phol"o*gist (?), n. (Biol.) One who is versed in the science of morphology.


Most (Page: 947)

Most (?), a., superl. of More. [OE. most, mast, mest, AS. mst; akin to D. meest, OS. mēst, G. meist, Icel. mestr, Goth. maists; a superl. corresponding to E. more. √103. See More, a.]

1. Consisting of the greatest number or quantity; greater in number or quantity than all the rest; nearly all. Most men will proclaim every one his own goodness." Prov. xx. 6.

The cities wherein most of his mighty works were done. Matt. xi. 20.

2. Greatest in degree; as, he has the most need of it. In the moste pride." Chaucer.

3. Highest in rank; greatest. [Obs.] Chaucer. &hand; Most is used as a noun, the words part, portion, quantity, etc., being omitted, and has the following meanings: 1. The greatest value, number, or part; preponderating portion; highest or chief part. 2. The utmost; greatest possible amount, degree, or result; especially in the phrases to make the most of, at the most, at most.

A quarter of a year or some months at the most. Bacon.
A covetous man makes the most of what he has. L'Estrange.
For the most part, in reference to the larger part of a thing, or to the majority of the persons, instances, or things referred to; as, human beings, for the most part, are superstitious; the view, for the most part, was pleasing. -- Most an end, generally. See An end, under End, n. [Obs.] She sleeps most an end." Massinger.
Most (Page: 947)

Most, adv. [AS. m&aemac;st. See Most, a.] In the greatest or highest degree.

Those nearest to this king, and most his favorites, were courtiers and prelates. Milton.
&hand; Placed before an adjective or adverb, most is used to form the superlative degree, being equivalent to the termination -est
; as, most
vile, most
wicked; most illustrious; most rapidly. Formerly, and until after the Elizabethan period of our literature, the use of the double superlative was common. See More, adv.
The most unkindest cut of all. Shak.
The most straitest sect of our religion. Acts xxvi. 5.

Motionist (Page: 948)

Mo"tion*ist, n. A mover. [Obs.]


Must (Page: 957)

Must (?), v. i. ∨ auxiliary. [OE. moste, a pret. generally meaning, could, was free to, pres. mot, moot, AS. mste, pret. mt, pres.; akin to D. moetan to be obliged, OS. mtan to be free, to be obliged, OHG. muozan, G. m\'81ssen to be obliged, Sw. måste must, Goth. gamtan to have place, have room, to able; of unknown origin.]

1. To be obliged; to be necessitated; -- expressing either physical or moral necessity; as, a man must eat for nourishment; we must submit to the laws.

2. To be morally required; to be necessary or essential to a certain quality, character, end, or result; as, he must reconsider the matter; he must have been insane.

Likewise must the deacons be grave. 1 Tim. iii. 8.
Morover, he [a bishop] must have a good report of them which are without. 1 Tim. iii. 7.
&hand; The principal verb, if easy supplied by the mind, was formerly often omitted when must was used; as, I must away. I must to Coventry." Shak.
Must (Page: 957)

Must, n. [AS. must, fr. L. mustum (sc. vinum), from mustus young, new, fresh. Cf. Mustard.]

1. The expressed juice of the grape, or other fruit, before fermentation. These men ben full of must." Wyclif (Acts ii. 13. ).

No fermenting must fills ... the deep vats. Longfellow.

2. [Cf. Musty.] Mustiness.


Must (Page: 957)

Must, v. t. & i. To make musty; to become musty.


Mycologist (Page: 958)

My*col"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in, or who studies, mycology.


Myologist (Page: 959)

My*ol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in myology.


Myriologist (Page: 959)

Myr`i*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who composes or sings a myriologue.


Myropolist (Page: 960)

My*rop"o*list (?), n. [Gr. ; unguent + to sell.] One who sells unguents or perfumery. [Obs.] Jonhson.


Mythologist (Page: 960)

My*thol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. mythologiste.] One versed in, or who writes on, mythology or myths.


Nape-crest (Page: 962)

Nape"-crest` (?), n. (Zoöl.) An African bird of the genus Schizorhis, related to the plantain eaters.


Napoleonist (Page: 962)

Na*po"le*on*ist (?), n. A supporter of the dynasty of the Napoleons.


Nationalist (Page: 964)

Na"tion*al*ist, n. One who advocates national unity and independence; one of a party favoring Irish independence.


Nativist (Page: 964)

Na"tiv*ist (?), n. An advocate of nativism.


Naturalist (Page: 965)

Nat"u*ral*ist, n. [Cf. F. naturaliste.]

1. One versed in natural science; a student of natural history, esp. of the natural history of animals.

2. One who holds or maintains the doctrine of naturalism in religion. H. Bushnell.


Naturist (Page: 965)

Na"tur*ist, n. One who believes in, or conforms to, the theory of naturism. Boyle.


Necrologist (Page: 967)

Ne*crol"o*gist (?), n. One who gives an account of deaths.


Needscost (Page: 968)

Needs"cost` (?), adv. Of necessity. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Nefast (Page: 968)

Ne"fast (?), a. [L. nefastus.] Wicked. [R.]


Nematoblast (Page: 970)

Nem"a*to*blast (?), n. [Nemato- + -blast.] (Biol.) A spermatocyte or spermoblast.


Nematocyst (Page: 970)

Nem"a*to*cyst (?), n. [Nemato- + cyst.] (Zoöl.) A lasso cell, or thread cell. See Lasso cell, under Lasso.


Nemophilist (Page: 970)

Ne*moph"i*list (?), n. [See Nemophily.] One who is fond of forest or forest scenery; a haunter of the woods. [R.]


Neogamist (Page: 970)

Ne*og"a*mist (?), n. [Gr. newly married.] A person recently married.


Neologist (Page: 970)

Ne*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. néologiste.]

1. One who introduces new word or new senses of old words into a language.

2. An innovator in any doctrine or system of belif, especially in theology; one who introduces or holds doctrines subversie of supernatural or revealed religion; a rationalist, so-called.


Neoplatonist (Page: 970)

Ne`o*pla"to*nist (?), n. One who held to Neoplatonism; a member of the Neoplatonic school.


Neoterist (Page: 970)

Ne*ot"er*ist, n. One ho introduces new word or phrases. Fitzed Hall.


Nephalist (Page: 971)

Neph"a*list (?), n. [Cf. F. néphaliste.] One who advocates or practices nephalism.


Nepotist (Page: 971)

Nep"o*tist (?), n. One who practices nepotism.


Neptunian, Neptunist (Page: 971)

Nep*tu"ni*an (?), Nep"tu*nist (?), n. [Cf. F. neptinien, neptuniste.] (Geol.) One who adopts the neptunian theory.


Nest (Page: 972)

Nest (?), n. [AS. nest; akin to D. & G. nest, Sw. näste, L. nidus, for nisdus, Skr. nīa resting place, nest; cf. Lith. lizdas, Arm. neiz, Gael. & Ir. nead. Prob. from the particle ni down, Skr. ni + the root of E. sit, and thus orig., a place to sit down in. &root; 264. See Nether, and Sit, and cf. Eyas, Nidification, Nye.]

1. The bed or receptacle prepared by a fowl for holding her eggs and for hatching and rearing her young.

The birds of the air have nests. Matt. viii. 20.

2. Hence: the place in which the eggs of other animals, as insects, turtles, etc., are laid and hatched; a snug place in which young animals are reared. Bentley.

3. A snug, comfortable, or cozy residence or situation; a retreat, or place of habitual resort; hence, those who occupy a nest, frequent a haunt, or are associated in the same pursuit; as, a nest of traitors; a nest of bugs.

A little cottage, like some poor man's nest. Spenser.

4. (Geol.) An aggregated mass of any ore or mineral, in an isolated state, within a rock.

5. A collection of boxes, cases, or the like, of graduated size, each put within the one next larger.

6. (Mech.) A compact group of pulleys, gears, springs, etc., working together or collectively. Nest egg, an egg left in the nest to prevent the hen from forsaking it, and to induce her to lay more in the same place; hence, figuratively, something laid up as the beginning of a fund or collection. Hudibras.


Nest (Page: 972)

Nest (?), v. i. To build and occupy a nest.

The king of birds nested within his leaves. Howell.

Nest (Page: 972)

Nest, v. t. To put into a nest; to form a nest for.

From him who nested himself into the chief power. South.

Nethermost (Page: 972)

Neth"er*most` (?), a. [AS. ni()emest. See Nether, and cf. Aftermost.] Lowest; as, the nethermost abyss. Milton.


Neurologist (Page: 972)

Neu*rol"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in neurology; also, one skilled in the treatment of nervous diseases.


Neurospast (Page: 973)

Neu"ro*spast (?), n. [L. neurospaston, Gr. , fr. drawn by strings.] A puppet. [R.] Dr. H. More.


Neurotomist (Page: 973)

Neu*rot"o*mist (?), n. One who skilled in or practices neurotomy.


Neutralist (Page: 973)

Neu"tral*ist, n. A neutral; one who professes or practices neutrality. Milman.


Newfanglist (Page: 973)

New"fan`glist (?), n. One who is eager for novelties or desirous of change. [Obs.] Tooker.


Niellist (Page: 975)

Ni*el"list (?), n. One who practices the style of ornamentation called niello.


Nihilist (Page: 976)

Ni"hil*ist, n. [Cf. F. nihiliste. See Nihilism.]

1. One who advocates the doctrine of nihilism; one who believes or teaches that nothing can be known, or asserted to exist.

2. (Politics) A member of a secret association (esp. in Russia), which is devoted to the destruction of the present political, religious, and social institutions.


Noölogist (Page: 981)

No*öl"o*gist (?), n. One versed in noölogy.


Noctambulist (Page: 978)

Noc*tam"bu*list (?), n. A somnambulist.


Nominalist (Page: 979)

Nom"i*nal*ist, n. (Metaph.) One of a sect of philosophers in the Middle Ages, who adopted the opinion of Roscelin, that general conceptions, or universals, exist in name only. Reid.


Nonconformist (Page: 980)

Non`con*form"ist, n. One who does not conform to an established church; especially, one who does not conform to the established church of England; a dissenter.


Nonuniformist (Page: 981)

Non*u"ni*form`ist (?), n. One who believes that past changes in the structure of the earth have proceeded from cataclysms or causes more violent than are now operating; -- called also nonuniformitarian.


Nonunionist (Page: 981)

Non*un"ion*ist (?), n. One who does not belong, or refuses to belong, to a trades union.


Northeast (Page: 982)

North`east" (?), n. The point between the north and east, at an equal distance from each; the northeast part or region.


Northeast (Page: 982)

North`east", a. Of or pertaining to the northeast; proceeding toward the northeast, or coming from that point; as, a northeast course; a northeast wind. Northeast passage, a passage or communication by sea between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans along the north coast of Asia.


Northeast (Page: 982)

North`east", adv. Toward the northeast.


Northernmost (Page: 982)

North"ern*most` (?), a. [Cf. Northmost.] Farthest north.


Northmost (Page: 982)

North"most` (?), a. [AS. normest. Cf.Aftermost.] Lying farthest north; northernmost.

Northmost part of the coast of Mozambique. De Foe.

Northwest (Page: 982)

North`west" (?), n. [AS. nor&edh;west.] The point in the horizon between the north and west, and equally distant from each; the northwest part or region.


Northwest (Page: 982)

North`west", a.

1. Pertaining to, or in the direction of, the point between the north and west; being in the northwest; toward the northwest, or coming from the northwest; as, the northwest coast.

2. Coming from the northwest; as, a northwest wind. Northwest passage, a passage or communication by sea between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans along the north coast of America, long sought for by navigators.


Northwest (Page: 982)

North`west", adv. Toward the northwest.


Nosologist (Page: 982)

No*sol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. nosologiste.] One versed in nosology.


Nost (Page: 982)

Nost (?). [Contr. from ne wost.] Wottest not; knowest not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Notionist (Page: 983)

No"tion*ist, n. One whose opinions are ungrounded notions. [R.] Bp. Hopkins.


Notist (Page: 983)

No"tist (?), n. An annotator. [Obs.]


Novelist (Page: 984)

Nov"el*ist, n.

1. An innovator; an asserter of novelty. [Obs.] Cudworth.

2. [Cf. F. nouvelliste, It. novellista.] A writer of news. [Obs.] Tatler (178).

3. [Cf. F. nouvelliste.] A writer of a novel or novels.


Numerist (Page: 986)

Nu"mer*ist (?), n. One who deals in numbers. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


Numismatist (Page: 986)

Nu*mis"ma*tist (?), n. One skilled in numismatics; a numismatologist.


Numismatologist (Page: 986)

Nu*mis`ma*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in numismatology. <-- now usu. numismatist -->


Oölogist (Page: 1003)

O*öl"o*gist (?), n. One versed in oölogy.


Objectist (Page: 990)

Ob"ject*ist (?), n. One who adheres to, or is skilled in, the objective philosophy. Ed. Rev.


Oboist (Page: 991)

O"bo*ist (?), n. A performer on the oboe.


Obscurantist (Page: 991)

Ob*scur"ant*ist, n. Same as Obscurant. Ed. Rev.


Obstructionist (Page: 993)

Ob*struc"tion*ist, n. One who hinders progress; one who obstructs business, as in a legislative body. -- a. Of or pertaining to obstructionists. [Recent]


Obtest (Page: 993)

Ob*test" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Obtested; p. pr. & vb. n. Obtesting.] [L. obtestari; ob (see Ob-) + testari to witness, fr. testis a witness.]

1. To call to witness; to invoke as a witness. [R.] Dryden.

2. To beseech; to supplicate; to beg for. [R.]


Obtest (Page: 993)

Ob*test", v. i. To protest. [R.] E. Waterhouse.


Obtrusionist (Page: 993)

Ob*tru"sion*ist, n. One who practices or excuses obtrusion. [R.] Gent. Mag.


Occultist (Page: 994)

Oc*cult"ist, n. An adherent of occultism.


Oculist (Page: 996)

Oc"u*list (?), n. [L. oculus the eye: cf. F. oculiste.] One skilled in treating diseases of the eye.


Odist (Page: 996)

Od"ist (?), n. A writer of an ode or odes.


Odontoblast (Page: 996)

O*don"to*blast (?), n. [Odonto- + -blast.]

1. (Anat.) One of the more or less columnar cells on the outer surface of the pulp of a tooth; an odontoplast. They are supposed to be connected with the formation of dentine.

2. (Zoöl.) One of the cells which secrete the chitinous teeth of Mollusca. [997]


Odontoplast (Page: 997)

O*don"to*plast (?), n. [Odonto- + Gr. to form, mold.] (Anat.) An odontoblast.


Oligarchist (Page: 1000)

Ol"i*gar`chist (?), n. An advocate or supporter of oligarchy.


Oligist (Page: 1000)

Ol"i*gist (?), n. [See Oligist, a.] (Min.) Hematite or specular iron ore; -- prob. so called in allusion to its feeble magnetism, as compared with magnetite.


Oneiroscopist (Page: 1003)

O`nei*ros"co*pist, n. One who interprets dreams.


Onomatologist (Page: 1003)

On`o*ma*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in the history of names. Southey.


Ontologist (Page: 1003)

On*tol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf.F. ontologiste.] One who is versed in or treats of ontology. Edin. Rev.


Ophiologist (Page: 1005)

O`phi*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in the natural history of serpents.


Ophthalmologist (Page: 1005)

Oph`thal*mol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in ophthalmology; an oculist.


Opinionatist (Page: 1006)

O*pin"ion*a*tist (?), n. An opinionist. [Obs.]


Opinionist (Page: 1006)

O*pin"ion*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. opinioniste.] One fond of his own notions, or unduly attached to his own opinions. Glanvill.


Opportunist (Page: 1006)

Op`por*tun"ist, n. [Cf. F. opportuniste.] One who advocates or practices opportunism. [Recent]


Oppositionist (Page: 1007)

Op`po*si"tion*ist, n. One who belongs to the opposition party. Praed.


Optimist (Page: 1007)

Op"ti*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. optimiste.]

1. (Metaph.) One who holds the opinion that all events are ordered for the best.

2. One who looks on the bright side of things, or takes hopeful views; -- opposed to pessimist.


Orchardist (Page: 1009)

Or"chard*ist, n. One who cultivates an orchard.


Orchidologist (Page: 1009)

Or`chid*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in orchidology.


Organist (Page: 1011)

Or"gan*ist, n. [Cf. F. organiste.]

1. (Mus.) One who plays on the organ.

2. (R. C. Ch.) One of the priests who organized or sung in parts. [Obs.]


Organographist (Page: 1011)

Or`ga*nog"ra*phist (?), n. One versed in organography.


Orientalist (Page: 1012)

O`ri*en"tal*ist, n. [Cf. F. orientaliste.]

1. An inhabitant of the Eastern parts of the world; an Oriental.

2. One versed in Eastern languages, literature, etc.; as, the Paris Congress of Orientalists. Sir J. Shore.


Origenist (Page: 1012)

Or"i*gen*ist, n. A follower of Origen of Alexandria.


Originalist (Page: 1012)

O*rig"i*nal*ist, n. One who is original. [R.]


Ornithologist (Page: 1013)

Or`ni*thol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. ornithologiste.] One skilled in ornithology; a student of ornithology; one who describes birds.


Ornithotomist (Page: 1013)

Or`ni*thot"o*mist (?), n. One who is skilled in ornithotomy.


Orologist (Page: 1013)

O*rol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in orology.


Orthoëpist (Page: 1014)

Or"tho*ë*pist (?), n. One who is skilled in orthoëpy.


Orthographist (Page: 1014)

Or*thog"ra*phist (?), n. One who spells words correctly; an orthographer.


Orthopedist (Page: 1014)

Or*thop"e*dist (?), n. (Med.) One who prevents, cures, or remedies deformities, esp. in children.


Oryctologist (Page: 1014)

Or`yc*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in oryctology. [Obs.]


Ost (Page: 1015)

Ost (?), n. See Oast.


Osteoblast (Page: 1016)

Os"te*o*blast (?), n. [Osteo- + -blast.] (Anat.) One of the protoplasmic cells which occur in the osteogenetic layer of the periosteum, and from or around which the matrix of the bone is developed; an osteoplast.


Osteoclast (Page: 1016)

Os"te*o*clast (?), n. [Osteo- + Gr. to break.]

1. (Physiol.) A myeloplax. &hand; The osteoclasts occur usually in pits or cavities which they appear to have excavated, and are supposed to be concerned in the absorption of the bone matrix.

2. An instrument for performing osteoclasis.


Osteologist (Page: 1016)

Os`te*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who is skilled in osteology; an osteologer.


Osteoplast (Page: 1016)

Os"te*o*plast (?), n. [Osteo- + Gr. to form.] (Anat.) An osteoblast.


Osteotomist (Page: 1016)

Os`te*ot"o*mist (?), n. One skilled in osteotomy.


Ostreophagist (Page: 1016)

Os`tre*oph"a*gist (?), n. [Gr. an oyster + to eat.] One who feeds on oysters.


Otocyst (Page: 1017)

O"to*cyst (?), n. [Oto- + cyst.] (Zoöl. & Anat.) An auditory cyst or vesicle; one of the simple auditory organs of many invertebrates, containing a fluid and otoliths; also, the embryonic vesicle from which the parts of the internal ear of vertebrates are developed.


Otologist (Page: 1017)

O*tol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in otology; an aurist.


Oueen-post (Page: 1176)

Oueen"-post` (?), n. [Arch.] One of two suspending posts in a roof truss, or other framed truss of similar form. See King-post.


Ouranographist (Page: 1017)

Ou`ra*nog"ra*phist (?), n. See Uranographist.


Oust (Page: 1018)

Oust (?), n. See Oast.


Oust (Page: 1018)

Oust, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ousted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ousting.] [OF. oster, F. \'93ter, prob. fr. L. obstare to oppose, hence, to forbid, take away. See Obstacle, and cf. Ouster.]

1. To take away; to remove.

Multiplication of actions upon the case were rare, formerly, and thereby wager of law ousted. Sir M. Hale.

2. To eject; to turn out. Blackstone.

From mine own earldom foully ousted me. Tennyson.

Outbreast (Page: 1018)

Out*breast" (?), v. t. To surpass in singing. See Breast, n., 6. [Obs.]


Outburst (Page: 1018)

Out"burst` (?), n. A bursting forth.


Outcast (Page: 1018)

Out"cast` (?), a. [Cf. Sw. utkasta to cast out.] Cast out; degraded. Outcast, rejected." Longfellow.


Outcast (Page: 1018)

Out"cast`, n.

1. One who is cast out or expelled; an exile; one driven from home, society, or country; hence, often, a degraded person; a vagabond.

The Lord . . . gathereth together the outcasts of Israel. Ps. cxlvii. 2.

2. A quarrel; a contention. [Scot.] Jamieson.


Outermost (Page: 1018)

Out"er*most` (?), a. [See Uttermost, Utmost, and cf. Outmost.] Being on the extreme external part; farthest outward; as, the outermost row. Boyle. [1019]


Outfeast (Page: 1019)

Out*feast" (?), v. t. To exceed in feasting.


Outjest (Page: 1019)

Out*jest" (?), v. t. To surpass in jesting; to drive out, or away, by jesting. [R.] Shak.


Outlast (Page: 1019)

Out*last" (?), v. t. To exceed in duration; to survive; to endure longer than. Milton.


Outmost (Page: 1019)

Out"most` (?), a. [OE. outemest, utmest, AS. temest, a superl. fr. te out. See Out, Utmost, and cf. Outermost.] Farthest from the middle or interior; farthest outward; outermost.


Outpost (Page: 1019)

Out"post` (?), n. (Mil.) (a) A post or station without the limits of a camp, or at a distance from the main body of an army, for observation of the enemy. (b) The troops placed at such a station.


Outwrest (Page: 1020)

Out*wrest" (?), v. t. To extort; to draw from or forth by violence. [Obs.] Spenser.


Ovariotomist (Page: 1021)

O*va`ri*ot"o*mist (?), n. One who performs, or is skilled in, ovariotomy.


Overcast (Page: 1022)

O`ver*cast" (?), v. t.

1. To cast or cover over; hence, to cloud; to darken.

Those clouds that overcast your morn shall fly. Dryden.

2. To compute or rate too high. Bacon.

3. (Sewing) To take long, loose stitches over (the raw edges of a seam) to prevent raveling.


Overearnest (Page: 1022)

O`ver*ear"nest (?), a. Too earnest. -- O"ver*ear"nest*ly, adv. -- O"ver*ear"nest*ness, n.


Overest (Page: 1022)

O"ver*est (?), a. [Superl. of Over.] Uppermost; outermost.

Full threadbare was his overeste courtepy. Chaucer.
<-- sic -->
Overmast (Page: 1023)

O`ver*mast" (?), v. t. (Naut.) To furnish (a vessel) with too long or too heavy a mast or masts.


Overmodest (Page: 1023)

O"ver*mod"est (?), a. Modest to excess; bashful. -- O"ver*mod"est*ly, adv.


Overmoist (Page: 1023)

O"ver*moist" (?), a. Excessively moist. Bacon.


Overmost (Page: 1023)

O"ver*most` (?), a. Over the rest in authority; above all others; highest. [Obs.] Fabyan.


Overpost (Page: 1023)

O`ver*post" (?), v. t. To post over; to pass over swiftly, as by post. Shak.


Overroast (Page: 1024)

O`ver*roast" (?), v. t. To roast too much. Shak.


Overtrust (Page: 1025)

O"ver*trust` (?), n. Excessive confidence.


Overtrust (Page: 1025)

O`ver*trust", v. t. & i. To trust too much. Bp. Hall.


Overwrest (Page: 1025)

O`ver*wrest" (?), v. t. To wrest or force from the natural or proper position. Shak.


Ovicyst (Page: 1025)

O"vi*cyst (?), n. [Ovum + cyst.] (Zoöl.) The pouch in which incubation takes place in some Tunicata.


Ovist (Page: 1025)

O"vist (?), n. (Biol.) Same as Ovulist.


Ovulist (Page: 1025)

O"vu*list (?) n. (Biol.) A believer in the theory (called encasement theory), current during the last century, that the egg was the real animal germ, and that at the time of fecundation the spermatozoa simply gave the impetus which caused the unfolding of the egg, in which all generations were inclosed one within the other. Also called ovist.


Palætiologist (Page: 1031)

Pa*læ`ti*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in palætiology.


Paleobotanist (Page: 1032)

Pa`le*o*bot"a*nist (?), n. One versed in paleobotany.


Paleographist (Page: 1032)

Pa`le*og"ra*phist (?), n. One versed in paleography; a paleographer.


Paleologist (Page: 1032)

Pa`le*ol"ogist (?), n. One versed in paleology; a student of antiquity.


Paleontologist (Page: 1032)

Pa`le*on*tol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. paléontologiste.] One versed in paleontology.


Paleophytologist (Page: 1032)

Pa`le*o*phy*tol"o*gist (?), n. A paleobotanist.


Palimpsest (Page: 1032)

Pal"imp*sest (?), n. [L. palimpsestus, Gr. scratched or scraped again, a palimpsest; again + to rub, rub away: cf. F. palimpseste.] A parchment which has been written upon twice, the first writing having been erased to make place for the second. Longfellow.


Palindromist (Page: 1032)

Pa*lin"dro*mist (?), n. A writer of palindromes.


Palmcrist (Page: 1033)

Palm"crist (?), n. The palma Christi. (Jonah iv. 6, margin, and Douay version, note.)


Pancratiast (Page: 1035)

Pan*cra"ti*ast (?), n. One who engaged in the contests of the pancratium.


Pancratist (Page: 1035)

Pan"cra*tist (?), n. An athlete; a gymnast.


Panegyrist (Page: 1035)

Pan"e*gyr`ist (?), n. [L. panegyrista, Gr. one who attends a : cf. to celebrate or attend a public festival, to make a set speech, esp. a panegyric, in a public assembly. See Panegyric.] One who delivers a panegyric; a eulogist; one who extols or praises, either by writing or speaking.

If these panegyrists are in earnest. Burke.

Panhellenist (Page: 1036)

Pan*hel"len*ist, n. An advocate of Panhellenism.


Panslavist (Page: 1036)

Pan`slav"ist (?), n. One who favors Panslavism.


Panspermatist, Panspermist (Page: 1036)

Pan*sper"ma*tist (?), Pan"sper`mist (?), n. (Biol.) A believer in panspermy; one who rejects the theory of spontaneous generation; a biogenist.


Pantheist (Page: 1037)

Pan"the*ist, n. One who holds to pantheism.


Pantheologist (Page: 1037)

Pan`the*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in pantheology.


Pantisocratist (Page: 1037)

Pan`ti*soc"ra*tist (?), n. One who favors or supports the theory of a pantisocracy. Macaulay.


Pantologist (Page: 1037)

Pan*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in pantology; a writer of pantology.


Pantomimist (Page: 1037)

Pan"to*mi`mist (?), n. An actor in pantomime; also, a composer of pantomimes.


Pantophagist (Page: 1037)

Pan*toph"a*gist (?), n. [See Pantophagous.] A person or an animal that has the habit of eating all kinds of food.


Papalist (Page: 1037)

Pa"pal*ist (?), n. A papist. [Obs.] Baxter.


Papist (Page: 1038)

Pa"pist (?), n. [F. papiste. See Pape, Pope.] A Roman catholic; one who adheres to the Church of Rome and the authority of the pope; -- an offensive designation applied to Roman Catholics by their opponents.


Parablast (Page: 1038)

Par"a*blast (?), n. [Cf. Gr. to grow beside. See Para-, and -blast.] (Biol.) A portion of the mesoblast (of peripheral origin) of the developing embryo, the cells of which are especially concerned in forming the first blood and blood vessels. C. S. Minot.


Parabolist (Page: 1039)

Pa*rab"o*list (?), n. A narrator of parables.


Paracelsist (Page: 1039)

Par`a*cel"sist (?), n. A Paracelsian.


Paradoxer, n., Paradoxist (Page: 1039)

Par"a*dox`er (?), n., Par"a*dox`ist (), n. One who proposes a paradox.


Paragrammatist (Page: 1040)

Par`a*gram"ma*tist (?), n. A punster.


Paragraphist (Page: 1040)

Par"a*graph`ist (?), n. A paragrapher.


Paraphrast (Page: 1041)

Par"a*phrast (?), n. [L. paraphrastes, Gr. : cf. F. paraphraste.] A paraphraser. T. Warton.


Parodist (Page: 1044)

Par"o*dist (?), n. [Cf. F. parodiste.] One who writes a parody; one who parodies. Coleridge.


Partialist (Page: 1046)

Par"tial*ist n.

1. One who is partial. [R.]

2. (Theol.) One who holds that the atonement was made only for a part of mankind, that is, for the elect.


Particularist (Page: 1046)

Par*tic"u*lar*ist, n. [Cf. F. particulariste.] One who holds to particularism. -- Par*tic`u*lar*is"tic, a.


Passionist (Page: 1049)

Pas"sion*ist, n. (R. C. Ch.) A member of a religious order founded in Italy in 1737, and introduced into the United States in 1852. The members of the order unite the austerities of the Trappists with the activity and zeal of the Jesuits and Lazarists. Called also Barefooted Clerks of the Most Holy Cross.


Past (Page: 1049)

Past (?), a. [From Pass, v.] Of or pertaining to a former time or state; neither present nor future; gone by; elapsed; ended; spent; as, past troubles; past offences. Past ages." Milton. Past master. See under Master.


Past (Page: 1049)

Past, n. A former time or state; a state of things gone by. The past, at least, is secure." D. Webster.

The present is only intelligible in the light of the past, often a very remote past indeed. Trench.

Past (Page: 1049)

Past, prep.

1. Beyond, in position, or degree; further than; beyond the reach or influence of. Who being past feeling." Eph. iv. 19. Galled past endurance." Macaulay.

Until we be past thy borders. Num. xxi. 22.
Love, when once past government, is consequently past shame. L'Estrange.
[1050]

2. Beyond, in time; after; as, past the hour.

Is it not past two o'clock? Shak.

3. Above; exceeding; more than. [R.]

Not past three quarters of a mile. Shak.
Bows not past three quarters of a yard long. Spenser.

Past (Page: 1050)

Past (?), adv. By; beyond; as, he ran past.

The alarum of drums swept past. Longfellow.

Pathologist (Page: 1051)

Pa*thol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. pathologiste.] One skilled in pathology; an investigator in pathology; as, the pathologist of a hospital, whose duty it is to determine the causes of the diseases.


Patrist (Page: 1051)

Pa"trist (?), n. One versed in patristics.


Paulian, Paulianist (Page: 1051)

Pau"li*an (?), Pau"li*an*ist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Paul of Samosata, a bishop of Antioch in the third century, who was deposed for denying the divinity of Christ.


Paulist (Page: 1053)

Paul"ist (?), n. (R. C. Ch.) A member of The Institute of the Missionary Priests of St. Paul the Apostle, founded in 1858 by the Rev. I. T. Hecker of New York. The majority of the members were formerly Protestants.


Pederast (Page: 1057)

Ped"er*ast (?), n. [Gr. paiderasth`s; pai^s, paido`s, a boy + 'era^n to love: cf. F. pédéraste.] One guilty of pederasty; a sodomite.


Pedobaptist (Page: 1057)

Pe`do*bap"tist (?), n. One who advocates or practices infant baptism. [Written also pædobaptist.]


Penologist (Page: 1061)

Pe*nol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in, or a student of, penology.


Pentaspast (Page: 1062)

Pen"ta*spast (?), n. [L. pentaspaston, Gr. (see Penta-) + to pull: cf. F. pentaspaste.] A purchase with five pulleys. [R.]


Pentecost (Page: 1062)

Pen"te*cost (?), n. [L. pentecoste, Gr. (sc. ) the fiftieth day, Pentecost, fr. fiftieth, fr. fifty, fr. five. See Five, and cf. Pingster.]

1. A solemn festival of the Jews; -- so called because celebrated on the fiftieth day (seven weeks) after the second day of the Passover (which fell on the sixteenth of the Jewish month Nisan); -- hence called, also, the Feast of Weeks. At this festival an offering of the first fruits of the harvest was made. By the Jews it was generally regarded as commemorative of the gift of the law on the fiftieth day after the departure from Egypt.

2. A festival of the Roman Catholic and other churches in commemoration of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles; which occurred on the day of Pentecost; -- called also Whitsunday. Shak.


Perfectibilist (Page: 1065)

Per`fec*tib"i*list (?), n. A perfectionist. See also Illuminati, 2. [R.]


Perfectionist (Page: 1065)

Per*fec"tion*ist, n. One pretending to perfection; esp., one pretending to moral perfection; one who believes that persons may and do attain to moral perfection and sinlessness in this life. South.


Periblast (Page: 1066)

Per"i*blast (?), a. [Gr. to grow around. See Peri-, and -blast.] (Biol.) The protoplasmic matter which surrounds the entoblast, or cell nucleus, and undergoes segmentation. -- Per`i*blas"tic, a.


Periodicalist (Page: 1067)

Pe`ri*od"ic*al*ist, n. One who publishes, or writes for, a periodical.


Periplast (Page: 1067)

Per"i*plast (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. to mold, form.] (Biol.) Same as Periblast. -- Per`i*plas"tic (#), a. Huxley.


Persist (Page: 1070)

Per*sist" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Persisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Persisting.] [L. persistere; per + sistere to stand or be fixed, fr. stare to stand: cf. F. persister. See Per-, and Stand.] To stand firm; to be fixed and unmoved; to stay; to continue steadfastly; especially, to continue fixed in a course of conduct against opposing motives; to persevere; -- sometimes conveying an unfavorable notion, as of doggedness or obstinacy.

If they persist in pointing their batteries against particular persons, no laws of war forbid the making reprisals. Addison.
Some positive, persisting fops we know, Who, if once wrong, will needs be always so. Pope.
That face persists. It floats up; it turns over in my mind. Mrs. Browning.
Syn. -- See Persevere, and Insist.
Pessimist (Page: 1072)

Pes"si*mist (?), n. [L. pessimus worst: cf. F. pessimiste.]

1. (Metaph.) One who advocates the doctrine of pessimism; -- opposed to optimist.

2. One who looks on the dark side of things.


Pest (Page: 1072)

Pest (?), n. [L. pestis: cf. F. peste.]

1. A fatal epidemic disease; a pestilence; specif., the plague.

England's sufferings by that scourge, the pest. Cowper.

2. Anything which resembles a pest; one who, or that which, is troublesome, noxious, mischievous, or destructive; a nuisance. A pest and public enemy." South.


Petaurist (Page: 1072)

Pe*tau"rist (?), n. [L. petaurista a ropedancer, Gr. , fr. to dance on a rope, fr. a pole, a stage for ropedancers: cf. F. pétauriste.] (Zoöl.) Any flying marsupial of the genera Petaurus, Phalangista, Acrobata, and allied genera. See Flying mouse, under Flying, and Phalangister.


Petrologist (Page: 1073)

Pe*trol"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in petrology.


Phalangist (Page: 1074)

Pha*lan"gist (?), n. (Zoöl.) Any arboreal marsupial of the genus Phalangista. The vulpine phalangist (P. vulpina) is the largest species, the full grown male being about two and a half feet long. It has a large bushy tail. <-- Spanish history -- member of the Phalange -->


Pharmacist (Page: 1075)

Phar"ma*cist (?), n. One skilled in pharmacy; a pharmaceutist; a druggist.


Pharmacologist (Page: 1075)

Phar`ma*col"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. pharmacologiste.] One skilled in pharmacology.


Pharmacopolist (Page: 1075)

Phar`ma*cop"o*list (?), n. [L. pharmacopola, Gr. ; medicine + to sell.] One who sells medicines; an apothecary.


Pharmacuetist (Page: 1075)

Phar`ma*cue"tist (?), n. One skilled in pharmacy; a druggist. See the Note under Apothecary.


Phenomenist (Page: 1076)

Phe*nom"e*nist (?), n. One who believes in the theory of phenomenalism.


Philalethist (Page: 1076)

Phil`a*le"thist (?), n. [Philo- + Gr. truth.] A lover of the truth. [Obs.] Brathwait.


Philanthropinist (Page: 1076)

Phil`an*throp"i*nist (?), n. An advocate of, or believer in, philanthropinism.


Philanthropist (Page: 1076)

Phi*lan"thro*pist (?), n. [Gr. ; loving + man: cf. F. philanthrope.] One who practices philanthropy; one who loves mankind, and seeks to promote the good of others. <-- esp. a wealthy individual who donates large amounts of money to charitable or philanthropic causes -->


Philatelist (Page: 1076)

Phi*lat"e*list (?), n. One versed in philately; one who collects postage stamps.


Philhellenist (Page: 1076)

Phil*hel"len*ist, n. [Philo- + Gr. a Greek: cf. F. philhell\'8ane.] A friend of Greece; one who supports the cause of the Greeks; particularly, one who supported them in their struggle for independence against the Turks; a philhellene.


Philogynist (Page: 1076)

Phi*log"y*nist (?), n. [See Philogyny.] A lover or friend of women; one who esteems woman as the higher type of humanity; -- opposed to misogynist.


Philologist (Page: 1076)

Phi*lol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in philology.


Philosophist (Page: 1077)

Phi*los"o*phist (?), n. [Cf. F. philosophiste.] A pretender in philosophy.


Phlebotomist (Page: 1077)

Phle*bot"o*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. phlébotomiste.] (Med.) One who practiced phlebotomy.


Phonetist (Page: 1078)

Pho"ne*tist (?), n.

1. One versed in phonetics; a phonologist.

2. One who advocates a phonetic spelling.


Phonographist (Page: 1078)

Pho*nog"ra*phist (?), n. Phonographer.


Phonologist (Page: 1078)

Pho*nol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in phonology.


Phonotypist (Page: 1078)

Pho*not"y*pist (?), n. One versed in phonotypy.


Photographist (Page: 1079)

Pho*tog"ra*phist (?), n. A photographer.


Photologist (Page: 1079)

Pho*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who studies or expounds the laws of light.


Phraseologist (Page: 1079)

Phra`se*ol"o*gist (?), n. A collector or coiner of phrases.


Phrenologist (Page: 1080)

Phre*nol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. phrénologiste.] One versed in phrenology; a craniologist.


Phyllocyst (Page: 1080)

Phyl"lo*cyst (?), n. [Phyllo- + cyst.] (Zoöl.) The cavity of a hydrophyllium.


Physicist (Page: 1081)

Phys"i*cist (?), n. One versed in physics.

2. (Biol.) A believer in the theory that the fundamental phenomena of life are to be explained upon purely chemical and physical principles; -- opposed to vitalist.


Physiognomist (Page: 1081)

Phys`i*og*nom"ist (?), n. Same as Physiognomy, 1.


Physiognomist (Page: 1081)

Phys`i*og"no*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. physiognomiste.]

1. One skilled in physiognomy. Dryden.

2. One who tells fortunes by physiognomy. Holland.


Physiologist (Page: 1081)

Phys`i*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. physiologiste.] One who is versed in the science of physiology; a student of the properties and functions of animal and vegetable organs and tissues.


Physoclist (Page: 1081)

Phys"o*clist, n. (Zoöl.) One of the Physoclisti.


Phytolithologist (Page: 1082)

Phy`to*li*thol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in phytolithology; a paleobotanist.


Phytologist (Page: 1082)

Phy*tol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in phytology; a writer on plants; a botanist. Evelyn.


Phytopathologist (Page: 1082)

Phy`to*pa*thol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in diseases of plants.


Phytotomist (Page: 1082)

Phy*tot"o*mist (?), n. One versed in phytotomy.


Pianist (Page: 1082)

Pi*an"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. pianiste, It. pianista.] A performer, esp. a skilled performer, on the piano.


Piarist (Page: 1082)

Pi"a*rist (?), n. [L. pius pious.] (R. C. Ch.) One of a religious order who are the regular clerks of the Scuole Pie (religious schools), an institute of secondary education, founded at Rome in the last years of the 16th century. Addis & Arnold.


Pietist (Page: 1084)

Pi"e*tist (?), n. [Cf. G. pietist, F. piétiste. See Piety.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a class of religious reformers in Germany in the 17th century who sought to revive declining piety in the Protestant churches; -- often applied as a term of reproach to those who make a display of religious feeling. Also used adjectively.


Pillarist (Page: 1086)

Pil"lar*ist, n. (Eccl. Hist.) See Stylite.


Pinchfist (Page: 1087)

Pinch"fist` (?), n. A closefisted person; a miser.


Pindarist (Page: 1087)

Pin"dar*ist, n. One who imitates Pindar.


Pinionist (Page: 1088)

Pin"ion*ist, n. (Zoöl.) Any winged creature.


Pisciculturist (Page: 1090)

Pis`ci*cul"tur*ist, n. One who breeds fish.


Pist (Page: 1090)

Pist (?), n. (man.) See Piste.


Plagiarist (Page: 1093)

Pla"gia*rist (?), n. One who plagiarizes; or purloins the words, writings, or ideas of another, and passes them off as his own; a literary thief; a plagiary.


Planoblast (Page: 1095)

Plan"o*blast (?), n. [Gr. to wander + -blast.] (Zoöl.) Any free-swimming gonophore of a hydroid; a hydroid medusa.


Platanist (Page: 1096)

Plat"a*nist (?), n. [L. platanista a sort of fish, Gr. : cf. F. plataniste.] (Zoöl.) The soosoo.


Platonist (Page: 1097)

Pla"to*nist (?), n. One who adheres to the philosophy of Plato; a follower of Plato. Hammond.


Pleasurist (Page: 1098)

Pleas"ur*ist, n. A person devoted to worldly pleasure. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


Plebicolist (Page: 1098)

Ple*bic"o*list (?), n. [L. plebs the common people + colere to cultivate.] One who flatters, or courts the favor of, the common people; a demagogue. [R.]


Plenist (Page: 1099)

Ple"nist (?), n. [L. plenus full; cf. F. pléniste.] One who holds that all space is full of matter.


Pleonast (Page: 1099)

Ple"o*nast (?), n. One who is addicted to pleonasm. [R.] C. Reade.


Plotinist (Page: 101)

Plo*ti"nist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A disciple of Plotinus, a celebrated Platonic philosopher of the third century, who taught that the human soul emanates from the divine Being, to whom it reunited at death.


Pluralist (Page: 102)

Plu"ral*ist, n. (Eccl.) A clerk or clergyman who holds more than one ecclesiastical benefice. [Eng.]

Of the parochial clergy, a large proportion were pluralists. Macaulay.

Plutonist (Page: 103)

Plu"to*nist (?), n. [Cf. F. plutoniste.] One who adopts the geological theory of igneous fusion; a Plutonian. See Plutonism.


Pneumatocyst (Page: 103)

Pneu*mat"o*cyst (?), n. [Pneumato- + cyst.] (Zoöl.) A cyst or sac of a siphonophore, containing air, and serving as a float, as in Physalia.


Pneumatologist (Page: 103)

Pneu`ma*tol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. pneumatologiste.] One versed in pneumatology.


Polemicist (Page: 107)

Po*lem"i*cist (?), n. A polemic. [R.]


Polemist (Page: 107)

Pol"e*mist (?), n. A polemic. [R.]


Politicist (Page: 108)

Po*lit"i*cist (?), n. A political writer. [R.]


Polyarchist (Page: 109)

Pol"y*ar`chist (?), n. One who advocates polyarchy; -- opposed to monarchist. Cudworth.


Polychrest (Page: 109)

Pol"y*chrest (?), n. [Gr. useful for many purposes; many + useful, fr. to use: cf. F. polychreste.] (Med.) A medicine that serves for many uses, or that cures many diseases. [Obs.] Polychrest salt (Old Med. Chem.), potassium sulphate, specifically obtained by fusing niter with sulphur.


Polygamist (Page: 10)

Po*lyg"a*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. polygamiste, polygame, Gr. , a.] One who practices polygamy, or maintains its lawfulness.


Polygenist (Page: 10)

Po*lyg"e*nist (?), n. (Biol.) One who maintains that animals of the same species have sprung from more than one original pair; -- opposed to monogenist.


Polygynist (Page: 10)

Po*lyg"y*nist (?), n. One who practices or advocates polygyny. H. Spenser.


Polymathist (Page: 10)

Po*lym"a*thist (?), n. One versed in many sciences; a person of various learning.


Polyphonist (Page: 1111)

Po*lyph"o*nist (?), n.

1. A proficient in the art of multiplying sounds; a ventriloquist.

2. (Mus.) A master of polyphony; a contrapuntist.


Polyschematist (Page: 1111)

Pol`y*sche"ma*tist (?), a. [Poly- + Gr. form, manner.] Having, or existing in, many different forms or fashions; multiform.


Polyspast (Page: 1111)

Pol"y*spast (?), n. [L. polyspaston, fr. Gr. , fr. drawn by several cords; many + to draw: cf. F. polyspaste.] (Surg.) A machine consisting of many pulleys; specifically, an apparatus formerly used for reducing luxations.


Polytheist (Page: 1112)

Pol"y*the*ist, n. [Cf. F. polythéiste.] One who believes in, or maintains the doctrine of, a plurality of gods.


Pomologist (Page: 1112)

Po*mol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in pomology; one who culticvates fruit trees.


Port-royalist (Page: 1117)

Port-roy"al*ist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of the dwellers in the Cistercian convent of Port Royal des Champs, near Paris, when it was the home of the Jansenists in the 17th century, among them being Arnauld, Pascal, and other famous scholars. Cf. Jansenist.


Portionist (Page: 1117)

Por"tion*ist (?), n.

1. A scholar at Merton College, Oxford, who has a certain academical allowance or portion; -- corrupted into postmaster. Shipley.

2. (Eccl.) One of the incumbents of a benefice which has two or more rectors or vicars.


Portlast (Page: 1117)

Port"last (?), n. (Naut.) The portoise. See Portoise.


Portraitist (Page: 1117)

Por"trait*ist, n. A portrait painter. [R.] Hamerton.


Positivist (Page: 1117)

Pos"i*tiv*ist, n. A believer in positivism. -- a. Relating to positivism.


Post (Page: 1118)

Post, a. [F. aposter to place in a post or position, generally for a bad purpose.] Hired to do what is wrong; suborned. [Obs.] Sir E. Sandys.


Post (Page: 1118)

Post, n. [AS., fr. L. postis, akin to ponere, positum, to place. See Position, and cf. 4th Post.]

1. A piece of timber, metal, or other solid substance, fixed, or to be fixed, firmly in an upright position, especially when intended as a stay or support to something else; a pillar; as, a hitching post; a fence post; the posts of a house.

They shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper doorpost of the houses. Ex. xii. 7.
Then by main force pulled up, and on his shoulders bore, The gates of Azza, post and massy bar. Milton.
Unto his order he was a noble post. Chaucer.
&hand; Post, in the sense of an upright timber or strut, is used in composition, in such words as king-post, queen-post, crown-post, gatepost, etc.

2. The doorpost of a victualer's shop or inn, on which were chalked the scores of customers; hence, a score; a debt. [Obs.]

When God sends coin I will discharge your post. S. Rowlands.
From pillar to post. See under Pillar. -- Knight of the post. See under Knight. -- Post hanger (Mach.), a bearing for a revolving shaft, adapted to be fastened to a post. -- Post hole, a hole in the ground to set the foot of a post in. -- Post mill, a form of windmill so constructed that the whole fabric rests on a vertical axis firmly fastened to the ground, and capable of being turned as the direction of the wind varies. -- Post and stall (Coal Mining), a mode of working in which pillars of coal are left to support the roof of the mine.
Post (Page: 1118)

Post, n. [F. poste, LL. posta station, post (where horses were kept), properly, a fixed or set place, fem. fr. L. positus placed, p. p. of ponere. See Position, and cf. Post a pillar.]

1. The place at which anything is stopped, placed, or fixed; a station. Specifically: (a) A station, or one of a series of stations, established for the refreshment and accommodation of travelers on some recognized route; as, a stage or railway post. (b) A military station; the place at which a soldier or a body of troops is stationed; also, the troops at such a station. (c) The piece of ground to which a sentinel's walk is limited.

2. A messenger who goes from station; an express; especially, one who is employed by the government to carry letters and parcels regularly from one place to another; a letter carrier; a postman.

In certain places there be always fresh posts, to carry that further which is brought unto them by the other. Abp. Abbot.
I fear my Julia would not deign my lines, Receiving them from such a worthless post. Shak.

3. An established conveyance for letters from one place or station to another; especially, the governmental system in any country for carrying and distributing letters and parcels; the post office; the mail; hence, the carriage by which the mail is transported.

I send you the fair copy of the poem on dullness, which I should not care to hazard by the common post. Pope.

4. Haste or speed, like that of a messenger or mail carrier. [Obs.] In post he came." Shak.

5. One who has charge of a station, especially of a postal station. [Obs.]

He held office of postmaster, or, as it was then called, post, for several years. Palfrey.

6. A station, office, or position of service, trust, or emolument; as, the post of duty; the post of danger.

The post of honor is a private station. Addison.

7. A size of printing and writing paper. See the Table under Paper. Post and pair, an old game at cards, in which each player a hand of three cards. B. Jonson. -- Post bag, a mail bag. -- Post bill, a bill of letters mailed by a postmaster. -- Post chaise, or Post coach, a carriage usually with four wheels, for the conveyance of travelers who travel post. Post day, a day on which the mall arrives or departs. -- Post hackney, a hired post horse. Sir H. Wotton. -- Post horn, a horn, or trumpet, carried and blown by a carrier of the public mail, or by a coachman. -- Post horse, a horse stationed, intended, or used for the post. -- Post hour, hour for posting letters. Dickens. -- Post office. (a) An office under governmental superintendence, where letters, papers, and other mailable matter, are received and distributed; a place appointed for attending to all business connected with the mail. (b) The governmental system for forwarding mail matter. -- Postoffice order. See Money order, under Money. -- Post road, ∨ Post route, a road or way over which the mail is carried. -- Post town. (a) A town in which post horses are kept. (b) A town in which a post office is established by law. -- To ride post, to ride, as a carrier of dispatches, from place to place; hence, to ride rapidly, with as little delay as possible. -- To travel post, to travel, as a post does, by relays of horses, or by keeping one carriage to which fresh horses are attached at each stopping place.


Post (Page: 1118)

Post (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Posted; p. pr. & vb. n. Posting.]

1. To attach to a post, a wall, or other usual place of affixing public notices; to placard; as, to post a notice; to post playbills. &hand; Formerly, a large post was erected before the sheriff's office, or in some public place, upon which legal notices were displayed. This way of advertisement has not entirely gone of use.

2. To hold up to public blame or reproach; to advertise opprobriously; to denounce by public proclamation; as, to post one for cowardice.

On pain of being posted to your sorrow Fail not, at four, to meet me. Granville.

3. To enter (a name) on a list, as for service, promotion, or the like.

4. To assign to a station; to set; to place; as, to post a sentinel. It might be to obtain a ship for a lieutenant, . . . or to get him posted." De Quincey.

5. (Bookkeeping) To carry, as an account, from the journal to the ledger; as, to post an account; to transfer, as accounts, to the ledger.

You have not posted your books these ten years. Arbuthnot.

6. To place in the care of the post; to mail; as, to post a letter.

7. To inform; to give the news to; to make (one) acquainted with the details of a subject; -- often with up.

Thoroughly posted up in the politics and literature of the day. Lond. Sat. Rev.
To post off, to put off; to delay. [Obs.] Why did I, venturously, post off so great a business?" Baxter. -- To post over, to hurry over. [Obs.] Fuller.
Post (Page: 1118)

Post, v. i. [Cf. OF. poster. See 4th Post.]

1. To travel with post horses; figuratively, to travel in haste. Post seedily to my lord your husband." Shak.

And post o'er land and ocean without rest. Milton.

2. (Man.) To rise and sink in the saddle, in accordance with the motion of the horse, esp. in trotting. [Eng.]


Post (Page: 1118)

Post, adv. With post horses; hence, in haste; as, to travel post.


Postexist (Page: 1119)

Post`ex*ist" (?), v. i. [Pref. post- + exist.] To exist after; to live subsequently. [Obs. or R.]


Præterist (Page: 1124)

Præt"er*ist (?), n. (Theol.) See Preterist.


Pragmatist (Page: 1124)

Prag"ma*tist (?), n. One who is pragmatic.


Preëxist (Page: 1128)

Pre`ëx*ist" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Preëxisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Preëxisting.] To exist previously; to exist before something else.


Precisianist (Page: 1126)

Pre*ci"sian*ist, n. A precisian.


Predigest (Page: 1128)

Pre`di*gest" (?), v. t. (Med.) To subject (food) to predigestion or artificial digestion.


Prelatist (Page: 1129)

Prel"a*tist (?) n. One who supports of advocates prelacy, or the government of the church by prelates; hence, a high-churchman. Hume.

I am an Episcopalian, but not a prelatist. T. Scott.

Prest (Page: 1133)

Prest (?), imp. & p. p. of Press.


Prest (Page: 1133)

Prest, a. [OF. prest, F. pr\'88t, fr. L. praestus ready. Cf. Presto.]

1. Ready; prompt; prepared. [Obs.]

All prest to such battle he was. R. of Gloucester.

2. Neat; tidy; proper. [Obs.] Tusser. Prest money, money formerly paid to men when they enlisted into the British service; -- so called because it bound those that received it to be ready for service when called upon.


Prest (Page: 1133)

Prest, n. [OF. prest, F. pr\'88t, fr. OF. prester to lend, F. pr\'88ter, fr. L. praestare to stand before, to become surety for, to fulfill, offer, supply; prae before + stare to stand. See Pre-, and Stand, and cf. Press to force into service.]

1. Ready money; a loan of money. [Obs.]

Requiring of the city a prest of six thousand marks. Bacon.

2. (Law) A duty in money formerly paid by the sheriff on his account in the exchequer, or for money left or remaining in his hands. Cowell.


Prest (Page: 1133)

Prest, v. t. To give as a loan; to lend. [Obs.]

Sums of money . . . prested out in loan. E. Hall.

Preterist (Page: 1134)

Pret"er*ist (?), n. [Pref. preter- + -ist.]

1. One whose chief interest is in the past; one who regards the past with most pleasure or favor.

2. (Theol.) One who believes the prophecies of the Apocalypse to have been already fulfilled. Farrar.


Priest (Page: 1136)

Priest (?), n. [OE. prest, preost, AS. preóst, fr. L. presbyter, Gr. elder, older, n., an elder, compar. of an old man, the first syllable of which is probably akin to L. pristinus. Cf. Pristine, Presbyter.] [1137]

1. (Christian Church) A presbyter elder; a minister; specifically: (a) (R. C. Ch. & Gr. Ch.) One who is authorized to consecrate the host and to say Mass; but especially, one of the lowest order possessing this power. Murdock. (b) (Ch. of Eng. & Prot. Epis. Ch.) A presbyter; one who belongs to the intermediate order between bishop and deacon. He is authorized to perform all ministerial services except those of ordination and confirmation.

2. One who officiates at the altar, or performs the rites of sacrifice; one who acts as a mediator between men and the divinity or the gods in any form of religion; as, Buddhist priests. The priests of Dagon." 1 Sam. v. 5.

Then the priest of Jupiter . . . brought oxen and garlands . . . and would have done sacrifice with the people. Acts xiv. 13.
Every priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins. Heb. v. 1.
&hand; In the New Testament presbyters are not called priests; but Christ is designated as a priest, and as a high priest, and all Christians are designated priests.

Priest (Page: 1137)

Priest (?), v. t. To ordain as priest.


Priscillianist (Page: 1139)

Pris*cil"lian*ist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Priscillian, bishop of Avila in Spain, in the fourth century, who mixed various elements of Gnosticism and Manicheism with Christianity.


Probabiliorist (Page: 1140)

Prob`a*bil"i*o*rist (?), n. [From L. probabilior, compar. of probabilis probable.] (Casuistry) One who holds, in opposition to the probabilists, that a man is bound to do that which is most probably right.


Probabilist (Page: 1140)

Prob"a*bil*ist, n. [Cf. F. probabilists.]

1. One who maintains that certainty is impossible, and that probability alone is to govern our faith and actions.

2. (Casuistry) One who maintains that a man may do that which has a probability of being right, or which is inculcated by teachers of authority, although other opinions may seem to him still more probable.


Problematist (Page: 1141)

Prob"lem*a*tist (?) n. One who proposes problems. [R.] Evelyn.


Processionalist (Page: 1142)

Pro*ces"sion*al*ist, n. One who goes or marches in a procession. [R.]


Professionalist (Page: 1144)

Pro*fes"sion*al*ist, n. professional person. [R.]


Profilist (Page: 1144)

Pro"fil*ist, n. One who takes profiles.


Progressionist (Page: 1145)

Pro*gres"sion*ist, n.

1. One who holds to a belief in the progression of society toward perfection.

2. One who maintains the doctrine of progression in organic forms; -- opposed to uniformitarian. H. Spencer.


Progressist (Page: 1145)

Prog"ress*ist (?), n. One who makes, or holds to, progress; a progressionist.


Prohibitionist (Page: 1145)

Pro`hi*bi"tion*ist, n.

1. One who favors prohibitory duties on foreign goods in commerce; a protectionist.

2. One who favors the prohibition of the sale (or of the sale and manufacture) of alcoholic liquors as beverages.


Promorphologist (Page: 1147)

Pro`mor*phol"o*gist (?), n. (Biol.) One versed in the science of promorphology.


Propagandist (Page: 1148)

Prop`a*gan"dist (?), n. [Cf. F. propagandiste.] A person who devotes himself to the spread of any system of principles. Political propagandists." Walsh. <-- propagandize. To spread one's beliefs. Often used in a negative sense, meaning to deliberately make misleading or false statements so as to convert others to one's beliefs, or to convince others to vote for a particular political candidate. -->


Prosaist (Page: 1150)

Pro"sa*ist (?; 277), n. A writer of prose; an unpoetical writer. An estimable prosaist." I. Taylor.


Proscriptionist (Page: 1150)

Pro*scrip"tion*ist, n. One who proscribes.


Prosdist (Page: 1151)

Pros"dist (?), n. One skilled in prosody.


Protagonist (Page: 1152)

Pro*tag"o*nist (?), n. [Gr. ; first + an actor, combatant, fr. a contest.] One who takes the leading part in a drama; hence, one who takes lead in some great scene, enterprise, conflict, or the like.

Shakespeare, the protagonist on the great of modern poetry. De Quincey.

Protectionist (Page: 1152)

Pro*tec"tion*ist, n. (Polit. Econ.) One who favors protection. See Protection, 4.


Protest (Page: 1152)

Pro*test" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Protested; p. pr. & vb. n. Protesting.] [F. protester, L. protestari, pro before + testari to be a witness, testis a witness. See Testify.]

1. To affirm in a public or formal manner; to bear witness; to declare solemnly; to avow.

He protest that his measures are pacific. Landor.
The lady doth protest too much, methinks. Shak.

2. To make a solemn declaration (often a written one) expressive of opposition; -- with against; as, he protest against your votes. Denham.

The conscience has power . . . to protest againts the exorbitancies of the passions. Shak.
Syn. -- To affirm; asseverate; assert; aver; attest; testify; declare; profess. See Affirm.
Protest (Page: 1152)

Pro*test", v. t.

1. To make a solemn declaration or affirmation of; to proclaim; to display; as, to protest one's loyalty.

I will protest your cowardice. Shak.

2. To call as a witness in affirming or denying, or to prove an affirmation; to appeal to.

Fiercely [they] opposed My journey strange, with clamorous uproar Protesting fate supreme. Milton.
To protest a bill ∨ note (Law), to make a solemn written declaration, in due form, on behalf of the holder, against all parties liable for any loss or damage to be sustained by the nonacceptance or the nonpayment of the bill or note, as the case may be. This should be made by a notary public, whose seal it is the usual practice to affix. Kent. Story.
Protest (Page: 1152)

Pro"test (?), n. [Cf. F. prot\'88t, It. protesto. See Protest, v.]

1. A solemn declaration of opinion, commonly a formal objection against some act; especially, a formal and solemn declaration, in writing, of dissent from the proceedings of a legislative body; as, the protest of lords in Parliament.

2. (Law) (a) A solemn declaration in writing, in due form, made by a notary public, usually under his notarial seal, on behalf of the holder of a bill or note, protesting against all parties liable for any loss or damage by the nonacceptance or nonpayment of the bill, or by the nonpayment of the note, as the case may be. (b) A declaration made by the master of a vessel before a notary, consul, or other authorized officer, upon his arrival in port after a disaster, stating the particulars of it, and showing that any damage or loss sustained was not owing to the fault of the vessel, her officers or crew, but to the perils of the sea, etc., ads the case may be, and protesting against them. (c) A declaration made by a party, before or while paying a tax, duty, or the like, demanded of him, which he deems illegal, denying the justice of the demand, and asserting his rights and claims, in order to show that the payment was not voluntary. Story. Kent.


Protist (Page: 1153)

Pro"tist (?), n. (Zoöl.) One of the Protista.


Protocolist (Page: 1153)

Pro"to*col`ist, n. One who draughts protocols.


Protoplast (Page: 1153)

Pro"to*plast (?), n. [L. protoplastus the first man, Gr. formed or created first; first + formed, fr. to form.]

1. The thing first formed; that of which there are subsequent copies or reproductions; the original.

2. (Biol.) A first-formed organized body; the first individual, or pair of individuals, of a species.

A species is a class of individuals, each of which is hypothetically considered to be the descendant of the same protoplast, or of the same pair of protoplasts. Latham.
<-- 3. a plant or bacterial cell which has lost its cell wall. As a consequence, protoplasts typically assume a spherical shape, and are unable to resist rupture in a liquid of low osmolarity; but they may live and in some cases divide, provided that the osmotic pressure of the medium is sufficient to prevent expansion to the point of rupture. -->
Proverbialist (Page: 1154)

Pro*ver"bi*al*ist, n. One who makes much use of proverbs in speech or writing; one who composes, collects, or studies proverbs.


Provincialist (Page: 1155)

Pro*vin"cial*ist, n. One who lives in a province; a provincial.


Provost (Page: 1155)

Prov"ost (?), n. [OF. provost (L. prae and pro being confused), F. prev\'93t, fr. L. praepositus placed before, a chief, fr. praeponere to place before: cf. AS. prāfost, pr&omac;fast. See Preposition, and cf. Propound.]

1. A person who is appointed to superintend, or preside over, something; the chief magistrate in some cities and towns; as, the provost of Edinburgh or of Glasgow, answering to the mayor of other cities; the provost of a college, answering to president; the provost or head of certain collegiate churches.

2. The keeper of a prison. [Obs.] Shak. &hand; In France, formerly, a provost was an inferior judge who had cognizance of civil causes. The grand provost of France, or of the household, had jurisdiction in the king's house, and over its officers. Provost marshal (often pronounced ). (a) (Mil.) An officer appointed in every army, in the field, to secure the prisoners confined on charges of a general nature. He also performs such other duties pertaining to police and discipline as the regulations of the service or the commander's orders impose upon him. (b) (Nav.) An officer who has charge of prisoners on trial by court-martial, serves notices to witnesses, etc.


Prudentialist (Page: 1156)

Pru*den"tial*ist, n. One who is governed by, or acts from, prudential motives. [R.] Coleridge.


Psalmist (Page: 1156)

Psalm"ist (?), n. [L. psalmista, Gr. : cf. F. psalmiste. See Psalm.]

1. A writer or composer of sacred songs; -- a title particularly applied to David and the other authors of the Scriptural psalms.

2. (R. C. Ch.) A clerk, precentor, singer, or leader of music, in the church.


Psalmodist (Page: 1156)

Psal"mo*dist (?), n. One who sings sacred songs; a psalmist.


Psalmographer, Psalmographist (Page: 1156)

Psal*mog"ra*pher (?), Psal*mog"ra*phist (?), n. [L. psalmographus, Gr. ; a psalm + to write.] A writer of psalms, or sacred songs and hymns.


Pseudologist (Page: 1157)

Pseu*dol"o*gist (?), n. [Gr. .] One who utters falsehoods; a liar.


Psilanthropist (Page: 1157)

Psi*lan"thro*pist (?), n. [Gr. bare, mere + a man.] One who believes that Christ was a mere man. Smart.


Psychologist (Page: 1158)

Psy*chol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. psychologiste.] One who is versed in, devoted to, psychology.


Pteridologist (Page: 1158)

Pter`i*dol"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in pteridology.


Ptolemaist (Page: 1158)

Ptol"e*ma`ist (?), n. One who accepts the astronomical system of Ptolemy.


Publicist (Page: 1159)

Pub"li*cist (?), n. [Cf. F. publiciste.] A writer on the laws of nature and nations; one who is versed in the science of public right, the principles of government, etc.

The Whig leaders, however, were much more desirous to get rid of Episcopacy than to prove themselves consummate publicists and logicians. Macaulay.
<-- 2. One who publicizes, esp. a press agent. -->
Puckfist (Page: 1159)

Puck"fist` (?), n. A puffball.


Pugilist (Page: 1160)

Pu"gil*ist, n. [L. pugil.] One who fights with his fists; esp., a professional prize fighter; a boxer.


Punctist (Page: 1162)

Punc"tist (?), n. A punctator. E. Henderson.


Punctualist (Page: 1163)

Punc"tu*al*ist (?), n. One who is very exact in observing forms and ceremonies. Milton.


Punctuist (Page: 1163)

Punc"tu*ist, n. A punctator.


Purist (Page: 1165)

Pur"ist, n. [Cf. F. puriste.]

1. One who aims at excessive purity or nicety, esp. in the choice of language.

He [Fox] . . . purified vocabulary with a scrupulosity unknown to any purist. Macaulay.

2. One who maintains that the New Testament was written in pure Greek. M. Stuart.


Pyrologist (Page: 1169)

Py*rol"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in, or makes a study of, pyrology.


Pyrotechnist (Page: 1170)

Pyr`o*tech"nist (?), n. One skilled in pyrotechny; one who manufactures fireworks. Steevens.


Pyrrhicist (Page: 1170)

Pyr"rhi*cist (?), n. (Gr. Antiq.) One two danced the pyrrhic.


Pyrrhonist (Page: 1170)

Pyr"rho*nist (?), n. A follower of Pyrrho; a skeptic.


Pythonist (Page: 1170)

Pyth"o*nist (?), n. A conjurer; a diviner.


Queest (Page: 1176)

Queest (?), n. [Cf. Icel. kvisa a kind of bird, kvistr a branch of a tree, and E. cushat.] (Zoöl.) The European ringdove (Columba palumbus); the cushat. [Written also quist, queeze, quice, queece.] See Ringdove.


Querist (Page: 1176)

Que"rist (?), n. [See Query.] One who inquires, or asks questions. Swift.


Quest (Page: 1177)

Quest (?), n. [OF. queste, F. qu\'88te, fr. L. quaerere, quaesitum, to seek for, to ask. Cf. Query, Question.]

1. The act of seeking, or looking after anything; attempt to find or obtain; search; pursuit; as, to rove in quest of game, of a lost child, of property, etc.

Upon an hard adventure yet in quest. Spenser.
Cease your quest of love. Shak.
There ended was his quest, there ceased his care. Milton.

2. Request; desire; solicitation.

Gad not abroad at every quest and call Of an untrained hope or passion. Herbert.

3. Those who make search or inquiry, taken collectively.

The senate hath sent about three several quests to search you out. Shak.

4. Inquest; jury of inquest.

What lawful quest have given their verdict ? Shak.

Quest (Page: 1177)

Quest, v. t. [Cf. OF. quester, F. qu\'88ter. See Quest, n.] To search for; to examine. [R.] Sir T. Herbert.


Quest (Page: 1177)

Quest, v. i. To go on a quest; to make a search; to go in pursuit; to beg. [R.]

If his questing had been unsuccessful, he appeased the rage of hunger with some scraps of broken meat. Macaulay.

Questionist (Page: 1177)

Ques"tion*ist, n.

1. A questioner; an inquirer. [Obs.]

2. (Eng. Univ.) A candidate for honors or degrees who is near the time of his examination.


Questrist (Page: 1177)

Quest"rist (?), n. [See Quest.] A seeker; a pursuer. [Obs.] Hot questrists after him." Shak.


Quietist (Page: 1178)

Qui"et*ist, n. [Cf. F. quiétiste.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of mystics originated in the seventeenth century by Molinos, a Spanish priest living in Rome. See Quietism.


Quinologist (Page: 1179)

Qui*nol"o*gist (?) n. One who is versed in quinology.


Quotationist (Page: 1181)

Quo*ta"tion*ist (?) n. One who makes, or is given to making, quotations.

The narrow intellectuals of quotationists. Milton.

Ramist (Page: 1187)

Ra"mist (?), n. A follower of Pierre Ramé, better known as Ramus, a celebrated French scholar, who was professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Paris in the reign of Henry II., and opposed the Aristotelians.


Rapturist (Page: 1189)

Rap"tur*ist, n. An enthusiast. [Obs.] J. Spencer.


Rationalist (Page: 1191)

Ra"tion*al*ist, n. [Cf. F. rationaliste.] One who accepts rationalism as a theory or system; also, disparagingly, a false reasoner. See Citation under Reasonist.


Reënlist (Page: 1206)

Re`ën*list" (-l?st"), v. t. & i. To enlist again.


Reactionist (Page: 1194)

Re*ac"tion*ist, n. A reactionary. C. Kingsley.


Readjust (Page: 1194)

Re`ad*just" (?), v. t. To adjust or settle again; to put in a different order or relation; to rearrange.


Reafforest (Page: 1194)

Re`af*for"est (?), v. t. To convert again into the forest, as a region of country.


Realist (Page: 1195)

Re"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. réaliste.]

1. (Philos.) One who believes in realism; esp., one who maintains that generals, or the terms used to denote the genera and species of things, represent real existences, and are not mere names, as maintained by the nominalists.

2. (Art. & Lit.) An artist or writer who aims at realism in his work. See Realism, 2. <-- 3. a person who avoids unrealistic or impractical beliefs or efforts. Contrasted to idealist or visionary. -->


Rearmost (Page: 1195)

Rear"most` (?), a. Farthest in the rear; last.


Reasonist (Page: 1196)

Rea"son*ist, n. A rationalist. [Obs.]

Such persons are now commonly called reasonists" and rationalists," to distinguish them from true reasoners and rational inquirers. Waterland.

Recast (Page: 1197)

Re*cast" (?), v. t.

1. To throw again. Florio.

2. To mold anew; to cast anew; to throw into a new from a shape; to reconstruct; as, to recast cannon; to recast an argument or a play.

3. To compute, or cast up, a second time.


Recensionist (Page: 1197)

Re*cen"sion*ist, n. One who makes recensions; specifically, a critical editor.


Reconquest (Page: 1200)

Re*con"quest (-kw?st), n. A second conquest.


Red-tapist (Page: 1204)

Red`-tap"ist, n. One who is tenacious of a strict adherence to official formalities. Ld. Lytton.


Redbreast (Zo\'94l.)
, a beautiful butterfly (Vanessa Atalanta) common in both Europe and America. The front wings are crossed by a broad orange red band. The larva feeds on nettles. Called also Atlanta butterfly, and nettle butterfly. -- Red ant. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A very small ant (Myrmica molesta) which often infests houses. (b) A larger reddish ant (Formica sanquinea), native of Europe and America. It is one of the slave-making species. -- Red antimony (Min.), kermesite. See Kermes mineral (b), under Kermes. -- Red ash (Bot.), an American tree (Fraxinus pubescens), smaller than the white ash, and less valuable for timber. Cray. -- Red bass. (Zo\'94l.) See Redfish (d). -- Red bay (Bot.), a tree (Persea Caroliniensis) having the heartwood red, found in swamps in the Southern United States. -- Red beard (Zo\'94l.), a bright red sponge (Microciona prolifera), common on oyster shells and stones. [Local, U.S.] -- Red birch (Bot.), a species of birch (Betula nigra) having reddish brown bark, and compact, light-colored wood. Gray. -- Red blindness. (Med.) See Daltonism. -- Red book, a book containing the names of all the persons in the service of the state. [Eng.] -- Red book of the Exchequer, an ancient record in which are registered the names of all that held lands per baroniam in the time of Henry II. Brande & C. -- Red brass, an alloy containing eight parts of copper and three of zinc. -- Red bug. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A very small mite which in Florida attacks man, and produces great irritation by its bites. (b) A red hemipterous insect of the genus Pyrrhocoris, especially the European species (P. apterus), which is bright scarlet and lives in clusters on tree trunks. (c) See Cotton stainder, under Cotton. -- Red cedar. (Bot.) An evergreen North American tree (Juniperus Virginiana) having a fragrant red-colored heartwood. (b) A tree of India and Australia (Cedrela Toona) having fragrant reddish wood; -- called also toon tree in India. 1203 -- Red chalk. See under Chalk. -- Red copper (Min.), red oxide of copper; cuprite. -- Red coral (Zo\'94l.), the precious coral (Corallium rubrum). See Illusts. of Coral and Gorgonlacea. -- Red cross. The cross of St. George, the national emblem of the English. (b) The Geneva cross. See Geneva convention, and Geneva cross, under Geneva. -- Red currant. (Bot.) See Currant. -- Red deer. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The common stag (Cervus elaphus), native of the forests of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia. It is very similar to the American elk, or wapiti. (b) The Virginia deer. See Deer. -- Red duck (Zo\'94l.), a European reddish brown duck (Fuligula nyroca); -- called also ferruginous duck. -- Red ebony. (Bot.) See Grenadillo. -- Red empress (Zo\'94l.), a butterfly. See Tortoise shell. -- Red fir (Bot.), a coniferous tree (Pseudotsuga Douglasii) found from British Columbia to Texas, and highly valued for its durable timber. The name is sometimes given to other coniferous trees, as the Norway spruce and the American Abies magnifica and A. nobilis. -- Red fire. (Pyrotech.) See Blue fire, under Fire. -- Red flag. See under Flag. -- Red fox (Zo\'94l.), the common American fox (Vulpes fulvus), which is usually reddish in color. -- Red grouse (Zo\'94l.), the Scotch grouse, or ptarmigan. See under Ptarmigan. -- Red gum, (Bot.), a name given to eight Australian species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus amygdalina, resinifera, etc.) which yield a reddish gum resin. See Eucalyptus. -- Red hand (Her.), a left hand appaum\'82, fingers erect, borne on an escutcheon, being the mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; -- called also Badge of Ulster. -- Red herring, the common herring dried and smoked.<-- Fig. something that merely distracts attention from the basic issue; esp. something irrelevant to the issue at hand, or something which is not true or does not exist. --> -- Red horse. (Zo\'94l.) (a) Any large American red fresh-water sucker, especially Moxostoma macrolepidotum and allied species. (b) See the Note under Drumfish. -- Red lead. (Chem) See under Lead, and Minium. -- Red-lead ore. (Min.) Same as Crocoite. -- Red liquor (Dyeing), a solution consisting essentially of aluminium acetate, used as a mordant in the fixation of dyestuffs on vegetable fiber; -- so called because used originally for red dyestuffs. Called also red mordant. -- Red maggot (Zo\'94l.), the larva of the wheat midge. -- Red manganese. (Min.) Same as Rhodochrosite. -- Red man, one of the American Indians; -- so called from his color. -- Red maple (Bot.), a species of maple (Acer rubrum). See Maple. -- Red mite. (Zo\'94l.) See Red spider, below. -- Red mulberry (Bot.), an American mulberry of a dark purple color (Morus rubra). -- Red mullet (Zo\'94l.), the surmullet. See Mullet. -- Red ocher (Min.), a soft earthy variety of hematite, of a reddish color. -- Red perch (Zo\'94l.), the rosefish. -- Red phosphorus. (Chem.) See under Phosphorus. -- Red pine (Bot.), an American species of pine (Pinus resinosa); -- so named from its reddish bark. -- Red precipitate. See under Precipitate. -- Red Republican (European Politics), originally, one who maintained extreme republican doctrines in France, -- because a red liberty cap was the badge of the party; an extreme radical in social reform. [Cant] -- Red ribbon, the ribbon of the Order of the Bath in England. -- Red sanders. (Bot.) See Sanders. -- Red sandstone. (Geol.) See under Sandstone. -- Red scale (Zo\'94l.), a scale insect (Aspidiotus aurantii) very injurious to the orange tree in California and Australia. -- Red silver (Min.), an ore of silver, of a ruby-red or reddish black color. It includes proustite, or light red silver, and pyrargyrite, or dark red silver. -- Red snapper (Zo\'94l.), a large fish (Lutlanus aya (Med.)
a form of cerebral softening in which the affected parts are red, -- a condition due either to infarction or inflammation. -- Red spider (Zo\'94l.), a very small web-spinning mite (Tetranychus telarius) which infests, and often destroys, plants of various kinds, especially those cultivated in houses and conservatories. It feeds mostly on the under side of the leaves, and causes them to turn yellow and die. The adult insects are usually pale red. Called also red mite. -- Red squirrel (Zo\'94l.), the chickaree. -- Red tape, the tape used in public offices for tying up documents, etc.; hence, official formality and delay.<--excessive bureaucratic paperwork --> -- Red underwing (Zo\'94l.), any species of noctuid moths belonging to Catacola and allied genera. The numerous species are mostly large and handsomely colored. The under wings are commonly banded with bright red or orange. -- Red water, a disease in cattle, so called from an appearance like blood in the urine.> Red"breast` (-br?st`), n.

1. (Zoöl.) (a) The European robin. (b) The American robin. See Robin. (c) The knot, or red-breasted snipe; -- called also robin breast, and robin snipe. See Knot.

2. (Zoöl.) The long-eared pondfish. See Pondfish.


Redemptionist (Zo\'94l.)
, a beautiful butterfly (Vanessa Atalanta) common in both Europe and America. The front wings are crossed by a broad orange red band. The larva feeds on nettles. Called also Atlanta butterfly, and nettle butterfly. -- Red ant. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A very small ant (Myrmica molesta) which often infests houses. (b) A larger reddish ant (Formica sanquinea), native of Europe and America. It is one of the slave-making species. -- Red antimony (Min.), kermesite. See Kermes mineral (b), under Kermes. -- Red ash (Bot.), an American tree (Fraxinus pubescens), smaller than the white ash, and less valuable for timber. Cray. -- Red bass. (Zo\'94l.) See Redfish (d). -- Red bay (Bot.), a tree (Persea Caroliniensis) having the heartwood red, found in swamps in the Southern United States. -- Red beard (Zo\'94l.), a bright red sponge (Microciona prolifera), common on oyster shells and stones. [Local, U.S.] -- Red birch (Bot.), a species of birch (Betula nigra) having reddish brown bark, and compact, light-colored wood. Gray. -- Red blindness. (Med.) See Daltonism. -- Red book, a book containing the names of all the persons in the service of the state. [Eng.] -- Red book of the Exchequer, an ancient record in which are registered the names of all that held lands per baroniam in the time of Henry II. Brande & C. -- Red brass, an alloy containing eight parts of copper and three of zinc. -- Red bug. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A very small mite which in Florida attacks man, and produces great irritation by its bites. (b) A red hemipterous insect of the genus Pyrrhocoris, especially the European species (P. apterus), which is bright scarlet and lives in clusters on tree trunks. (c) See Cotton stainder, under Cotton. -- Red cedar. (Bot.) An evergreen North American tree (Juniperus Virginiana) having a fragrant red-colored heartwood. (b) A tree of India and Australia (Cedrela Toona) having fragrant reddish wood; -- called also toon tree in India. 1203 -- Red chalk. See under Chalk. -- Red copper (Min.), red oxide of copper; cuprite. -- Red coral (Zo\'94l.), the precious coral (Corallium rubrum). See Illusts. of Coral and Gorgonlacea. -- Red cross. The cross of St. George, the national emblem of the English. (b) The Geneva cross. See Geneva convention, and Geneva cross, under Geneva. -- Red currant. (Bot.) See Currant. -- Red deer. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The common stag (Cervus elaphus), native of the forests of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia. It is very similar to the American elk, or wapiti. (b) The Virginia deer. See Deer. -- Red duck (Zo\'94l.), a European reddish brown duck (Fuligula nyroca); -- called also ferruginous duck. -- Red ebony. (Bot.) See Grenadillo. -- Red empress (Zo\'94l.), a butterfly. See Tortoise shell. -- Red fir (Bot.), a coniferous tree (Pseudotsuga Douglasii) found from British Columbia to Texas, and highly valued for its durable timber. The name is sometimes given to other coniferous trees, as the Norway spruce and the American Abies magnifica and A. nobilis. -- Red fire. (Pyrotech.) See Blue fire, under Fire. -- Red flag. See under Flag. -- Red fox (Zo\'94l.), the common American fox (Vulpes fulvus), which is usually reddish in color. -- Red grouse (Zo\'94l.), the Scotch grouse, or ptarmigan. See under Ptarmigan. -- Red gum, (Bot.), a name given to eight Australian species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus amygdalina, resinifera, etc.) which yield a reddish gum resin. See Eucalyptus. -- Red hand (Her.), a left hand appaum\'82, fingers erect, borne on an escutcheon, being the mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; -- called also Badge of Ulster. -- Red herring, the common herring dried and smoked.<-- Fig. something that merely distracts attention from the basic issue; esp. something irrelevant to the issue at hand, or something which is not true or does not exist. --> -- Red horse. (Zo\'94l.) (a) Any large American red fresh-water sucker, especially Moxostoma macrolepidotum and allied species. (b) See the Note under Drumfish. -- Red lead. (Chem) See under Lead, and Minium. -- Red-lead ore. (Min.) Same as Crocoite. -- Red liquor (Dyeing), a solution consisting essentially of aluminium acetate, used as a mordant in the fixation of dyestuffs on vegetable fiber; -- so called because used originally for red dyestuffs. Called also red mordant. -- Red maggot (Zo\'94l.), the larva of the wheat midge. -- Red manganese. (Min.) Same as Rhodochrosite. -- Red man, one of the American Indians; -- so called from his color. -- Red maple (Bot.), a species of maple (Acer rubrum). See Maple. -- Red mite. (Zo\'94l.) See Red spider, below. -- Red mulberry (Bot.), an American mulberry of a dark purple color (Morus rubra). -- Red mullet (Zo\'94l.), the surmullet. See Mullet. -- Red ocher (Min.), a soft earthy variety of hematite, of a reddish color. -- Red perch (Zo\'94l.), the rosefish. -- Red phosphorus. (Chem.) See under Phosphorus. -- Red pine (Bot.), an American species of pine (Pinus resinosa); -- so named from its reddish bark. -- Red precipitate. See under Precipitate. -- Red Republican (European Politics), originally, one who maintained extreme republican doctrines in France, -- because a red liberty cap was the badge of the party; an extreme radical in social reform. [Cant] -- Red ribbon, the ribbon of the Order of the Bath in England. -- Red sanders. (Bot.) See Sanders. -- Red sandstone. (Geol.) See under Sandstone. -- Red scale (Zo\'94l.), a scale insect (Aspidiotus aurantii) very injurious to the orange tree in California and Australia. -- Red silver (Min.), an ore of silver, of a ruby-red or reddish black color. It includes proustite, or light red silver, and pyrargyrite, or dark red silver. -- Red snapper (Zo\'94l.), a large fish (Lutlanus aya (Med.)
a form of cerebral softening in which the affected parts are red, -- a condition due either to infarction or inflammation. -- Red spider (Zo\'94l.), a very small web-spinning mite (Tetranychus telarius) which infests, and often destroys, plants of various kinds, especially those cultivated in houses and conservatories. It feeds mostly on the under side of the leaves, and causes them to turn yellow and die. The adult insects are usually pale red. Called also red mite. -- Red squirrel (Zo\'94l.), the chickaree. -- Red tape, the tape used in public offices for tying up documents, etc.; hence, official formality and delay.<--excessive bureaucratic paperwork --> -- Red underwing (Zo\'94l.), any species of noctuid moths belonging to Catacola and allied genera. The numerous species are mostly large and handsomely colored. The under wings are commonly banded with bright red or orange. -- Red water, a disease in cattle, so called from an appearance like blood in the urine.> Re*demp"tion*ist, n. (R.C.Ch.) A monk of an order founded in 1197; -- so called because the order was especially devoted to the redemption of Christians held in captivity by the Mohammedans. Called also Trinitarian.
Redemptorist (Zo\'94l.), a beautiful butterfly (Vanessa Atalanta) common in both Europe and America. The front wings are crossed by a broad orange red band. The larva feeds on nettles. Called also Atlanta butterfly, and nettle butterfly. -- Red ant. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A very small ant (Myrmica molesta) which often infests houses. (b) A larger reddish ant (Formica sanquinea), native of Europe and America. It is one of the slave-making species. -- Red antimony (Min.), kermesite. See Kermes mineral (b), under Kermes. -- Red ash (Bot.), an American tree (Fraxinus pubescens), smaller than the white ash, and less valuable for timber. Cray
. -- Red bass. (Zo\'94l.) See Redfish (d). -- Red bay (Bot.), a tree (Persea Caroliniensis) having the heartwood red, found in swamps in the Southern United States. -- Red beard (Zo\'94l.), a bright red sponge (Microciona prolifera), common on oyster shells and stones. [Local, U.S.] -- Red birch (Bot.), a species of birch (Betula nigra) having reddish brown bark, and compact, light-colored wood. Gray. -- Red blindness. (Med.) See Daltonism. -- Red book, a book containing the names of all the persons in the service of the state. [Eng.] -- Red book of the Exchequer, an ancient record in which are registered the names of all that held lands per baroniam in the time of Henry II. Brande & C. -- Red brass, an alloy containing eight parts of copper and three of zinc. -- Red bug. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A very small mite which in Florida attacks man, and produces great irritation by its bites. (b) A red hemipterous insect of the genus Pyrrhocoris, especially the European species (P. apterus), which is bright scarlet and lives in clusters on tree trunks. (c) See Cotton stainder, under Cotton. -- Red cedar. (Bot.) An evergreen North American tree (Juniperus Virginiana) having a fragrant red-colored heartwood. (b) A tree of India and Australia (Cedrela Toona) having fragrant reddish wood; -- called also toon tree in India. 1203 -- Red chalk. See under Chalk. -- Red copper (Min.), red oxide of copper; cuprite. -- Red coral (Zo\'94l.), the precious coral (Corallium rubrum). See Illusts. of Coral and Gorgonlacea. -- Red cross. The cross of St. George, the national emblem of the English. (b) The Geneva cross. See Geneva convention, and Geneva cross, under Geneva. -- Red currant. (Bot.) See Currant. -- Red deer. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The common stag (Cervus elaphus), native of the forests of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia. It is very similar to the American elk, or wapiti. (b) The Virginia deer. See Deer. -- Red duck (Zo\'94l.), a European reddish brown duck (Fuligula nyroca); -- called also ferruginous duck. -- Red ebony. (Bot.) See Grenadillo. -- Red empress (Zo\'94l.), a butterfly. See Tortoise shell. -- Red fir (Bot.), a coniferous tree (Pseudotsuga Douglasii) found from British Columbia to Texas, and highly valued for its durable timber. The name is sometimes given to other coniferous trees, as the Norway spruce and the American Abies magnifica and A. nobilis. -- Red fire. (Pyrotech.) See Blue fire, under Fire. -- Red flag. See under Flag. -- Red fox (Zo\'94l.), the common American fox (Vulpes fulvus), which is usually reddish in color. -- Red grouse (Zo\'94l.), the Scotch grouse, or ptarmigan. See under Ptarmigan. -- Red gum, (Bot.), a name given to eight Australian species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus amygdalina, resinifera, etc.) which yield a reddish gum resin. See Eucalyptus. -- Red hand (Her.), a left hand appaum\'82, fingers erect, borne on an escutcheon, being the mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; -- called also Badge of Ulster. -- Red herring, the common herring dried and smoked.<-- Fig. something that merely distracts attention from the basic issue; esp. something irrelevant to the issue at hand, or something which is not true or does not exist. --> -- Red horse. (Zo\'94l.) (a) Any large American red fresh-water sucker, especially Moxostoma macrolepidotum and allied species. (b) See the Note under Drumfish. -- Red lead. (Chem) See under Lead, and Minium. -- Red-lead ore. (Min.) Same as Crocoite. -- Red liquor (Dyeing), a solution consisting essentially of aluminium acetate, used as a mordant in the fixation of dyestuffs on vegetable fiber; -- so called because used originally for red dyestuffs. Called also red mordant. -- Red maggot (Zo\'94l.), the larva of the wheat midge. -- Red manganese. (Min.) Same as Rhodochrosite. -- Red man, one of the American Indians; -- so called from his color. -- Red maple (Bot.), a species of maple (Acer rubrum). See Maple. -- Red mite. (Zo\'94l.) See Red spider, below. -- Red mulberry (Bot.), an American mulberry of a dark purple color (Morus rubra). -- Red mullet (Zo\'94l.), the surmullet. See Mullet. -- Red ocher (Min.), a soft earthy variety of hematite, of a reddish color. -- Red perch (Zo\'94l.), the rosefish. -- Red phosphorus. (Chem.) See under Phosphorus. -- Red pine (Bot.), an American species of pine (Pinus resinosa); -- so named from its reddish bark. -- Red precipitate. See under Precipitate. -- Red Republican (European Politics), originally, one who maintained extreme republican doctrines in France, -- because a red liberty cap was the badge of the party; an extreme radical in social reform. [Cant] -- Red ribbon, the ribbon of the Order of the Bath in England. -- Red sanders. (Bot.) See Sanders. -- Red sandstone. (Geol.) See under Sandstone. -- Red scale (Zo\'94l.), a scale insect (Aspidiotus aurantii) very injurious to the orange tree in California and Australia. -- Red silver (Min.), an ore of silver, of a ruby-red or reddish black color. It includes proustite, or light red silver, and pyrargyrite, or dark red silver. -- Red snapper (Zo\'94l.), a large fish (Lutlanus aya (Med.) a form of cerebral softening in which the affected parts are red, -- a condition due either to infarction or inflammation. -- Red spider (Zo\'94l.), a very small web-spinning mite (Tetranychus telarius) which infests, and often destroys, plants of various kinds, especially those cultivated in houses and conservatories. It feeds mostly on the under side of the leaves, and causes them to turn yellow and die. The adult insects are usually pale red. Called also red mite. -- Red squirrel (Zo\'94l.), the chickaree. -- Red tape, the tape used in public offices for tying up documents, etc.; hence, official formality and delay.<--excessive bureaucratic paperwork --> -- Red underwing (Zo\'94l.), any species of noctuid moths belonging to Catacola and allied genera. The numerous species are mostly large and handsomely colored. The under wings are commonly banded with bright red or orange. -- Red water, a disease in cattle, so called from an appearance like blood in the urine.> Re*demp"tor*ist (-t?r*?st), n. [F. rédemptoriste, fr. L. redemptor redeemer, from redinere. See Redeem.] (R.C.Ch.) One of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, founded in Naples in 1732 by St. Alphonsus Maria de Liquori. It was introduced onto the United States in 1832 at Detroit. The Fathers of the Congregation devote themselves to preaching to the neglected, esp. in missions and retreats, and are forbidden by their rule to engage in the instruction of youth.
Redigest (Page: 1204)

Re`di*gest" (r?`d?*j?st"), v. t. To digest, or reduce to form, a second time. Kent.


Reformist (Page: 1208)

Re*form"ist, n. [Cf. F. réformiste.] A reformer.


Regest (Page: 1210)

Re*gest" (r?*j?st"), n. [L. regesta, pl.: cf. OF. regestes, pl. See Register.] A register. [Obs.] Milton.


Reinvest (Page: 1212)

Re`in*vest" (r?`?n*v?st"), v. t. To invest again or anew.


Relationist (Page: 1213)

Re*la"tion*ist, n. A relative; a relation. [Obs.]


Religionist (Page: 1214)

Re*li"gion*ist, n. One earnestly devoted or attached to a religion; a religious zealot.

The chief actors on one side were, and were to be, the Puritan religionists. Palfrey.
It might be that an Antinomian, a Quaker, or other heterodo religionists, was to be scourged out of the town. Hawthorne.

Remast (Page: 1215)

Re*mast" (r?-m?st"), v. t. To furnish with a new mast or set of masts.


Repast (Page: 1219)

Re*past" (r?-p?st"), n. [OF. repast, F. repas, LL. repastus, fr. L. repascere to feed again; pref. re- re- + pascere, pastum, to pasture, feed. See Pasture.]

1. The act of taking food.

From dance to sweet repast they turn. Milton.

2. That which is taken as food; a meal; figuratively, any refreshment. Sleep . . . thy best repast." Denham.

Go and get me some repast. Shak.

Repast (Page: 1219)

Re*past", v. t. & i. To supply food to; to feast; to take food. [Obs.] Repast them with my blood." Shak.

He then, also, as before, left arbitrary the dieting and repasting of our minds. Milton.

Request (Page: 1223)

Re*quest" (r?-kwst"), n. [OE. requeste, OF. requeste, F. requte, LL. requesta, for requisita, fr. L. requirere, requisitum, to seek again, ask for. See Require, and cf. Quest.]

1. The act of asking for anything desired; expression of desire or demand; solicitation; prayer; petition; entreaty.

I will marry her, sir, at your request. Shak.

2. That which is asked for or requested. He gave them their request." Ps. cvi. 15.

I will both hear and grant you your requests. Shak.

3. A state of being desired or held in such estimation as to be sought after or asked for; demand.

Knowledge and fame were in as great request as wealth among us now. Sir W. Temple.
Court of Requests. (a) A local tribunal, sometimes called Court of Consience, founded by act of Parliament to facilitate the recovery of small debts from any inhabitant or trader in the district defined by the act; -- now mostly abolished. (b) A court of equity for the relief of such persons as addressed the sovereign by supplication; -- now abolished. It was inferior to the Court of Chancery. [Eng.] Brande & C. Syn. -- Asking; solicitation; petition; prayer; supplication; entreaty; suit.
Request (Page: 1223)

Re*quest" (r?-kw?st"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Requested; p. pr. & vb. n. Requesting.] [Cf. OF. requester, F. requ≖ter.]

1. To ask for (something); to express desire ffor; to solicit; as, to request his presence, or a favor.

2. To address with a request; to ask.

I request you To give my poor host freedom. Shak.
Syn. -- To ask; solicit; entreat; beseech. See Beg.
Requisitionist (Page: 1223)

Req`ui*si"tion*ist, n. One who makes or signs a requisition.


Reservist (Page: 1225)

Re*serv"ist, n. A member of a reserve force of soldiers or militia. [Eng.]


Resist (Page: 1226)

Re*sist" (r?-z?stt"), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Resisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Resisting.] [F. résister, L. resistere, pref. re- re- + sistere to stand, cause to stand, v. causative of stare to stand. See Stand.]

1. To stand against; to withstand; to obstruct.

That mortal dint, Save He who reigns above, none can resist. Milton.

2. To strive against; to endeavor to counteract, defeat, or frustrate; to act in opposition to; to oppose.

God resisteth the proud. James iv. 6.
Contrary to his high will Whom we resist. Milton.

3. To counteract, as a force, by inertia or reaction.

4. To be distasteful to. [Obs.] Shak. Syn. -- To withstand; oppose; hinder; obstruct; counteract; check; thwart; baffle; disappoint.


Resist (Page: 1226)

Re*sist", v. i. To make opposition. Shak.


Resist (Page: 1226)

Re*sist", n. (Calico Printing) A substance used to prevent a color or mordant from fixing on those parts to which it has been applied, either by acting machanically in preventing the color, etc., from reaching the cloth, or chemically in changing the color so as to render it incapable of fixing itself in the fibers.. The pastes prepared for this purpose are called resist pastes. F. C. Calvert.


Resolutionist (Page: 1226)

Res`o*lu"tion*ist, n. One who makes a resolution.


Rest (Page: 1228)

Rest (r?st), v. t. [For arrest.] To arrest. [Obs.]


Rest (Page: 1228)

Rest, n. [AS. rest, rst, rest; akin to D. rust, G. rast. OHG. rasta, Dan. & Sw. rast rest, repose, Icel. rst the distance between two resting places, a mole, Goth. rasta a mile, also to Goth. razn house, Icel. rann, and perhaps to G. ruhe rest, repose, AS. rw, Gr. Cf. Ransack.]

1. A state of quiet or repose; a cessation from motion or labor; tranquillity; as, rest from mental exertion; rest of body or mind. Chaucer.

Sleep give thee all his rest! Shak.

2. Hence, freedom from everything which wearies or disturbs; peace; security.

And the land had rest fourscore years. Judges iii. 30.

3. Sleep; slumber; hence, poetically, death.

How sleep the brave who sink to rest, By all their country's wishes blest. Collins.

4. That on which anything rests or leans for support; as, a rest in a lathe, for supporting the cutting tool or steadying the work.

He made narrowed rests round about, that the beams should not be fastened in the walls of the house. 1 Kings vi. 6.

5. (Anc. Armor) A projection from the right side of the cuirass, serving to support the lance.

Their visors closed, their lances in the rest. Dryden.

6. A place where one may rest, either temporarily, as in an inn, or permanently, as, in an abode. Halfway houses and travelers' rests." J. H. Newman.

In dust our final rest, and native home. Milton.
Ye are not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance which the Lord your God giveth you. Deut. xii. 9.

7. (Pros.) A short pause in reading verse; a c&ae;sura.

8. The striking of a balance at regular intervals in a running account. An account is said to be taken with annual or semiannual rests." Abbott.

9. A set or game at tennis. [Obs.]

10. (Mus.) Silence in music or in one of its parts; the name of the character that stands for such silence. They are named as notes are, whole, half, quarter,etc. Rest house, an empty house for the accomodation of travelers; a caravansary. [India] -- To set, ∨ To set up, one's rest, to have a settled determination; -- from an old game of cards, when one so expressed his intention to stand or rest upon his hand. [Obs.] Shak. Bacon. Syn. -- Cessation; pause; intermission; stop; stay; repose; slumber; quiet; ease; quietness; stillness; tranquillity; peacefulness; pease. -- Rest, Repose. Rest is a ceasing from labor or exertion; repose is a mode of resting which gives relief and refreshment after toil and labor. The words are commonly interchangeable.


Rest (Page: 1228)

Rest (r?st), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rested; p. pr. & vb. n. Resting.] [AS. restan. See Rest, n.]

1. To cease from action or motion, especially from action which has caused weariness; to desist from labor or exertion.

God . . . rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. Gen. ii. 2.
Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest. Ex. xxiii. 12.

2. To be free from whanever wearies or disturbs; to be quiet or still.

There rest, if any rest can harbor there. Milton.

3. To lie; to repose; to recline; to lan; as, to rest on a couch.

4. To stand firm; to be fixed; to be supported; as, a column rests on its pedestal.

5. To sleep; to slumber; hence, poetically, to be dead.

Fancy . . . then retries Into her private cell when Nature rests. Milton.

6. To lean in confidence; to trust; to rely; to repose without anxiety; as, to rest on a man's promise.

On him I rested, after long debate, And not without considering, fixed fate. Dryden.

7. To be satisfied; to acquiesce.

To rest in Heaven's determination. Addison.
To rest with, to be in the power of; to depend upon; as, it rests with him to decide.
Rest (Page: 1228)

Rest, v. t.

1. To lay or place at rest; to quiet.

Your piety has paid All needful rites, to rest my wandering shade. Dryden.

2. To place, as on a support; to cause to lean.

Her weary head upon your bosom rest. Waller.

Rest (Page: 1228)

Rest, n. [F. reste, fr. rester to remain, L. restare to stay back, remain; pref. re- re- + stare to stand, stay. See Stand, and cf. Arrest, Restive.] (With the definite article.)

1. That which is left, or which remains after the separation of a part, either in fact or in contemplation; remainder; residue.

Religion gives part of its reward in hand, the present comfort of having done our duty, and, for the rest, it offers us the best security that Heaven can give. Tillotson.

2. Those not included in a proposition or description; the remainder; others. Plato and the rest of the philosophers." Bp. Stillingfleet.

Armed like the rest, the Trojan prince appears. DRyden.

3. (Com.) A surplus held as a reserved fund by a bank to equalize its dividends, etc.; in the Bank of England, the balance of assets above liabilities. [Eng.] Syn. -- Remainder; overplus; surplus; remnant; residue; reserve; others.


Rest (Page: 1228)

Rest, v. i. [F. rester. See Rest remainder.] To be left; to remain; to continue to be.

The affairs of men rest still uncertain. Shak.

Restorationist (Page: 1228)

Res`to*ra"tion*ist, n.One who believes in a temporary future punishment and a final restoration of all to the favor and presence of God; a Universalist.


Resurrectionist (Page: 1229)

Res`ur*rec"tion*ist (?), n. One who steals bodies from the grave, as for dissection. [Slang]


Revest (Page: 1234)

Re*vest" (?), v. t. [OF reverstir, F. rev\'88tir, L. revestire; pref. re- re- + vestire to clothe, fr. vestis a garment. See Vestry, and cf. Revet.]

1. To clothe again; to cover, as with a robe; to robe.

Her, nathless, . . . the enchanter< id thus revest and decked with due habiliments. Spenser.

2. To vest again with possession or office; as, to revest a magistrate with authority.


Revest (Page: 1234)

Re*vest", v. i. To take effect or vest again, as a title; to revert to former owner; as, the title or right revels in A after alienation.


Revivalist (Page: 1235)

Re*viv"al*ist, n. A clergyman or layman who promotes revivals of religion; an advocate for religious revivals; sometimes, specifically, a clergyman, without a particular charge, who goes about to promote revivals. Also used adjectively.


Revolutionist (Page: 1235)

Rev`o*lu"tion*ist, n. One engaged in effecting a change of government; a favorer of revolution. Burke.


Rhapsodist (Page: 1236)

Rhap"so*dist (?), n. [From Rhapsody.]

1. Anciently, one who recited or composed a rhapsody; especially, one whose profession was to recite the verses of Hormer and other epic poets.

2. Hence, one who recites or sings poems for a livelihood; one who makes and repeats verses extempore.

The same populace sit for hours listening to rhapsodists who recite Ariosto. Carlyle.

3. One who writes or speaks disconnectedly and with great excitement or affectation of feeling. I. Watts.


Rhinologist (Page: 1237)

Rhi*nol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in rhinology.


Rhymist (Page: 1238)

Rhym"ist, n. A rhymer; a rhymester. Johnston.


Ribroast (Page: 1239)

Rib"roast` (?), v. t. To beat soundly. [Slang]


Rigorist (Page: 1242)

Rig"or*ist, n. [Cf. F. rigoriste.] One who is rigorous; -- sometimes applied to an extreme Jansenist.


Rinderpest (Page: 1243)

Rin"der*pest (?), n. [G., fr. rind, pl. rinder, cattle + pest pest, plague.] A highly contagious distemper or murrain, affecting neat cattle, and less commonly sheep and goats; -- called also cattle plague, Russian cattle plague, and steppe murrain.


Ripienist (Page: 1244)

Ri*pi*e"nist (?), n. (Mus.) A player in the ripieno portion of an orchestra. See Ripieno.


Ripost (Page: 1244)

Ri*post" (?), n. [F. riposte.]

1. In fencing, a return thrust after a parry.

2. A quick and sharp refort; a repartee. J. Morley.


Rist (Page: 1245)

Rist (?), obs. 3d pers. sing. pres. of Rise, contracted from riseth. Chaucer.


Ritualist (Page: 1245)

Rit"u*al*ist (?), n. [CF. F. ritualiste.] One skilled un, or attached to, a ritual; one who advocates or practices ritualism.


Roast (Page: 1246)

Roast (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Roasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Roasting.] [OE. rosten, OF. rostir, F. r\'93tir; of German origin; cf. OHG. r&omac;sten, G. rösten, fr. OHG. r&omac;st, r&omac;sta, gridiron, G. rost; cf. AS. hyrstan to roast.]

1. To cook by exposure to radiant heat before a fire; as, to roast meat on a spit, or in an oven open toward the fire and having reflecting surfaces within; also, to cook in a close oven.

2. To cook by surrounding with hot embers, ashes, sand, etc.; as, to roast a potato in ashes.

In eggs boiled and roasted there is scarce difference to be discerned. BAcon.

3. To dry and parch by exposure to heat; as, to roast coffee; to roast chestnuts, or peanuts.

4. Hence, to heat to excess; to heat violently; to burn. Roasted in wrath and fire." Shak.

5. (Metal.) To dissipate by heat the volatile parts of, as ores.

6. To banter severely. [Colloq.] Atterbury.


Roast (Page: 1246)

Roast, v. i.

1. To cook meat, fish, etc., by heat, as before the fire or in an oven.

He could roast, and seethe, and broil, and fry. Chaucer.

2. To undergo the process of being roasted.


Roast (Page: 1246)

Roast, n. That which is roasted; a piece of meat which has been roasted, or is suitable for being roasted.

A fat swan loved he best of any roost [roast]. Chaucer.
To rule the roast, to be at the head of affairs. The new-made duke that rules the roast."<-- = to rule the roost! --> Shak.
Roast (Page: 1246)

Roast, a. [For roasted.] Roasted; as, roast beef.


Robust (Page: 1246)

Ro*bust" (?), a. [L. robustus oaken, hard, strong, fr. robur strength, a very hard kind of oak; cf. Skr. rabhas violence: cf. F. robuste.]

1. Evincing strength; indicating vigorous health; strong; sinewy; muscular; vigorous; sound; as, a robust body; robust youth; robust health. [1247]

2. Violent; rough; rude.

While romp-loving miss Is hauled about in gallantry robust. Thomson.

3. Requiring strength or vigor; as, robust employment. Locke. Syn. -- Strong; lusty; sinewy; sturdy; muscular; hale; hearty; vigorous; forceful; sound. -- Robust, Strong. Robust means, literally, made of oak, and hence implies great compactness and toughness of muscle, connected with a thick-set frame and great powers of endurance. Strong denotes the power of exerting great physical force. The robust man can bear heat or cold, excess or privation, and toil on through every kind of hardship; the strong man can lift a great weight, can give a heavy blow, and a hard gripe. Robust, tough sinews bred to toil." Cowper.

Then 'gan the villain wax so fierce and strong, That nothing may sustain his furious force. Spenser.

Rodomontadist (Page: 1248)

Rod`o*mon*tad"ist (?), n. One who boasts.


Roist (Page: 1248)

Roist (?), v. i. See Roister.


Romancist (Page: 1249)

Ro*man"cist (?), n. A romancer. [R.]


Romanist (Page: 1249)

Ro"man*ist, n. One who adheres to Romanism.


Romanticist (Page: 1249)

Ro*man"ti*cist (?), n. One who advocates romanticism in modern literature. J. R. Seeley.


Romist (Page: 1249)

Rom"ist, n. A Roman Catholic. [R.] South.


Roost (Page: 1250)

Roost (?), n. Roast. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Roost (Page: 1250)

Roost (?), v. t. See Roust, v. t.


Roost (Page: 1250)

Roost, n. [AS. hrst; akin to OD. roest roost, roesten to roost, and probably to E. roof. Cf. Roof.]

1. The pole or other support on which fowls rest at night; a perch.

He clapped his wings upon his roost. Dryden.

2. A collection of fowls roosting together. At roost, on a perch or roost; hence, retired to rest.


Roost (Page: 1250)

Roost, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Roosted; p. pr. & vb. n. Roosting.]

1. To sit, rest, or sleep, as fowls on a pole, limb of a tree, etc.; to perch. Wordsworth.

2. Fig.; To lodge; to rest; to sleep.

O, let me where thy roof my soul hath hid, O, let me roost and nestle there. Herbert.

Rost Cabbage rose, China rose, etc. See under Cabbage, China, etc. -- Corn rose (Bot.) See Corn poppy, under Corn. -- Infantile rose (Med.), a variety of roseola. -- Jamaica rose. (Bot.) See under Jamaica. -- Rose acacia (Bot.), a low American leguminous shrub (Robinia hispida) with handsome clusters of rose-colored blossoms. -- Rose aniline. (Chem.) Same as Rosaniline. -- Rose apple (Bot.), the fruit of the tropical myrtaceous tree Eugenia Jambos. It is an edible berry an inch or more in diameter, and is said to have a very strong roselike perfume. -- Rose beetle. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A small yellowish or buff longlegged beetle (Macrodactylus subspinosus), which eats the leaves of various plants, and is often very injurious to rosebushes, apple trees, grapevines, etc. Called also rose bug, and rose chafer. (b) The European chafer. -- Rose bug. (Zo\'94l.) same as Rose beetle, Rose chafer. -- Rose burner, a kind of gas-burner producing a rose-shaped flame. -- Rose camphor (Chem.), a solid odorless substance which separates from rose oil. -- Rose campion. (Bot.) See under Campion. -- Rose catarrh (Med.), rose cold. -- Rose chafer. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A common European beetle (Cetonia aurata) which is often very injurious to rosebushes; -- called also rose beetle, and rose fly. (b) The rose beetle (a). -- Rose cold (Med.), a variety of hay fever, sometimes attributed to the inhalation of the effluvia of roses. See Hay fever, under Hay. -- Rose color, the color of a rose; pink; hence, a beautiful hue or appearance; fancied beauty, attractiveness, or promise. 1252 -- Rose de Pompadour, Rose du Barry, names succesively given to a delicate rose color used on S\'8avres porcelain. -- Rose diamond, a diamond, one side of which is flat, and the other cut into twenty-four triangular facets in two ranges which form a convex face pointed at the top. Cf. Brilliant, n. -- Rose ear. See under Ear. -- Rose elder (Bot.), the Guelder-rose. -- Rose engine, a machine, or an appendage to a turning lathe, by which a surface or wood, metal, etc., is engraved with a variety of curved lines. Craig. -- Rose family (Bot.) the Rosece\'91. See Rosaceous. -- Rose fever (Med.), rose cold. -- Rose fly (Zo\'94l.), a rose betle, or rose chafer. -- Rose gall (Zo\'94l.), any gall found on rosebushes. See Bedeguar. -- Rose knot, a ribbon, or other pliade band plaited so as to resemble a rose; a rosette. -- Rose lake, Rose madder, a rich tint prepared from lac and madder precipitated on an earthy basis. Fairholt. -- Rose mallow. (Bot.) (a) A name of several malvaceous plants of the genus Hibiscus, with large rose-colored flowers. (b) the hollyhock. -- Rose nail, a nail with a convex, faceted head. -- Rose noble, an ancient English gold coin, stamped with the figure of a rose, first struck in the reign of Edward III., and current at 6s. 8d. Sir W. Scott. -- Rose of China. (Bot.) See China rose (b), under China. -- Rose of Jericho (Bot.), a Syrian cruciferous plant (Anastatica Hierochuntica) which rolls up when dry, and expands again when moistened; -- called also resurrection plant. -- Rose of Sharon (Bot.), an ornamental malvaceous shrub (Hibiscus Syriacus). In the Bible the name is used for some flower not yet identified, perhaps a Narcissus, or possibly the great lotus flower. -- Rose oil (Chem.), the yellow essential oil extracted from various species of rose blossoms, and forming the chief part of attar of roses. -- Rose pink, a pigment of a rose color, made by dyeing chalk or whiting with a decoction of Brazil wood and alum; also, the color of the pigment. -- Rose quartz (Min.), a variety of quartz which is rose-red. -- Rose rash. (Med.) Same as Roseola. -- Rose slug (Zo\'94l.), the small green larva of a black sawfly (Selandria ros\'91). These larv\'91 feed in groups on the parenchyma of the leaves of rosebushes, and are often abundant and very destructive. -- Rose window (Arch.), a circular window filled with ornamental tracery. Called also Catherine wheel, and marigold window. Cf. wheel window, under Wheel. -- Summer rose (Med.), a variety of roseola. See Roseola. -- Under the rose [a translation of L. sub rosa], in secret; privately; in a manner that forbids disclosure; -- the rose being among the ancients the symbol of secrecy, and hung up at entertainments as a token that nothing there said was to be divulged. -- Wars of the Roses (Eng. Hist.), feuds between the Houses of York and Lancaster, the white rose being the badge of the House of York, and the red rose of the House of Lancaster.> Rost (?), n. See Roust. [Scot.] Jemieson.
Roughcast (Page: 1254)

Rough`cast" (?), v. t.

1. To form in its first rudiments, without revision, correction, or polish. Dryden.

2. To mold without nicety or elegance; to form with asperities and inequalities.

3. To plaster with a mixture of lime and shells or pebbles; as, to roughcast a building.


Roughcast (Page: 1254)

Rough"cast`, n.

1. A rude model; the rudimentary, unfinished form of a thing.

2. A kind of plastering made of lime, with a mixture of shells or pebbles, used for covering buildings. Shak.


Roust (Page: 1255)

Roust (roust), v. t. To rouse; to disturb; as, to roust one out. [Prov. Eng. & Local, U.S.]


Roust (Page: 1255)

Roust, n. [Cf. Icel. röst an estuary.] A strong tide or current, especially in a narrow channel. [Written also rost, and roost.] Jamieson.


Routinist (Page: 1255)

Rou*tin"ist, n. One who habituated to a routine.


Royalist (Page: 1256)

Roy"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. royaliste.] An adherent of a king (as of Charles I. in England, or of the Bourbons in france); one attached to monarchical government.

Where Ca'ndish fought, the Royalists prevailed. Waller.

Rubrician, Rubricist (Page: 1257)

Ru*bri"cian (?), Ru"bri*cist (?), n. One skilled in, or tenaciously adhering to, the rubric or rubrics.


Rudderpost (Page: 1258)

Rud"der*post (?), n. (Naut.) The shank of a rudder, having the blade at one end and the attachments for operating it at the other.


Ruralist (Page: 1262)

Ru"ral*ist, n. One who leads a rural life. Coventry.


Ruricolist (Page: 1262)

Ru*ric"o*list (?), n. [L. ruricola; rus, ruris, the country + colere to inhabit.] An inhabitant of the country. [R.] Bailey.


Russophile, Russophilist (Page: 1263)

Rus"so*phile (?), Rus"soph"i*list (?), n. [Russia + Gr. to love: cf. F. russophile.] One who, not being a Russian, favors Russian policy and aggrandizement. -- Rus*soph"ilism (#), n. [Chiefly newspaper words.]


Russophobe, Russophobist (Page: 1263)

Rus"so*phobe (?), Rus*soph"o*bist (?), [Russia + Gr. to fear.] One who dreads Russia or Russian influence. [Words sometimes found in the newspapers.]


Rust (Page: 1263)

Rust (?), n. [AS. rust; akin to D. roest, G. & Sw. rost, Icel. ry\'eb; -- named from its color, and akin to E. red. √113. See Red.]

1. (Chem.) The reddish yellow coating formed on iron when exposed to moist air, consisting of ferric oxide or hydroxide; hence, by extension, any metallic film of corrosion.

2. (Bot.) A minute mold or fungus forming reddish or rusty spots on the leaves and stems of cereal and other grasses (Trichobasis Rubigo-vera), now usually believed to be a form or condition of the corn mildew (Puccinia graminis). As rust, it has solitary reddish spores; as corn mildew, the spores are double and blackish. &hand; Rust is also applied to many other minute fungi which infest vegetation, such as the species of Ustilago, Uredo, and Lecythea.

3. That which resembles rust in appearance or effects. Specifically: (a) A composition used in making a rust joint. See Rust joint, below. (b) Foul matter arising from degeneration; as, rust on salted meat. (c) Corrosive or injurious accretion or influence.

Sacred truths cleared from all rust and dross of human mixtures. Eikon Basilike.
&hand; Rust is used in the formation of compounds of obvious meaning; as, rust-colored, rust-consumed, rust-eaten, and the like. Rust joint, a joint made between surfaces of iron by filling the space between them with a wet mixture of cast-iron borings, sal ammoniac, and sulphur, which by oxidation becomes hard, and impervious to steam, water, etc. -- Rust mite (Zoöl.), a minute mite (Phytopius oleivorus) which, by puncturing the rind, causes the rust-colored patches on oranges.
Rust (Page: 1263)

Rust, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rusting.] [AS. rustian.]

1. To contract rust; to be become oxidized.

If gold ruste, what shall iron do? Chaucer.
Our armors now may rust. Dryden.

2. To be affected with the parasitic fungus called rust; also, to acquire a rusty appearance. as plants.

3. Fig.: To degenerate in idleness; to become dull or impaired by inaction.

Must I rust in Egypt? never more Appear in arms, and be the chief of Greece? Dryden.

Rust (Page: 1263)

Rust, v. t.

1. To cause to contract rust; to corrode with rust; to affect with rust of any kind.

Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them. Shak.

2. Fig.: To impair by time and inactivity. Johmson.


Sacramentalist (Page: 1265)

Sac`ra*men"tal*ist, n. One who holds the doctrine of the real objective presence of Christ;s body and blood in the holy eucharist. Shipley.


Sacrilegist (Page: 1266)

Sac"ri*le`gist (?), n. One guilty of sacrilege.


Sacrist (Page: 1266)

Sa"crist (?), n. [LL. sacrista. See Sacristan.] A sacristan; also, a person retained in a cathedral to copy out music for the choir, and take care of the books.


Saengerfest (Page: 1266)

Saeng"er*fest (?), n. [G. sängerfest.] A festival of singers; a German singing festival. [1267]


Sagittocyst (Page: 1268)

Sag"it*to*cyst (?), n. [See Sagitta, and Cyst.] (Zoöl.) A defensive cell containing a minute rodlike structure which may be expelled. Such cells are found in certain Turbellaria.


Saintologist (a) A cross shaped like the letter X. See Illust. 4, under Cross. (b) (Bot.) A low North American shrub (Ascyrum Crux-Andr\'91, the petals of which have the form of a Saint Andrew's cross. Gray. -- Saint Anthony's cross, a T-shaped cross. See Illust. 6, under Cross. -- Saint Anthony's fire, the erysipelas; -- popularly so called because it was supposed to have been cured by the intercession of Saint Anthony. -- Saint Anthony's nut (Bot.), the groundnut (Bunium flexuosum); -- so called because swine feed on it, and St. Anthony was once a swineherd. Dr. Prior. -- Saint Anthony's turnip (Bot.), the bulbous crowfoot, a favorite food of swine. Dr. Prior. -- Saint Barnaby's thistle (Bot.), a kind of knapeweed (Centaurea solstitialis) flowering on St. Barnabas's Day, June 11th. Dr. Prior. -- Saint Bernard (Zo\'94l.), a breed of large, handsome dogs celebrated for strength and sagacity, formerly bred chiefly at the Hospice of St. Bernard in Switzerland, but now common in Europe and America. There are two races, the smooth-haired and the rough-haired. See Illust. under Dog. -- Saint Catharine's flower (Bot.), the plant love-a-mist. See under Love. -- Saint Cuthbert's beads (Paleon.), the fossil joints of crinoid stems. -- Saint Dabeoc's heath (Bot.), a heatherlike plant (Dab\'91cia polifolia), named from an Irish saint. -- Saint Distaff's Day. See under Distaff. -- Saint Elmo's fire, a luminious, flamelike appearance, sometimes seen in dark, tempestuous nights, at some prominent point on a ship, particularly at the masthead and the yardams. It has also been observed on land, and is due to the discharge of electricity from elevated or pointed objects. A single flame is called a Helena, or a Corposant; a double, or twin, flame is called a Castor and Pollux, or a double Corposant. It takes its name from St. Elmo, the patron saint of sailors. -- Saint George's cross (Her.), a Greek cross gules upon a field argent, the field being represented by a narrow fimbriation in the ensign, or union jack, of Great Britain. -- Saint George's ensign, a red cross on a white field with a union jack in the upper corner next the mast. It is the distinguishing badge of ships of the royal navy of England; -- called also the white ensign. Brande & C. -- Saint George's flag, a smaller flag resembling the ensign, but without the union jack; used as the sign of the presence and command of an admiral. [Eng.] Brande & C. -- Saint Gobain glass (Chem.), a fine variety of soda-lime plate glass, so called from St.Gobain in France, where it was manufactured. -- Saint Ignatius's bean (Bot.), the seed of a tree of the Philippines (Strychnos Ignatia), of properties similar to the nux vomica. -- Saint Jame's shell (Zo\'94l.), a pecten (Vola Jacob\'91us) worn by piligrims to the Holy Land. See Illust. under Scallop. -- Saint Jame's wort (Bot.), a kind of ragwort (Senecio Jacob\'91a). -- Saint John's bread. (Bot.) See Carob. -- Saint John's-wort (Bot.), any plant of the genus Hypericum, most species of which have yellow flowers; -- called also John's-wort. -- Saint Leger, the name of a race for three-year-old horses run annually in September at Doncaster, England; -- instituted in 1776 by Col. St. Leger. -- Saint Martin's herb (Bot.), a small tropical American violaceous plant (Sauvagesia erecta). It is very mucilaginous and is used in medicine. 1269 -- Saint Martin's summer, a season of mild, damp weather frequently prevailing during late autumn in England and the Mediterranean countries; -- so called from St. Martin's Festival, occuring on November 11. It corresponds to the Indian summer in America. Shak. Whitier. -- Saint Patrick's cross. See Illust 4, under Cross. -- Saint Patrick's Day, the 17th of March, anniversary of the death (about 466) of St. Patrick, the apostle and patron saint of Ireland. -- Saint Peter's fish. (Zo\'94l.) See John Dory, under John. -- Saint Peter's-wort (Bot.), a name of several plants, as Hypericum Ascyron, H. quadrangulum, Ascyrum stans, etc. -- Saint Peter's wreath (Bot.), a shrubby kind of Spir\'91a (S. hypericifolia), having long slender branches covered with clusters of small white blossoms in spring. -- Saint's bell. See Sanctus bell, under Sanctus. -- Saint Vitus's dance (Med.), chorea; -- so called from the supposed cures wrought on intercession to this saint.> Saint*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Saint + -logy + -ist.] (Theol.) One who writes the lives of saints. [R.]
Salvationist (Page: 1272)

Sal*va"tion*ist, n. An evangelist, a member, or a recruit, of the Salvation Army.


Sanhedrist (Page: 1275)

San"he*drist (?), n. A member of the sanhedrin. Schaeffer (Lange's Com. ).


Sanitarist (Page: 1275)

San"i*ta*rist (?), n. A sanitarian.


Sanskritist (Page: 1275)

San"skrit*ist, n. One versed in Sanskrit.


Sarcoblast (Page: 1276)

Sar"co*blast (?), n. [Sarco- + -blast.] (Zoöl.) A minute yellowish body present in the interior of certain rhizopods.


Satanist (Page: 1277)

Sa"tan*ist, n. A very wicked-person. [R.] Granger.


Satirist (Page: 1278)

Sat"ir*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. satiriste.] One who satirizes; especially, one who writes satire.

The mighty satirist, who . . . had spread through the Whig ranks. Macaulay.

Saturnist (Page: 1278)

Sat"ur*nist (?), n. A person of a dull, grave, gloomy temperament. W. browne.


Saw-wrest (Page: 1280)

Saw"-wrest` (?), n. See Saw-set.


Sawdust (Page: 1280)

Saw"dust` (?), n. Dust or small fragments of wood 9or of stone, etc.) made by the cutting of a saw.


Saxonist (Page: 1280)

Sax"on*ist, n. One versed in the Saxon language.


Schematist (Page: 1285)

Sche"ma*tist (?), n. One given to forming schemes; a projector; a schemer. Swift.


Schemist (Page: 1285)

Schem"ist, n. A schemer. [R.] Waterland.


Schist (Page: 1286)

Schist (sh&icr;st), n. [Gr. divided, divisible, fr. to divide: cf. F. schiste. See Schism.] (Geol.) Any crystalline rock having a foliated structure (see Foliation) and hence admitting of ready division into slabs or slates. The common kinds are mica schist, and hornblendic schist, consisting chiefly of quartz with mica or hornblende and often feldspar.


Scholiast (Page: 1286)

Scho"li*ast (?), n. [Gr. , fr. a scholium: cf. F. scoliate. See Scholium.] A maker of scholia; a commentator or annotator.

No . . . quotations from Talmudists and scholiasts . . . ever marred the effect of his grave temperate discourses. Macaulay.

Scientist (Page: 1287)

Sci"en*tist (?), n. One learned in science; a scientific investigator; one devoted to scientific study; a savant. [Recent] &hand; Twenty years ago I ventured to propose one [a name for the class of men who give their lives to scientific study] which has been slowly finding its way to general adoption; and the word scientist, though scarcely euphonious, has gradually assumed its place in our vocabulary. B. A. Gould (Address, 1869). <-- MW10 gives 1834 as first ref. date. -->


Sciolist (Page: 1287)

Sci"o*list (?), n. [L. sciolus. See Sciolous.] One who knows many things superficially; a pretender to science; a smatterer.

These passages in that book were enough to humble the presumption of our modern sciolists, if their pride were not as great as their ignorance. Sir W. Temple.
A master were lauded and scolists shent. R. Browning.

Scotist (Page: 1290)

Sco"tist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of (Joannes) Duns Scotus, the Franciscan scholastic (d. 1308), who maintained certain doctrines in philosophy and theology, in opposition to the Thomists, or followers of Thomas Aquinas, the Dominican scholastic.


Scripturalist (Page: 1293)

Scrip"tur*al*ist, n. One who adheres literally to the Scriptures.


Scripturist (Page: 1293)

Scrip"tur*ist (?; 135), n. One who is strongly attached to, or versed in, the Scriptures, or who endeavors to regulate his life by them.

The Puritan was a Scripturist with all his heart, if as yet with imperfect intelligence . . . he cherished the scheme of looking to the Word of God as his sole and universal directory. Palfrey.

Scrupulist (Page: 1293)

Scru"pu*list (?), n. A scrupler. [Obs.]


Sea beast (Page: 1296)

Sea" beast` (?). (Zoöl.) Any large marine mammal, as a seal, walrus, or cetacean.


Seacoast (Page: 1296)

Sea"coast` (?), n. The shore or border of the land adjacent to the sea or ocean. Also used adjectively.


Secessionist (Page: 1300)

Se*ces"sion*ist, n.

1. One who upholds secession.

2. (U.S. Hist.) One who holds to the belief that a State has the right to separate from the Union at its will.


Secretist (Page: 1301)

Se"cret*ist (?), n. A dealer in secrets. [Obs.]


Sectarist (Page: 1301)

Sec"ta*rist (?), n. A sectary. [R.] T. Warton.


Sectist (Page: 1301)

Sect"ist, n. One devoted to a sect; a soetary. [R.]


Secularist (Page: 1301)

Sec"u*lar*ist, n. One who theoretically rejects every form of religious faith, and every kind of religious worship, and accepts only the facts and influences which are derived from the present life; also, one who believes that education and other matters of civil policy should be managed without the introduction of a religious element.


Selenographist (Page: 1305)

Sel`e*nog"ra*phist (?), n. A selenographer.


Self-distrust (Page: 1306)

Self`-dis*trust" (?), n. Want of confidence in one' self; diffidence.


Self-interest (Page: 1306)

Self`-in"ter*est (?), n. Private interest; the interest or advantage of one's self.


Self-trust (Page: 1307)

Self"-trust`, n. Faith in one's self; self-reliance.


Selfist (Page: 1306)

Self"ist, n. A selfish person. [R.] I. Taylor.


Semaphorist (Page: 1307)

Se*maph"o*rist (?), n. One who manages or operates a semaphore.


Seminarian, Seminarist (Page: 1308)

Sem`i*na"ri*an (?), Sem"i*na*rist (?), n. [Cf. F. séminariste.] A member of, or one educated in, a seminary; specifically, an ecclesiastic educated for the priesthood in a seminary.


Seminist (Page: 1308)

Sem"i*nist (?), n. (Biol.) A believer in the old theory that the newly created being is formed by the admixture of the seed of the male with the supposed seed of the female.


Sensationalist (Page: 1310)

Sen*sa"tion*al*ist, n.

1. (Metaph.) An advocate of, or believer in, philosophical sensationalism.

2. One who practices sensational writing or speaking.


Sensist (Page: 1310)

Sens"ist, n. One who, in philosophy, holds to sensism.


Sensualist (Page: 1311)

Sen"su*al*ist, n. [CF. F. sensualiste.]

1. One who is sensual; one given to the indulgence of the appetites or senses as the means of happiness.

2. One who holds to the doctrine of sensualism.


Sententiarist (Page: 1311)

Sen*ten"ti*a*rist (?), n. A sententiary. Barnas Sears (Life of Luther).


Sentimentalist (Page: 1311)

Sen`ti*men"tal*ist, n. [Cf. F. sentimentaliste.] One who has, or affects, sentiment or fine feeling.


Separatist (Page: 1312)

Sep`a*ra*tist (?), n. [Cf. F. séparatiste.] One who withdraws or separates himself; especially, one who withdraws from a church to which he has belonged; a seceder from an established church; a dissenter; a nonconformist; a schismatic; a sectary.

Heavy fines on divines who should preach in any meeting of separatist . Macaulay.

Septembrist (Page: 1312)

Sep*tem"brist (?), n. [F. septembriste.] An agent in the massacres in Paris, committed in patriotic frenzy, on the 22d of September, 1792.


Sermonist (Page: 1314)

Ser"mon*ist, n. See Sermonizer.


Sexdigitist (Page: 1320)

Sex*dig"it*ist, n. One who has six fingers on a hand, or six toes on a foot.


Sexualist (Page: 1320)

Sex"u*al*ist, n. (Bot.) One who classifies plants by the sexual method of Linnæus.


Shamanist (Page: 1323)

Sha"man*ist, n. An adherent of Shamanism.


Shamefast (Page: 1323)

Shame"fast (?), a. [AS. scamf&ae;st.] Modest; shamefaced. -- Shame"fast*ly, adv. -- Shame"fast*ness, n. [Archaic] See Shamefaced.

Shamefast she was in maiden shamefastness. Chaucer.
[Conscience] is a blushing shamefast spirit. Shak.
Modest apparel with shamefastness. 1 Tim. ii. 9 (Rev. Ver.).

Shintoist (Page: 1329)

Shin"to*ist (?), n. An adherent of Shintoism.


Sibylist (Page: 1336)

Sib"yl*ist, n. One who believes in a sibyl or the sibylline prophecies. Cudworth.


Siderographist (Page: 1337)

Sid`er*og"ra*phist (?), n. One skilled in siderography.


Signalist (Page: 1339)

Sig"nal*ist, n. One who makes signals; one who communicates intelligence by means of signals.


Signaturist (Page: 1339)

Sig"na*tur`ist (?), n. One who holds to the doctrine of signatures impressed upon objects, indicative of character or qualities. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


Signpost (Page: 1340)

Sign"post` (?), n. A post on which a sign hangs, or on which papers are placed to give public notice of anything.


Simonist (Page: 1342)

Sim"o*nist (?), n. One who practices simony.


Simplist (Page: 1342)

Sim"plist (?), n. One skilled in simples, or medicinal plants; a simpler. Sir T. Browne.


Sinecurist (Page: 1343)

Si"ne*cu*rist (?), n. One who has a sinecure.


Singularist (Page: 1344)

Sin"gu*lar*ist (?), n. One who affects singularity. [Obs.]

A clownish singularist, or nonconformist to ordinary usage. Borrow.

Sinologist (Page: 1345)

Si*nol"o*gist (?), n. A sinilogue.


Sinto, ∨ Sintu, Sintoism, Sintoist (Page: 1345)

Sin"to (?), ∨ Sin"tu (?), Sin"to*ism (?), Sin"to*ist. See Shinto, etc.


Sist (Page: 1346)

Sist (?), v. t. [L. sistere to bring to a stand, to stop.]

1. (Scots Law) To stay, as judicial proceedings; to delay or suspend; to stop.

2. To cause to take a place, as at the bar of a court; hence, to cite; to summon; to bring into court. [Scot.]

Some, however, have preposterously sisted nature as the first or generative principle. Sir W. Hamilton.
[1347]


Sist (Page: 1347)

Sist (?), n. (Scots Law) A stay or suspension of proceedings; an order for a stay of proceedings. Burril.


Sitfast (Page: 1347)

Sit"fast` (?), a. [Sit + fast.] Fixed; stationary; immovable. [R.]

'T is good, when you have crossed the sea and back, To find the sitfast acres where you left them. Emerson.

Sitfast (Page: 1347)

Sit"fast`, n. (Far.) A callosity with inflamed edges, on the back of a horse, under the saddle.


Smell-feast (Page: 1358)

Smell"-feast` (?), n.

1. One who is apt to find and frequent good tables; a parasite; a sponger.

The epicure and the smell-feast. South.

2. A feast at which the guests are supposed to feed upon the odors only of the viands.


Snast (Page: 1361)

Snast (?), n. [Cf. Snite, v. t.] The snuff, or burnt wick, of a candle. [Obs.] Bacon.


Socialist (Page: 1365)

So"cial*ist, n. [Cf. F. socialiste.] One who advocates or practices the doctrines of socialism.


Sociologist (Page: 1365)

So`ci*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who treats of, or devotes himself to, the study of sociology. J. S. Mill.


Socratist (Page: 1365)

Soc"ra*tist (?), n. [Gr. .] A disciple or follower of Socrates.


Solescist (Page: 1368)

Sol"e*scist (?), n. [Gr. .] One who commits a solecism. Blackwall.


Solidist (Page: 1369)

Sol"id*ist, n. (Med.) An advocate of, or believer in, solidism. Dunglison.


Soloist (Page: 1369)

So"lo*ist, n. (Mus.) One who sings or plays a solo.


Somatist (Page: 1370)

So"ma*tist (?), n. One who admits the existence of material beings only; a materialist. Glanvill.


Somatocyst (Page: 1370)

So"ma*to*cyst (?), n. [Gr. , , body + a bladder.] (Zoöl.) A cavity in the primary nectocalyx of certain Siphonophora. See Illust. under Nectocalyx.


Somnambulist (Page: 1371)

Som*nam"bu*list (?), n. A person who is subject to somnambulism; one who walks in his sleep; a sleepwalker; a noctambulist.


Somniloquist (Page: 1371)

Som*nil"o*quist, n. One who talks in his sleep.


Somnipathist (Page: 1371)

Som*nip"a*thist (?), n. A person in a state of somniapathy.


Sonnetist (Page: 1371)

Son"net*ist, n. A sonneter, or sonneteer. Bp. Hall.


Soothfast (Page: 1372)

Sooth"fast` (?), a. [Sooth + fast, that is, fast or firm with respect to truth.] Firmly fixed in, or founded upon, the thruth; true; genuine; real; also, truthful; faithful. [Archaic] -- Sooth"fast`ness, n. [Archaic] In very soothfastness." Chaucer.

Why do not you . . . bear leal and soothfast evidence in her behalf, as ye may with a clear conscience! Sir W. Scott.
<-- leal = loyal, but not marked as archaic in this work. -->
Soothfast (Page: 1372)

Sooth"fast`, adv. Soothly; really; in fact. [Archaic]

I care not if the pomps you show Be what they soothfast appear. Emerson.

Sophist (Page: 1372)

Soph"ist, n. [F. sophiste, L. sophistes, fr. Gr. . See Sophism.]

1. One of a class of men who taught eloquence, philosophy, and politics in ancient Greece; especially, one of those who, by their fallacious but plausible reasoning, puzzled inquirers after truth, weakened the faith of the people, and drew upon themselves general hatred and contempt.

Many of the Sophists doubdtless card not for truth or morality, and merely professed to teach how to make the worse appear the better reason; but there scems no reason to hold that they were a special class, teaching special opinions; even Socrates and Plato were sometimes styled Sophists. Liddell & Scott.

2. Hence, an impostor in argument; a captious or fallacious reasoner.


Sopranist (Page: 1372)

So*pra"nist (?), n. (Mus.) A treble singer.


Sorbonist (Page: 1373)

Sor"bon*ist (?), n. [F. sorboniste.] A doctor of the Sorbonne, or theological college, in the University of Paris, founded by Robert de Sorbon, a. d. 1252. It was suppressed in the Revolution of 1789.


Sounst (Page: 1375)

Sounst (?), a. Soused. See Souse. [Obs.]


Southeast (Page: 1376)

South`east" (?; by sailors sou"-), n. The point of the compass equally distant from the south and the east; the southeast part or region.


Southeast (Page: 1376)

South`east (?; by sailors sou"-), a. Of or pertaining to the southeast; proceeding toward, or coming from, the southeast; as, a southeast course; a southeast wind.


Southernmost (Page: 1376)

South"ern*most` (?), a. Farthest south.


Southmost (Page: 1376)

South"most` (?), a. Farthest toward the south; southernmost. [R.] Milton.


Southwest (Page: 1376)

South`west (?; colloq. sou"-.), n. The point of the compass equally from the south and the west; the southwest part or region.


Southwest (Page: 1376)

South`west", a. Pertaining to, or in the direction of, the southwest; proceeding toward the southwest; coming from the southwest; as, a southwest wind.


Spagyrist (Page: 1377)

Spag"y*rist (?), n. [Cf. F. spagiriste.]

1. A chemist, esp. one devoted to alchemistic pursuits. [Obs.]

2. One of a sect which arose in the days of alchemy, who sought to discover remedies for disease by chemical means. The spagyrists historically preceded the iatrochemists. Encyc. Brit.


Specialist (Page: 1380)

Spe"cial*ist (?), n. One who devotes himself to some specialty; as, a medical specialist, one who devotes himself to diseases of particular parts of the body, as the eye, the ear, the nerves, etc.


Spectroscopist (Page: 1381)

Spec*tros"co*pist (? ∨ ?), n. One who investigates by means of a spectroscope; one skilled in the use of the spectroscope.


Speculatist (Page: 1381)

Spec"u*la*tist (?), n. One who speculates, or forms theories; a speculator; a theorist.

The very ingenious speculatist, Mr. Hume. V. Knox.

Speculist (Page: 1382)

Spec"u*list (?), n. One who observes or considers; an observer. [R.] Goldsmith.


Spermalist (Page: 1383)

Sper"mal*ist (?), n. (Biol.) See Spermist.


Spermatoblast (Page: 1383)

Sper"ma*to*blast (?), n. Same as Spermoblast.


Spermist (Page: 1383)

Sperm"ist (?), n. (Biol.) A believer in the doctrine, formerly current, of encasement in the male (see Encasement), in which the seminal thread, or spermatozoid, was considered as the real animal germ, the head being the true animal head and the tail the body.


Spermoblast (Page: 1383)

Sper"mo*blast (?), n. [Spermo- + -blast.] (Physiol.) One of the cells formed by the diivision of the spermospore, each of which is destined to become a spermatozoid; a spermatocyte; a spermatoblast.


Spermologist (Page: 1383)

Sper*mol"o*gist (?), n. [Gr. picking up seeds; sperm, seed + to gather.] One who treats of, or collects, seeds. Bailey.


Sphenographist (Page: 1384)

Sphe*nog"ra*phist (?), n. A sphenographer.


Spinozist (Page: 1387)

Spi*no"zist (?), n. A believer in Spinozism.


Spiritist (Page: 1388)

Spir"it*ist, n. A spiritualist.


Spiritualist (Page: 1388)

Spir"it*u*al*ist (?), n.

1. One who professes a regard for spiritual things only; one whose employment is of a spiritual character; an ecclesiastic.

2. One who maintains the doctrine of spiritualism.

3. One who believes in direct intercourse with departed spirits, through the agency of persons commonly called mediums, by means of physical phenomena; one who attempts to maintain such intercourse; a spiritist.


Spiritualist (Page: 1388)

Spir"it*u*al*ist, a. Spiritualistic. Taylor.


Spongoblast (Page: 1391)

Spon"go*blast (?), n. [Gr. sponge + -blast.] (Zoöl.) One of the cells which, in sponges, secrete the spongin, or the material of the horny fibers.


Sporocyst (Page: 1391)

Spo"ro*cyst (?), n. [Gr. seed + bladder.]

1. (Zoöl.) An asexual zooid, usually forming one of a series of larval forms in the agamic reproduction of various trematodes and other parasitic worms. The sporocyst generally develops from an egg, but in its turn produces other larvæ by internal budding, or by the subdivision of a part or all of its contents into a number of minute germs. See Redia.

2. (Zoöl.) Any protozoan when it becomes encysted produces germs by sporulation.


Starost (Page: 1404)

Star"ost (?), n. [Pol. starosta, from stary old.] A nobleman who possessed a starosty. [Poland]


Statist (Page: 1406)

Sta"tist (?), n. [From State.]

1. A statesman; a politician; one skilled in government. [Obs.]

Statists indeed, And lovers of their country. Milton.

2. A statistician. Fawcett.


Statoblast (Page: 1406)

Stat"o*blast (?), n. [Gr. standing (i.e., remaining) + -blast.] (Zoöl.) One of a peculiar kind of internal buds, or germs, produced in the interior of certain Bryozoa and sponges, especially in the fresh-water species; -- also called winter buds. &hand; They are protected by a firm covering, and are usually destined to perpetuate the species during the winter season. They burst open and develop in the spring. In some fresh-water sponges they serve to preserve the species during the dry season. See Illust. under Phylactolæmata.


Steadfast (Page: 1407)

Stead"fast (?), a. [Stead + fast, that is, fast in place.] [Written also stedfast.]

1. Firmly fixed or established; fast fixed; firm. This steadfast globe of earth." Spenser.

2. Not fickle or wavering; constant; firm; resolute; unswerving; steady. Steadfast eye." Shak.

Abide steadfast unto him [thy neighbor] in the time of his trouble. Ecclus. xxii. 23.
Whom resist steadfast in the faith. 1 Pet. v. 9.

Steganographist (Page: 1410)

Steg`a*nog"ra*phist (?), n. One skilled in steganography; a cryptographer.


Stenographist (Page: 1410)

Ste*nog"ra*phist (?), n. A stenographer.


Stercoranist (Page: 1411)

Ster"co*ra*nist (?), n. [LL. stercoranista, fr. L. stercus, -oris, dung.] (Eccl. Hist.) A nickname formerly given to those who held, or were alleged to hold, that the consecrated elements in the eucharist undergo the process of digestion in the body of the recipient.


Stereoscopist (Page: 1411)

Ste`re*os"co*pist (?), n. One skilled in the use or construction of stereoscopes. [1412]


Stereotypist (Page: 1412)

Ste"re*o*ty`pist (?), n. A stereotyper.


Sternforemost (Page: 1412)

Stern`fore"most` (?), adv. With the stern, instead of the bow, in advance; hence, figuratively, in an awkward, blundering manner.

A fatal genius for going sternforemost. Lowell.

Sternmost (Page: 1412)

Stern"most` (?), a. Farthest in the rear; farthest astern; as, the sternmost ship in a convoy.


Sternpost (Page: 1412)

Stern"post` (?), n. (Naut.) A straight piece of timber, or an iron bar or beam, erected on the extremity of the keel to support the rudder, and receive the ends of the planks or plates of the vessel.


Stethoscopist (Page: 1412)

Ste*thos"co*pist (?), n. One skilled in the use of the stethoscope.


Stigmatist (Page: 1414)

Stig"ma*tist (?), n. One believed to be supernaturally impressed with the marks of Christ's wounds. See Stigma, 8.


Strategist (Page: 1423)

Strat"e*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. stratégiste.] One skilled in strategy, or the science of directing great military movements.


Strenger, Strengest (Page: 1424)

Stren"ger (?), Stren"gest (?), the original compar. & superl. of Strong. [Obs.]

Two of us shall strenger be than one. Chaucer.

Structurist (Page: 1428)

Struc"tur*ist (?), n. One who forms structures; a builder; a constructor. [R.]


Stylist (Page: 1431)

Styl"ist, n. One who is a master or a model of style, especially in writing or speaking; a critic of style.

Distinguished as a stylist, for ease. Fitzed. Hall.

Subjectist (Page: 1434)

Sub"ject*ist (?), n. (Metaph.) One skilled in subjective philosophy; a subjectivist.


Subjectivist (Page: 1434)

Sub*jec"tiv*ist, n. (Metaph.) One who holds to subjectivism; an egoist.


Subsist (Page: 1436)

Sub*sist" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Subsisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Subsisting.] [L. subsistere to stand still, stay, remain alive; sub under + sistere to stand, to cause to stand, from stare to stand: cf. F. subsister. See Stand.]

1. To be; to have existence; to inhere.

And makes what happiness we justly call, Subsist not in the good of one, but all. Pope.

2. To continue; to retain a certain state.

Firm we subsist, yet possible to swerve. Milton.

3. To be maintained with food and clothing; to be supported; to live. Milton.

To subsist on other men's charity. Atterbury.

Subsist (Page: 1436)

Sub*sist", v. t. To support with provisions; to feed; to maintain; as, to subsist one's family.

He laid waste the adjacent country in order to render it more difficult for the enemy to subsist their army. Robertson.

Successionist (Page: 1439)

Suc*ces"sion*ist, n. A person who insists on the importance of a regular succession of events, offices, etc.; especially (Eccl.), one who insists that apostolic succession alone is valid.


Suffragist (Page: 1441)

Suf"fra*gist (?), n.

1. One who possesses or exercises the political right of suffrage; a voter.

2. One who has certain opinions or desires about the political right of suffrage; as, a woman suffragist.<-- if female, usu. suffragette. -->

It is curious that . . . Louisa Castelefort should be obliged after her marriage immediately to open her doors and turn ultra liberal, or an universal suffragist. Miss Edgeworth.

Suggest (Page: 1442)

Sug*gest" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Suggested (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Suggesting.] [L. suggestus, p.p. of suggerere to put under, furnish, suggest; sub under + gerere to carry, to bring. See Jest.]

1. To introduce indirectly to the thoughts; to cause to be thought of, usually by the agency of other objects.

Some ideas . . . are suggested to the mind by all the ways of sensation and reflection. Locke.

2. To propose with difference or modesty; to hint; to intimate; as, to suggest a difficulty.

3. To seduce; to prompt to evil; to tempt. [Obs.]

Knowing that tender youth is soon suggested. Shak.

4. To inform secretly. [Obs.] Syn. -- To hint; allude to; refer to; insinuate.


Suggest (Page: 1442)

Sug*gest", v. i. To make suggestions; to tempt. [Obs.]

And ever weaker grows through acted crime, Or seeming-genial, venial fault, Recurring and suggesting still. Tennyson.

Suist (Page: 1442)

Su"ist, n. [L. suus belinging to himself or to one's self.] One who seeks for things which gratify merely himself; a selfish person; a selfist. [R.] Whitlock.


Summarist (Page: 1444)

Sum"ma*rist (?), n. One who summarized.


Summist (Page: 1444)

Sum"mist (?), n. One who sums up; one who forms an abridgment or summary. Sir E. Dering.


Sunburst (Page: 1445)

Sun"burst` (?), n. A burst of sunlight.


Superficialist (Page: 1446)

Su`per*fi"cial*ist, n. One who attends to anything superficially; a superficial or shallow person; a sciolist; a smatterer.


Supernaturalist (Page: 1447)

Su`per*nat"u*ral*ist, n. One who holds to the principles of supernaturalism.


Superstitionist (Page: 1448)

Su`per*sti"tion*ist, n. One addicted to superstition. [Obs.] Blind superstitionists." Dr. H. More.


Supranaturalist (Page: 1450)

Su`pra*nat"u*ral*ist, n. A supernaturalist.


Supraprotest (Page: 1450)

Su`pra*pro"test (?), n. (Mercantile Law) An acceptance of a bill by a third person after protest for nonacceptance by the drawee. Burrill.


Syllabist (Page: 1461)

Syl"la*bist (?), n. One who forms or divides words into syllables, or is skilled in doing this.


Sylviculturist (Page: 1461)

Syl`vi*cul"tur*ist (?), n. One who cultivates forest trees, especially as a business.


Symbolist (Page: 1462)

Sym"bol*ist, n. One who employs symbols.


Symbologist (Page: 1462)

Sym*bol"o*gist (?), n. One who practices, or who is versed in, symbology.


Symmetrist (Page: 1462)

Sym"me*trist (?), n. One eminently studious of symmetry of parts. Sir H. Wotton.


Sympathist (Page: 1462)

Sym"pa*thist (?), n. One who sympathizes; a sympathizer. [R.] Coleridge.


Symphonist (Page: 1462)

Sym"pho*nist (?), n. [Cf. F. symphoniste.] A composer of symphonies.


Symposiast (Page: 1463)

Sym*po"si*ast (?), n. One engaged with others at a banquet or merrymaking. Sydney Smith.


Syncopist (Page: 1463)

Syn"co*pist (?), n. One who syncopates. Addison.


Syncretist (Page: 1463)

Syn"cre*tist (?), n. [Cf. F. syncrétiste.] One who attempts to unite principles or parties which are irreconcilably at variance; specifically (Eccl. Hist.), an adherent of George Calixtus and other Germans of the seventeenth century, who sought to unite or reconcile the Protestant sects with each other and with the Roman Catholics, and thus occasioned a long and violent controversy in the Lutheran church.


Synergist (Page: 1464)

Syn"er*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. synergiste.]

1. One who holds the doctrine of synergism.

2. (Med.) A remedy which has an action similar to that of another remedy, and hence increases the efficiency of that remedy when combined with it. <-- 3. (Biochemistry) A chemical compound which exhibits a synergistic effect on some biochemical or physiological action, in combination with another compound. [A supertype of def. 2.] -->


Synodist (Page: 1464)

Syn"od*ist (?), n. An adherent to a synod.

These synodists thought fit in Latin as yet to veil their decrees from vulgar eyes. Fuller.

Synonymist (Page: 1464)

Syn*on"y*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. synonymiste.] One who collects or explains synonyms.


Synoptist (Page: 1464)

Syn*op"tist (?), n. Any one of the authors of the three synoptic Gospels, which give a history of our Lord's life and ministry, in distinction from the writer of John's Gospel, which gives a fuller record of his teachings.


Synthesist (Page: 1465)

Syn"the*sist (?), n. One who employs synthesis, or who follows synthetic methods.


Syphilologist (Page: 1465)

Syph`i*lol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in syphilology.


Systematist (Page: 1465)

Sys"tem*a*tist (?), n. [Cf. F. systématiste.]

1. One who forms a system, or reduces to system.

2. One who adheres to a system.


Talmudist (Page: 1471)

Tal"mud*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. talmudiste.] One versed in the Talmud; one who adheres to the teachings of the Talmud.


Tanist (Page: 1473)

Tan"ist (?), n. [Ir. tanaiste, tanaise, second, the second person in rank, the presumptive or apparent heir to a prince.] In Ireland, a lord or proprietor of a tract of land or of a castle, elected by a family, under the system of tanistry.

This family [the O'Hanlons] were tanists of a large territory within the present county of Armagh. M. A. Lower.

Targumist (Page: 1475)

Tar"gum*ist, n. The writer of a Targum; one versed in the Targums.


Tautologist (Page: 1477)

Tau*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who uses tautological words or phrases.


Taxidermist (Page: 1478)

Tax"i*der`mist (?), n. A person skilled in taxidermy.


Taxonomist (Page: 1478)

Tax*on"o*mist (?), n. One skilled in taxonomy.


Technicist (Page: 1479)

Tech"ni*cist (?), n. One skilled to technics or in one or more of the practical arts.


Technologist (Page: 1479)

Tech*nol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in technology; one who treats of arts, or of the terms of arts.


Teest (Page: 1480)

Teest (?), n. A tinsmith's stake, or small anvil.


Telegraphist (Page: 1480)

Te*leg"ra*phist (?), n. One skilled in telegraphy; a telegrapher.


Teleologist (Page: 1480)

Te`le*ol"o*gist (?), n. (Biol.) One versed in teleology.


Teleost (Page: 1480)

Te"le*ost (?), n. [Gr. complete + bone.] (Zoöl.) One of the Teleosti. Also used adjectively.


Telescopist (Page: 1481)

Te*les"co*pist (?), n. One who uses a telescope. R. A. Proctor.


Tempest (Page: 1483)

Tem"pest (?), n. [OF. tempeste, F. temp\'88te, (assumed) LL. tempesta, fr. L. tempestas a portion of time, a season, weather, storm, akin to tempus time. See Temporal of time.]

1. An extensive current of wind, rushing with great velocity and violence, and commonly attended with rain, hail, or snow; a furious storm.

[We] caught in a fiery tempest, shall be hurled, Each on his rock transfixed. Milton.

2. Fig.: Any violent tumult or commotion; as, a political tempest; a tempest of war, or of the passions.

3. A fashionable assembly; a drum. See the Note under Drum, n., 4. [Archaic] Smollett. &hand; Tempest is sometimes used in the formation of self-explaining compounds; as, tempest-beaten, tempest-loving, tempest-tossed, tempest-winged, and the like. Syn. -- Storm; agitation; perturbation. See Storm.


Tempest (Page: 1483)

Tem"pest, v. t. [Cf. OF. tempester, F. temp\'88ter to rage.] To disturb as by a tempest. [Obs.]

Part huge of bulk Wallowing unwieldy, enormous in their gait, Tempest the ocean. Milton.

Tempest (Page: 1483)

Tem"pest, v. i. To storm. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


Temporist (Page: 1483)

Tem"po*rist (?), n. A temporizer. [Obs.]

Why, turn a temporist, row with the tide. Marston.

Tentaculocyst (Page: 1486)

Ten*tac"u*lo*cyst (?), n. [Tentaculum + cyst.] (Zoöl.) One of the auditory organs of certain medusæ; -- called also auditory tentacle.


Terminist (Page: 1488)

Ter"mi*nist (?), n. [Cf. F. terministe.] (Theol.) One of a class of theologians who maintain that God has fixed a certain term for the probation of individual persons, during which period, and no longer, they have the offer to grace. Murdock.


Terrorist (Page: 1489)

Ter"ror*ist, n. [F. terroriste.] One who governs by terrorism or intimidation; specifically, an agent or partisan of the revolutionary tribunal during the Reign of Terror in France. Burke. <-- 2. One who commits terrorism{2}. -->


Test (Page: 1489)

Test (?), n. [OE. test test, or cupel, potsherd, F. t\'88t, from L. testum an earthen vessel; akin to testa a piece of burned clay, an earthen pot, a potsherd, perhaps for tersta, and akin to torrere to patch, terra earth (cf. Thirst, and Terrace), but cf. Zend tasta cup. Cf. Test a shell, Testaceous, Tester a covering, a coin, Testy, T\'88te-à-t\'88te.]

1. (Metal.) A cupel or cupelling hearth in which precious metals are melted for trial and refinement.

Our ingots, tests, and many mo. Chaucer.

2. Examination or trial by the cupel; hence, any critical examination or decisive trial; as, to put a man's assertions to a test. Bring me to the test." Shak.

3. Means of trial; as, absence is a test of love.

Each test every light her muse will bear. Dryden.

4. That with which anything is compared for proof of its genuineness; a touchstone; a standard.

Life, force, and beauty must to all impart, At once the source, and end, and test of art. Pope.

5. Discriminative characteristic; standard of judgment; ground of admission or exclusion.

Our test excludes your tribe from benefit. Dryden.

6. Judgment; distinction; discrimination.

Who would excel, when few can make a test Betwixt indifferent writing and the best? Dryden.

7. (Chem.) A reaction employed to recognize or distinguish any particular substance or constituent of a compound, as the production of some characteristic precipitate; also, the reagent employed to produce such reaction; thus, the ordinary test for sulphuric acid is the production of a white insoluble precipitate of barium sulphate by means of some soluble barium salt. Test act (Eng. Law), an act of the English Parliament prescribing a form of oath and declaration against transubstantiation, which all officers, civil and military, were formerly obliged to take within six months after their admission to office. They were obliged also to receive the sacrament according to the usage of the Church of England. Blackstone. -- Test object (Optics), an object which tests the power or quality of a microscope or telescope, by requiring a certain degree of excellence in the instrument to determine its existence or its peculiar texture or markings. -- Test paper. (a) (Chem.) Paper prepared for use in testing for certain substances by being saturated with a reagent which changes color in some specific way when acted upon by those substances; thus, litmus paper is turned red by acids, and blue by alkalies, turmeric paper is turned brown by alkalies, etc. (b) (Law) An instrument admitted as a standard or comparison of handwriting in those jurisdictions in which comparison of hands is permitted as a mode of proving handwriting. -- Test tube. (Chem.) (a) A simple tube of thin glass, closed at one end, for heating solutions and for performing ordinary reactions. (b) A graduated tube. Syn. -- Criterion; standard; experience; proof; experiment; trial. -- Test, Trial. Trial is the wider term; test is a searching and decisive trial. It is derived from the Latin testa (earthen pot), which term was early applied to the fining pot, or crucible, in which metals are melted for trial and refinement. Hence the peculiar force of the word, as indicating a trial or criterion of the most decisive kind.

I leave him to your gracious acceptance, whose trial shall better publish his commediation. Shak.
Thy virtue, prince, has stood the test of fortune, Like purest gold, that tortured in the furnace, Comes out more bright, and brings forth all its weight. Addison.

Test (Page: 1489)

Test, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Tested; p. pr. & vb. n. Testing.]

1. (Metal.) To refine, as gold or silver, in a test, or cupel; to subject to cupellation.

2. To put to the proof; to prove the truth, genuineness, or quality of by experiment, or by some principle or standard; to try; as, to test the soundness of a principle; to test the validity of an argument.

Experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution. Washington.

3. (Chem.) To examine or try, as by the use of some reagent; as, to test a solution by litmus paper. [1490]


Test (Page: 1490)

Test (?), n. [L. testis. Cf. Testament, Testify.] A witness. [Obs.]

Prelates and great lords of England, who were for the more surety tests of that deed. Ld. Berners.

Test (Page: 1490)

Test, v. i. [L. testari. See Testament.] To make a testament, or will. [Obs.]


Textualist (Page: 1492)

Tex"tu*al*ist, n. A textman; a textuary. Lightfoot.


Textuarist (Page: 1492)

Tex"tu*a*rist (?), n. A textuary. [R.]


Textuist (Page: 1492)

Tex"tu*ist, n. A textualist; a textman. [Obs.]

The crabbed textualists of his time. Milton.

Thaumaturgist (Page: 1494)

Thau`ma*tur"gist (?), n. One who deals in wonders, or believes in them; a wonder worker. Carlyle.


Theanthropist (Page: 1494)

The*an"thro*pist (?), n. One who advocates, or believes in, theanthropism.


Theist (Page: 1495)

The"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. théiste. See Theism.] One who believes in the existence of a God; especially, one who believes in a personal God; -- opposed to atheist.


Theogonist (Page: 1495)

The*og"o*nist (?), n. A writer on theogony.


Theologist (Page: 1495)

The*ol"o*gist (?), n. A theologian.


Theomachist (Page: 1495)

The*om"a*chist (?), n. [Cf. Gr. .] One who fights against the gods; one who resists God of the divine will.


Theophilanthropist (Page: 1496)

The`o*phi*lan"thro*pist (?), n. [Cf. F. théophilanthrope.] (Eccl. Hist.) A member of a deistical society established at Paris during the French revolution.


Theorbist (Page: 1496)

The*or"bist (?), n. (Mus.) One who plays on a theorbo.


Theorematist (Page: 1496)

The`o*rem"a*tist (?), n. One who constructs theorems.


Theorist (Page: 1496)

The"o*rist (?), n. [Cf. F. théoriste.] One who forms theories; one given to theory and speculation; a speculatist. Cowper.

The greatest theoretists have given the preference to such a government as that which obtains in this kingdom. Addison.
<-- 2. A scientist who forms theories about natural phenomena, based on the data gathered by others, rather than himself performing experiments to test the theories. Contrasted with experimentalist. -->
Theosophist (Page: 1496)

The*os"o*phist (?), n. One addicted to theosophy.

The theosophist is one who gives you a theory of God, or of the works of God, which has not reason, but an inspiration of his own, for its basis. R. A. Vaughan.

Therapeutist (Page: 1496)

Ther`a*peu"tist (?), n. One versed in therapeutics, or the discovery and application of remedies.


Theurgist (Page: 1497)

The"ur*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. théurgiste.] One who pretends to, or is addicted to, theurgy. Hallywell. [1498]


Thirst (Page: 1499)

Thirst (?), n. [OE. thirst, þurst, AS. þurst, þyrst; akin to D. dorst, OS. thurst, G. durst, Icel. þorsti, Sw. & Dan. törst, Goth. þa\'a3rstei thirst, þa\'a3rsus dry, withered, þa\'a3rsieþ mik I thirst, gaþa\'a1rsan to wither, L. torrere to parch, Gr. te`rsesqai to become dry, tesai`nein to dry up, Skr. t&rsdot;sh to thirst. √54. Cf. Torrid.]

1. A sensation of dryness in the throat associated with a craving for liquids, produced by deprivation of drink, or by some other cause (as fear, excitement, etc.) which arrests the secretion of the pharyngeal mucous membrane; hence, the condition producing this sensation.

Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us, and our children . . . with thirst? Ex. xvii. 3.
With thirst, with cold, with hunger so confounded. Chaucer.

2. Fig.: A want and eager desire after anything; a craving or longing; -- usually with for, of, or after; as, the thirst for gold. Thirst of worldy good." Fairfax. The thirst I had of knowledge." Milton.


Thirst (Page: 1499)

Thirst, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thirsted; p. pr. & vb. n. Thirsting.] [AS. yrstan. See Thirst, n.]

1. To feel thirst; to experience a painful or uneasy sensation of the throat or fauces, as for want of drink.

The people thirsted there for water. Ex. xvii. 3.

2. To have a vehement desire.

My soul thirsteth for . . . the living God. Ps. xlii. 2.

Thirst (Page: 1499)

Thirst, v. t. To have a thirst for. [R.]

He seeks his keeper's flesh, and thirsts his blood. Prior.

Thomist (Page: 1500)

Tho"mist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Thomas Aquinas. See Scotist.


Threnodist (Page: 1502)

Thren"o*dist (?), n. One who composes, delivers, or utters, a threnode, or threnody.


Thrist (Page: 1503)

Thrist (?), n. Thrist. [Obs.] Spenser.


Thrust (Page: 1504)

Thrust (?), n. & v. Thrist. [Obs.] Spenser.


Thrust (Page: 1504)

Thrust, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Thrust (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Thrusting.] [OE. rusten, risten, resten, Icel. rst to thrust, press, force, compel; perhaps akin to E. threat.]

1. To push or drive with force; to drive, force, or impel; to shove; as, to thrust anything with the hand or foot, or with an instrument.

Into a dungeon thrust, to work with slaves. Milton.

2. To stab; to pierce; -- usually with through. To thrust away ∨ from, to push away; to reject. -- To thrust in, to push or drive in. -- To thrust off, to push away. -- To thrust on, to impel; to urge. -- To thrust one's self in ∨ into, to obtrude upon, to intrude, as into a room; to enter (a place) where one is not invited or not welcome. -- To thrust out, to drive out or away; to expel. -- To thrust through, to pierce; to stab. I am eight times thrust through the doublet." Shak. -- To thrust together, to compress.


Thrust (Page: 1504)

Thrust, v. i.

1. To make a push; to attack with a pointed weapon; as, a fencer thrusts at his antagonist.

2. To enter by pushing; to squeeze in.

And thrust between my father and the god. Dryden.

3. To push forward; to come with force; to press on; to intrude. Young, old, thrust there in mighty concourse." Chapman. To thrust to, to rush upon. [Obs.]

As doth an eager hound Thrust to an hind within some covert glade. Spenser.

Thrust (Page: 1504)

Thrust, n.

1. A violent push or driving, as with a pointed weapon moved in the direction of its length, or with the hand or foot, or with any instrument; a stab; -- a word much used as a term of fencing.

[Polites] Pyrrhus with his lance pursues, And often reaches, and his thrusts renews. Dryden.

2. An attack; an assault.

One thrust at your pure, pretended mechanism. Dr. H. More.

3. (Mech.) The force or pressure of one part of a construction against other parts; especially (Arch.), a horizontal or diagonal outward pressure, as of an arch against its abutments, or of rafters against the wall which support them.

4. (Mining) The breaking down of the roof of a gallery under its superincumbent weight. Thrust bearing (Screw Steamers), a bearing arranged to receive the thrust or endwise pressure of the screw shaft. -- Thrust plane (Geol.), the surface along which dislocation has taken place in the case of a reversed fault. Syn. -- Push; shove; assault; attack. Thrust, Push, Shove. Push and shove usually imply the application of force by a body already in contact with the body to be impelled. Thrust, often, but not always, implies the impulse or application of force by a body which is in motion before it reaches the body to be impelled.


Thunderburst (Page: 1505)

Thun"der*burst` (?), n. A burst of thunder.


Thurst (Page: 1505)

Thurst (?), n. (Coal Mining) The ruins of the fallen roof resulting from the removal of the pillars and stalls. Raymond.


Timist (Page: 1510)

Tim"ist (?), n. [Written also timeist.]

1. (Mus.) A performer who keeps good time.

2. A timeserver. [Obs.] Overbury.


To-brest (Page: 1514)

To-brest" (?), v. t. [Pref. to- + brest.] To burst or break in pieces. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Toast (Page: 1514)

Toast (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Toasted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Toasting.] [OF. toster to roast, toast, fr. L. torrere, tostum, to parch, roast. See Torrid.]

1. To dry and brown by the heat of a fire; as, to toast bread.

2. To warm thoroughly; as, to toast the feet.

3. To name when a health is proposed to be drunk; to drink to the health, or in honor, of; as, to toast a lady.


Toast (Page: 1514)

Toast, n. [OF. toste, or tostée, toasted bread. See Toast, v.]

1. Bread dried and browned before a fire, usually in slices; also, a kind of food prepared by putting slices of toasted bread into milk, gravy, etc. <-- now usu. prepared in an electrical toaster. See toaster. -->

My sober evening let the tankard bless, With toast embrowned, and fragrant nutmeg fraught. T. Warton.

2. A lady in honor of whom persons or a company are invited to drink; -- so called because toasts were formerly put into the liquor, as a great delicacy.

It now came to the time of Mr. Jones to give a toast . . . who could not refrain from mentioning his dear Sophia. Fielding.

3. Hence, any person, especially a person of distinction, in honor of whom a health is drunk; hence, also, anything so commemorated; a sentiment, as The land we live in," The day we celebrate," etc. Toast rack, a small rack or stand for a table, having partitions for holding slices of dry toast.


Tobacconist (Page: 1514)

To*bac"co*nist (?), n.

1. A dealer in tobacco; also, a manufacturer of tobacco.

2. A smoker of tobacco. [Obs.] Sylvester.


Tobogganer, Tobogganist (Page: 1514)

To*bog"gan*er (?), To*bog"gan*ist (?), n. One who practices tobogganing.


Tool-rest (Page: 1517)

Tool"-rest` (?), n. (Mach.) the part that supports a tool-post or a tool.


Topmast (Page: 1519)

Top"mast (?), n. (Naut.) The second mast, or that which is next above the lower mast, and below the topgallant mast.


Topmost (Page: 1519)

Top"most` (?), a. Highest; uppermost; as, the topmost cliff; the topmost branch of a tree.

The nightngale may claim the topmost bough. Cowper.

Topographist (Page: 1519)

To*pog"ra*phist (?), n. A topographer.


Tost (Page: 1521)

Tost (?), imp. & p. p. of Toss.


Totemist (Page: 1521)

To"tem*ist, n. One belonging to a clan or tribe having a totem. -- To`tem*is"tic (#), a.


Tourist (Page: 1522)

Tour"ist (?), n. One who makes a tour, or performs a journey in a circuit.


Toxicologist (Page: 1523)

Tox`i*col"o*gist (?), n. One versed in toxicology; the writer of a treatise on poisons.


Trades-unionist, ∨ Trade-unionist (Page: 1525)

Trades"-un`ion*ist, ∨ Trade"-un`ion*ist, n. A member of a trades union, or a supporter of trades unions.


Traditionalist (Page: 1525)

Tra*di"tion*al*ist (?), n. An advocate of, or believer in, traditionalism; a traditionist.


Traditioner, Traditionist (Page: 1525)

Tra*di"tion*er (?), Tra*di"tion*ist, n. [Cf. F. traditionniste.] One who adheres to tradition.


Transcendentalist (Page: 1528)

Tran`scen*den"tal*ist, n. [Cf. F. transcendantaliste.] One who believes in transcendentalism.


Transmutationist (Page: 1530)

Trans`mu*ta"tion*ist, n. One who believes in the transmutation of metals or of species.


Trappist (Page: 1531)

Trap"pist (?), n. [F. trappiste.] (R. C. Ch.) A monk belonging to a branch of the Cistercian Order, which was established by Armand de Rancé in 1660 at the monastery of La Trappe in Normandy. Extreme austerity characterizes their discipline. They were introduced permanently into the United States in 1848, and have monasteries in Iowa and Kentucky. [1532]


Trichocyst (Page: 1537)

Trich"o*cyst (?), n. [Gr. , , a hair + bag.] (Zoöl.) A lasso cell.


Trigamist (Page: 1538)

Trig"a*mist (?), n. [See Trigamy.] One who has been married three times; also, one who has three husbands or three wives at the same time.


Tripersonalist (Page: 1541)

Tri*per"son*al*ist, n. A Trinitarian.


Trist (Page: 1541)

Trist (?), v. t. & i. [imp. Triste.] To trust. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Trist (Page: 1541)

Trist, n. [See Tryst.]

1. Trust. [Obs.]

2. A post, or station, in hunting. [Obs.] Chaucer.

3. A secret meeting, or the place of such meeting; a tryst. See Tryst. [Obs.]

George Douglas caused a trist to be set between him and the cardinal and four lords; at the which trist he and the cardinal agreed finally. Letter dated Sept., 1543.

Trist (Page: 1541)

Trist, a. [F. triste, L. tristis.] Sad; sorrowful; gloomy. [Obs.] Fairfax.


Tritheist (Page: 1542)

Tri"the*ist, n. [Cf. F. trithéiste.] One who believes in tritheism.


Trochilidist (Page: 1543)

Tro*chil"i*dist (?), n. [See Trochilus.] One who studies, or is versed in, the nature and habits of humming birds, or the Trochilidæ. Gould.


Tropist (Page: 1544)

Trop"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. tropiste. See Trope.] One who deals in tropes; specifically, one who avoids the literal sense of the language of Scripture by explaining it as mere tropes and figures of speech.


Trust (Page: 1547)

Trust (?), n. [OE. trust, trost, Icel. traust confidence, security; akin to Dan. & Sw. tröst comfort, consolation, G. trost, Goth. trausti a convention, covenant, and E. true. See True, and cf. Tryst.]

1. Assured resting of the mind on the integrity, veracity, justice, friendship, or other sound principle, of another person; confidence; reliance; reliance. O ever-failing trust in mortal strength!" Milton.

Most take things upon trust. Locke.

2. Credit given; especially, delivery of property or merchandise in reliance upon future payment; exchange without immediate receipt of an equivalent; as, to sell or buy goods on trust.

3. Assured anticipation; dependence upon something future or contingent, as if present or actual; hope; belief. Such trust have we through Christ." 2 Cor. iii. 4.

His trust was with the Eternal to be deemed Equal in strength. Milton.

4. That which is committed or intrusted to one; something received in confidence; charge; deposit.

5. The condition or obligation of one to whom anything is confided; responsible charge or office.

[I] serve him truly that will put me in trust. Shak.
Reward them well, if they observe their trust. Denham.

6. That upon which confidence is reposed; ground of reliance; hope.

O Lord God, thou art my trust from my youth. Ps. lxxi. 5.

7. (Law) An estate devised or granted in confidence that the devisee or grantee shall convey it, or dispose of the profits, at the will, or for the benefit, of another; an estate held for the use of another; a confidence respecting property reposed in one person, who is termed the trustee, for the benefit of another, who is called the cestui que trust.

8. An organization formed mainly for the purpose of regulating the supply and price of commodities, etc.; as, a sugar trust. [Cant] Syn. -- Confidence; belief; faith; hope; expectation. Trust deed (Law), a deed conveying property to a trustee, for some specific use.


Trust (Page: 1547)

Trust, a. Held in trust; as, trust property; trustmoney.


Trust (Page: 1547)

Trust, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Trusted; p. pr. & vb. n. Trusting.] [OE. trusten, trosten. See Trust, n.]

1. To place confidence in; to rely on, to confide, or repose faith, in; as, we can not trust those who have deceived us.

I will never trust his word after. Shak.
He that trusts every one without reserve will at last be deceived. Johnson.

2. To give credence to; to believe; to credit.

Trust me, you look well. Shak.

3. To hope confidently; to believe; -- usually with a phrase or infinitive clause as the object.

I trust to come unto you, and speak face to face. 2 John 12.
We trustwe have a good conscience. Heb. xiii. 18.

4. to show confidence in a person by intrusting (him) with something.

Whom, with your power and fortune, sir, you trust, Now to suspect is vain. Dryden.

5. To commit, as to one's care; to intrust.

Merchants were not willing to trust precious cargoes to any custody but that of a man-of-war. Macaulay.

6. To give credit to; to sell to upon credit, or in confidence of future payment; as, merchants and manufacturers trust their customers annually with goods.

7. To risk; to venture confidently.

[Beguiled] by thee to trust thee from my side. Milton.

Trust (Page: 1547)

Trust, v. i.

1. To have trust; to be credulous; to be won to confidence; to confide.

More to know could not be more to trust. Shak.

2. To be confident, as of something future; to hope.

I will trust and not be afraid. Isa. xii. 2.

3. To sell or deliver anything in reliance upon a promise of payment; to give credit.

It is happier sometimes to be cheated than not to trust. Johnson.
To trust in, To trust on, to place confidence in,; to rely on; to depend. Trust in the Lord, and do good." Ps. xxxvii. 3. A priest . . . on whom we trust." Chaucer.
Her widening streets on new foundations trust. Dryden.
To trust to ∨ unto, to depend on; to have confidence in; to rely on.
They trusted unto the liers in wait. Judges xx. 36.

Tryst (Page: 1548)

Tryst (?), n. [OE. trist, tryst, a variant of trust; cf. Icel. treysta to make trusty, fr. traust confidence, security. See Trust, n.]

1. Trust. [Obs.]

2. An appointment to meet; also, an appointed place or time of meeting; as, to keep tryst; to break tryst. [Scot. or Poetic] To bide tryst, to wait, at the appointed time, for one with whom a tryst or engagement is made; to keep an engagement or appointment.

The tenderest-hearted maid That ever bided tryst at village stile. Tennyson.

Tryst (Page: 1548)

Tryst, v. t. [OE. tristen, trysten. See Tryst, n.]

1. To trust. [Obs.]

2. To agree with to meet at a certain place; to make an appointment with. [Scot.] Burns.


Tryst (Page: 1548)

Tryst, v. i. To mutually agree to meet at a certain place. [Scot.]


Tulipist (Page: 1550)

Tu"lip*ist, n. A person who is especially devoted to the cultivation of tulips. Sir T. Browne.


Turnwrest (Page: 1554)

Turn"wrest` (?), n. (a) Designating a cumbersome style of plow used in England, esp. in Kent. (b) designating a kind of hillside plow. [Eng.] Knight.


Twist (Page: 1557)

Twist (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Twisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Twisting.] [OE. twisten, AS. twist a rope, as made of two (twisted) strands, fr. twi- two; akin to D. twist a quarrel, dissension, G. zwist, Dan. & Sw. tvist, Icel. twistr the deuce in cards, tvistr distressed. See Twice, Two.]

1. To contort; to writhe; to complicate; to crook spirally; to convolve.

Twist it into a serpentine form. Pope.

2. Hence, to turn from the true form or meaning; to pervert; as, to twist a passage cited from an author.

3. To distort, as a solid body, by turning one part relatively to another about an axis passing through both; to subject to torsion; as, to twist a shaft.

4. To wreathe; to wind; to encircle; to unite by intertexture of parts. Longing to twist bays with that ivy." Waller.

There are pillars of smoke twisted about wreaths of flame. T. Burnet.

5. To wind into; to insinuate; -- used reflexively; as, avarice twists itself into all human concerns.

6. To unite by winding one thread, strand, or other flexible substance, round another; to form by convolution, or winding separate things round each other; as, to twist yarn or thread. Shak.

7. Hence, to form as if by winding one part around another; to wreathe; to make up.

Was it not to this end That thou began'st to twist so fine a story? Shak.

8. To form into a thread from many fine filaments; as, to twist wool or cotton.


Twist (Page: 1557)

Twist, v. i.

1. To be contorted; to writhe; to be distorted by torsion; to be united by winding round each other; to be or become twisted; as, some strands will twist more easily than others.

2. To follow a helical or spiral course; to be in the form of a helix.


Twist (Page: 1557)

Twist, n.

1. The act of twisting; a contortion; a flexure; a convolution; a bending.

Not the least turn or twist in the fibers of any one animal which does not render them more proper for that particular animal's way of life than any other cast or texture. Addison.

2. The form given in twisting.

[He] shrunk at first sight of it; he found fault with the length, the thickness, and the twist. Arbuthnot.

3. That which is formed by twisting, convoluting, or uniting parts. Specifically: -- (a) A cord, thread, or anything flexible, formed by winding strands or separate things round each other. (b) A kind of closely twisted, strong sewing silk, used by tailors, saddlers, and the like. (c) A kind of cotton yarn, of several varieties. (d) A roll of twisted dough, baked. (e) A little twisted roll of tobacco. (f) (Weaving) One of the threads of a warp, -- usually more tightly twisted than the filling. (g) (Firearms) A material for gun barrels, consisting of iron and steel twisted and welded together; as, Damascus twist. (h) (Firearms & Ord.) The spiral course of the rifling of a gun barrel or a cannon. (i) A beverage made of brandy and gin. [Slang]

4. [OE.; -- so called as being a two-forked branch. See Twist, v. t.] A twig. [Obs.] Chaucer. Fairfax. Gain twist, ∨ Gaining twist (Firearms), twist of which the pitch is less, and the inclination greater, at the muzzle than at the breech. -- Twist drill, a drill the body of which is twisted like that of an auger. See Illust. of Drill. -- Uniform twist (Firearms), a twist of which the spiral course has an equal pitch throughout.


Tympanist (Page: 1558)

Tym"pa*nist (?), n. [L. tympaniste, Gr. .] One who beats a drum. [R.]


Ubiquitist (Page: 1560)

U*biq"ui*tist (?), n. Same as Ubiquist.


Uckewallist (Page: 1560)

Uck`e*wal"list (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of rigid Anabaptists, which originated in 1637, and whose tenets were essentially the same as those of the Mennonists. In addition, however, they held that Judas and the murderers of Christ were saved. So called from the founder of the sect, Ucke Wallis, a native of Friesland. Eadie.


Ultraist (Page: 1561)

Ul"tra*ist, n. One who pushes a principle or measure to extremes; an extremist; a radical; an ultra.


Ultramontanist (Page: 1561)

Ul`tra*mon"ta*nist (?), n. One who upholds ultramontanism.


Umbecast (Page: 1561)

Um"be*cast` (?), v. i. [Umbe + cast.] To cast about; to consider; to ponder. [Obs.] Sir T. Malory.


Unalist (Page: 1565)

U"nal*ist (?), n. [L. unus one.] (Eccl.) An ecclesiastical who holds but one benefice; -- distinguished from pluralist. [Eng.] V. Knox.


Unballast (Page: 1565)

Un*bal"last (?), v. t. [1st pref. un- + ballast.] To free from ballast; to discharge ballast from. Totten.


Unballast (Page: 1565)

Un*bal"last, a. Not ballasted. [Obs. & R.] Addison.


Unblessed, Unblest (Page: 1566)

Un*blessed", Un*blest (?), a. [Pref. un- not + blessed, blest.] Not blest; excluded from benediction; hence, accursed; wretched. Unblessed enchanter." Milton.


Unbreast (Page: 1566)

Un*breast" (?), v. t. [1st pref. un- + breast.] To disclose, or lay open; to unbosom. [Obs.] P. Fletcher,


Unconformist (Page: 1567)

Un`con*form"ist, n. A nonconformist. [Obs.]


Undercast (Page: 1569)

Un`der*cast" (?), v. t. To cast under or beneath.


Undercrest (Page: 1569)

Un`der*crest" (?), v. t. To support as a crest; to bear. [Obs. & R.] Shak.


Underhonest (Page: 1570)

Un`der*hon"est (?), a. Not entirely honest. [R.] We think him overproud and underhonest." Shak.


Undermost (Page: 1570)

Un"der*most (?), a. [From Under; cf. Aftermost.] Lowest, as in place, rank, or condition. Addison.


Undervest (Page: 1571)

Un"der*vest` (?), n. An undershirt.


Undulationist (Page: 1572)

Un`du*la"tion*ist, n. One who advocates the undulatory theory of light.<-- Archaic. --> Whewell.


Undust (Page: 1572)

Un*dust" (?), v. t. [1st pref. un- + dust.] To free from dust. [Obs.]


Unhonest (Page: 1574)

Un*hon"est (?), a. Dishonest; dishonorable. Ascham. -- Un*hon"est*ly, adv. Udall.


Unionist (Page: 1576)

Un"ion*ist, n.

1. One who advocates or promotes union; especially a loyal supporter of a federal union, as that of the United States.

2. A member or supporter of a trades union.


Unipersonalist (Page: 1576)

U`ni*per"so*nal*ist, n. (Theol.) One who believes that the Deity is unipersonal.


Universalist (Page: 1577)

U`ni*ver"sal*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. universaliste.]

1. (Theol.) One who believes in Universalism; one of a denomination of Christians holding this faith.

2. One who affects to understand all the particulars in statements or propositions. [Obs.] Bentley.


Universalist (Page: 1577)

U`ni*ver"sal*ist (?), a. Of or pertaining to Unversalists of their doctrines.


Universologist (Page: 1577)

U`ni*ver*sol"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in universology.


Unjust (Page: 1577)

Un*just" (?), a.

1. Acting contrary to the standard of right; not animated or controlled by justice; false; dishonest; as, an unjust man or judge.

2. Contrary to justice and right; prompted by a spirit of injustice; wrongful; as, an unjust sentence; an unjust demand; an unjust accusation. -- Un*just"ly, adv. -- Un*just"ness, n.


Unlust (Page: 1578)

Un*lust" (?), n. Listlessness; disinclination. [Obs.] Idleness and unlust." Chaucer.


Unnest (Page: 1579)

Un*nest (?), v. t. [1st pref. un- + nest.] To eject from a nest; to unnestle. [R.] T. Adams.


Unpriest (Page: 1579)

Un*priest" (?), v. t. [1st pref. un- + priest.] To deprive of priesthood; to unfrock. [R.] Milton.


Unrest (Page: 1580)

Un*rest" (?), n. Want of rest or repose; unquietness; sleeplessness; uneasiness; disquietude.

Is this, quoth she, the cause of your unrest! Chaucer.
Can calm despair and wild unrest Be tenants of a single breast? Tennyson.

Unroost (Page: 1580)

Un*roost" (?), v. t. [1st pref. un- + roost.] To drive from the roost. Shak.


Untrust (Page: 1582)

Un*trust" (?), n. Distrust. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Untwist (Page: 1582)

Un*twist" (?), v. t. [1st pref. un- + twist.]

1. To separate and open, as twisted threads; to turn back, as that which is twisted; to untwine.

If one of the twines of the twist do untwist, The twine that untwisteth, untwisteth the twist. Wallis.

2. To untie; to open; to disentangle. Milton.


Unwist (Page: 1583)

Un*wist" (?), a.

1. Not known; unknown. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.

2. Not knowing; unwitting. [Obs.] Wyclif.


Upburst (Page: 1584)

Up"burst` (?), n. The act of bursting upwards; a breaking through to the surface; an upbreak or uprush; as, an upburst of molten matter.


Upcast (Page: 1584)

Up"cast` (?), a. Cast up; thrown upward; as, with upcast eyes. Addison.


Upcast (Page: 1584)

Up"cast` (?), n.

1. (Bowling) A cast; a throw. Shak.

2. (Mining.) The ventilating shaft of a mine out of which the air passes after having circulated through the mine; -- distinguished from the downcast. Called also upcast pit, and upcast shaft.

3. An upset, as from a carriage. [Scot.]

4. A taunt; a reproach. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.


Upcast (Page: 1584)

Up*cast" (?), v. t.

1. To cast or throw up; to turn upward. [Obs.] Chaucer.

2. To taunt; to reproach; to upbraid. [Scot.]


Upmost (Page: 1584)

Up"most` (?), a. [Cf. Uppermost.] Highest; topmost; uppermost. Spenser. Dryden.


Uppermost (Page: 1584)

Up"per*most` (?), a. [From Up, Upper; formed like aftermost. Cf. Upmost.] Highest in place, position, rank, power, or the like; upmost; supreme.

Whatever faction happens to be uppermost. Swift.

Uprist (Page: 1585)

Up*rist" (?), n. Uprising. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Uprist (Page: 1585)

Up*rist", obs. imp. of Uprise. Uprose. Chaucer.

Nor dim nor red, like God's own head The glorious sun uprist. Coleridge.

Uranographist (Page: 1585)

U`ra*nog"ra*phist (?), n. One practiced in uranography.


Urocyst (Page: 1587)

U"ro*cyst (?), n. [1st uro- + cyst.] (Anat.) The urinary bladder.


Utmost (Page: 1589)

Ut"most` (?), a. [OE. utmeste, utemest, AS. temest, a superlative fr. te out. . See Out, and cf. Aftermost, Outmost, Uttermost.]

1. Situated at the farthest point or extremity; farthest out; most distant; extreme; as, the utmost limits of the land; the utmost extent of human knowledge. Spenser.

We coasted within two leagues of Antibes, which is the utmost town in France. Evelyn.
Betwixt two thieves I spend my utmost breath. Herbert.

2. Being in the greatest or highest degree, quantity, number, or the like; greatest; as, the utmost assiduity; the utmost harmony; the utmost misery or happiness.

He shall answer . . . to his utmost peril. Shak.
Six or seven thousand is their utmost power. Shak.

Utmost (Page: 1589)

Ut"most`, n. The most that can be; the farthest limit; the greatest power, degree, or effort; as, he has done his utmost; try your utmost.

We have tried the utmost of our friends. Shak.

Utopianist (Page: 1589)

U*to"pi*an*ist, n. An Utopian; an optimist.


Utopist (Page: 1589)

U*to"pist (?), n. A Utopian.


Utraquist (Page: 1589)

U"tra*quist (?), n. [L. uterque, fem. utraque, both.] One who receives the eucharist in both kinds; esp., one of a body of Hussites who in the 15th century fought for the right to do this. Called also Calixtines.


Utterest (Page: 1589)

Ut"ter*est, obs. superl. of Utter. Uttermost.

To the utterest proof of her courage. Chaucer.

Uttermost (Page: 1589)

Ut"ter*most (?), a. [From Utter, a.; cf. Utmost, and Outermost.] Extreme; utmost; being; in the farthest, greatest, or highest degree; as, the uttermost extent or end. In this uttermost distress." Milton. [1590]


Uttermost (Page: 1590)

Ut"ter*most` (?), n. The utmost; the highest or greatest degree; the farthest extent. Tennyson.

Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him. Heb. vii. 25.
He cannot have sufficient honor done unto him; but the uttermost we can do, we must. Hooker.

Vaccinist (Page: 1590)

Vac"ci*nist (?), n. A vaccinator.


Vacuist (Page: 1590)

Vac"u*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. vacuiste.] One who holds the doctrine that the space between the bodies of the universe, or the molecules and atoms of matter., is a vacuum; -- opposed to plenist.


Vast (Page: 1596)

Vast (?), a. [Compar. Vaster (?); superl. Vastest.] [L. vastus empty, waste, enormous, immense: cf. F. vaste. See Waste, and cf. Devastate.]

1. Waste; desert; desolate; lonely. [Obs.]

The empty, vast, and wandering air. Shak.

2. Of great extent; very spacious or large; also, huge in bulk; immense; enormous; as, the vast ocean; vast mountains; the vast empire of Russia.

Through the vast and boundless deep. Milton.

3. Very great in numbers, quantity, or amount; as, a vast army; a vast sum of money.

4. Very great in importance; as, a subject of vast concern. Syn. -- Enormous; huge; immense; mighty.


Vast (Page: 1596)

Vast, n. A waste region; boundless space; immensity. The watery vast." Pope.

Michael bid sound The archangel trumpet. Through the vast of heaven It sounded. Milton.

Vaticanist (Page: 1597)

Vat"i*can*ist, n. One who strongly adheres to the papal authority; an ultramontanist.


Vedantist (Page: 1597)

Ve*dan"tist (?), n. One versed in the doctrines of the Vedantas.


Velecipedist (Page: 1599)

Ve*lec"i*pe`dist (?), n. One who rides on a velocipede.


Velvetbreast (Page: 1599)

Vel"vet*breast` (?), n. (Zoöl.) The goosander. [Local, U. S.]


Ventriloquist (Page: 1601)

Ven*tril"o*quist (?), n. One who practices, or is skilled in, ventriloquism. Ventriloquist monkey (Zoöl.), the onappo; -- so called from the character of its cry.


Venust (Page: 1602)

Ve*nust" (?), a. [L. venustus, from Venus the goddess of love.] Beautiful. [R.] E. Waterhouse.


Verbalist (Page: 1602)

Ver"bal*ist, n. A literal adherent to, or a minute critic of, words; a literalist.


Vermeologist (Page: 1603)

Ver`me*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who treats of vermes, or worms; a helminthologist.


Versionist (Page: 1604)

Ver"sion*ist, n. One who makes or favors a version; a translator. [R.]


Verst (Page: 1604)

Verst (?), n. [Russ. versta: cf. F. verste.] A Russian measure of length containing 3,500 English feet. [Written also werst.]


Vest (Page: 1606)

Vest (?), n. [L. vestis a garment, vesture; akin to Goth. wasti, and E. wear: cf. F. veste. See Wear to carry on the person, and cf. Divest, Invest, Travesty.]

1. An article of clothing covering the person; an outer garment; a vestment; a dress; a vesture; a robe.

In state attended by her maiden train, Who bore the vests that holy rites require. Dryden.

2. Any outer covering; array; garb.

Not seldom clothed in radiant vest Deceitfully goes forth the morn. Wordsworth.

3. Specifically, a waistcoat, or sleeveless body garment, for men, worn under the coat. Syn. -- Garment; vesture; dress; robe; vestment; waistcoat. -- Vest, Waistcoat. In England, the original word waistcoat is generally used for the body garment worn over the shirt and immediately under the coat. In the United States this garment is commonly called a vest, and the waistcoat is often improperly given to an under-garment.


Vest (Page: 1606)

Vest, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Vested; p. pr. & vb. n. Vesting.] [Cf. L. vestire, vestitum, OF. vestir, F. v\'88tir. See Vest, n.]

1. To clothe with, or as with, a vestment, or garment; to dress; to robe; to cover, surround, or encompass closely.

Came vested all in white, pure as her mind. Milton.
With ether vested, and a purple sky. Dryden.

2. To clothe with authority, power, or the like; to put in possession; to invest; to furnish; to endow; -- followed by with before the thing conferred; as, to vest a court with power to try cases of life and death.

Had I been vested with the monarch's power. Prior.

3. To place or give into the possession or discretion of some person or authority; to commit to another; -- with in before the possessor; as, the power of life and death is vested in the king, or in the courts.

Empire and dominion was [were] vested in him. Locke.

4. To invest; to put; as, to vest money in goods, land, or houses. [R.]

5. (Law) To clothe with possession; as, to vest a person with an estate; also, to give a person an immediate fixed right of present or future enjoyment of; as, an estate is vested in possession. Bouvier.


Vest (Page: 1606)

Vest (?), v. i. To come or descend; to be fixed; to take effect, as a title or right; -- followed by in; as, upon the death of the ancestor, the estate, or the right to the estate, vests in the heir at law.


Vetoist (Page: 1607)

Ve"to*ist, n. One who uses, or sustains the use of, the veto.


Vetust (Page: 1607)

Ve*tust" (?), a. [L. vetustus old, ancient.] Venerable from antiquity; ancient; old. [Obs.]


Vineyardist (Page: 1611)

Vine"yard*ist, n. One who cultivates a vineyard.


Violinist (Page: 1612)

Vi`o*lin"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. violiniste, violoniste, It. violonista.] A player on the violin.


Violist (Page: 1612)

Vi"ol*ist (?), n. [Cf. F. violiste.] A player on the viol.


Violoncellist (Page: 1612)

Vi`o*lon*cel"list (?), n. [Cf. F. violoncelliste, It. violoncellista.] A player on the violoncello.


Visionist (Page: 1614)

Vi"sion*ist (?), n. A visionary.


Vitalist (Page: 1614)

Vi`tal*ist (?), n. (Biol.) A believer in the theory of vitalism; -- opposed to physicist.


Viticulturist (Page: 1615)

Vit`i*cul"tur*ist, n. One engaged in viticulture.


Vivisectionist (Page: 1616)

Viv`i*sec"tion*ist, n. One who practices or advocates vivisection; a vivisector.


Vocabulist (Page: 1616)

Vo*cab"u*list (?), n. [Cf. F. vocabuliste.] The writer or maker of a vocabulary; a lexicographer.


Vocalist (Page: 1616)

Vo"cal*ist, n. [Cf. F. vocaliste.] A singer, or vocal musician, as opposed to an instrumentalist.


Volap\'81kist (Page: 1617)

Vol`a*p\'81k"ist, n. One who is conversant with, or who favors adoption of, Volap\'81k.


Volcanist (Page: 1617)

Vol"can*ist, n. [Cf. F. volcaniste, vulcaniste.]

1. One versed in the history and phenomena of volcanoes.

2. One who believes in the igneous, as opposed to the aqueous, origin of the rocks of the earth's crust; a vulcanist. Cf. Neptunist.


Voltaplast (Page: 1618)

Vol"ta*plast (?), n. [Voltaic + Gr. molded.] A form of voltaic, or galvanic, battery suitable for use electrotyping. G. Francis.


Volumist (Page: 1618)

Vol"u*mist (?), n. One who writes a volume; an author. [Obs.] Milton.


Votarist (Page: 1619)

Vo"ta*rist (?), n. [See Votary.] A votary.

Like a sad votarist in palmer's weed. Milton.

Votist (Page: 1619)

Vot"ist, n. One who makes a vow. [Obs.] Chapman.


Vulcanist (Page: 1620)

Vul"can*ist, n. A volcanist.


Waist (Page: 1622)

Waist (?), n. [OE. wast; originally, growth, akin to AS. weaxan to grow; cf. AS. wæstm growth. See Wax to grow.]

1. That part of the human body which is immediately below the ribs or thorax; the small part of the body between the thorax and hips. Chaucer.

I am in the waist two yards about. Shak.

2. Hence, the middle part of other bodies; especially (Naut.), that part of a vessel's deck, bulwarks, etc., which is between the quarter-deck and the forecastle; the middle part of the ship.

3. A garment, or part of a garment, which covers the body from the neck or shoulders to the waist line.

4. A girdle or belt for the waist. [Obs.] Shak. Waist anchor. See Sheet anchor, 1, in the Vocabulary.


Wantrust (Page: 1626)

Wan"trust` (?), n. [Pref. wan- as in wanton + trust.] Failing or diminishing trust; want of trust or confidence; distrust. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Wast (Page: 1630)

Wast (?). The second person singular of the verb be, in the indicative mood, imperfect tense; -- now used only in solemn or poetical style. See Was.


Water ballast (Page: 1631)

Wa"ter bal"last (?). (Naut.) Water confined in specially constructed compartments in a vessel's hold, to serve as ballast.


Water locust (Page: 1632)

Wa"ter lo"cust (?). (Bot.) A thorny leguminous tree (Gleditschia monosperma) which grows in the swamps of the Mississippi valley.


Water tu twist (Page: 1633)

Wa"ter tu twist` (?). Yarn made by the throstle, or water frame. [1634]


Water-colorist (Page: 1631)

Wa"ter-col`or*ist, n. One who paints in water colors.


Weathermost (Page: 1637)

Weath"er*most` (?), a. (Naut.) Being farthest to the windward.


Werst (Page: 1642)

Werst (?), n. See Verst.


West (Page: 1642)

West (?), n. [AS. west, adv.; akin to D. west, G. west, westen, OHG. westan, Icel. vestr, Sw. vest, vester, vestan, Dan. vest, vesten, and perhaps to L. vesper evening, Gr. . . Cf. Vesper, Visigoth.]

1. The point in the heavens where the sun is seen to set at the equinox; or, the corresponding point on the earth; that one of the four cardinal points of the compass which is in a direction at right angles to that of north and south, and on the left hand of a person facing north; the point directly opposite to east.

And fresh from the west is the free wind's breath. Bryant.

2. A country, or region of country, which, with regard to some other country or region, is situated in the direction toward the west.

3. Specifically: (a) The Westen hemisphere, or the New World so called, it having been discovered by sailing westward from Europe; the Occident. (b) (U. S. Hist. & Geog.) Formerly, that part of the United States west of the Alleghany mountains; now, commonly, the whole region west of the Mississippi river; esp., that part which is north of the Indian Territory, New Mexico, etc. Usually with the definite article. West by north, West by south, according to the notation of the mariner's compass, that point which lies 11West northwest, West southwest, that point which lies 22Illust. of Compass.


West (Page: 1642)

West, a. Lying toward the west; situated at the west, or in a western direction from the point of observation or reckoning; proceeding toward the west, or coming from the west; as, a west course is one toward the west; an east and west line; a west wind blows from the west.

This shall be your west border. Num. xxxiv. 6.
West end, the fashionable part of London, commencing from the east, at Charing Cross.
West (Page: 1642)

West, adv. [AS. west.] Westward.


West (Page: 1642)

West, v. i.

1. To pass to the west; to set, as the sun. [Obs.] The hot sun gan to west." Chaucer.

2. To turn or move toward the west; to veer from the north or south toward the west.


Westernmost (Page: 1642)

West"ern*most` (?), a. Situated the farthest towards the west; most western.


Westmost (Page: 1642)

West"most` (?), a. Lying farthest to the west; westernmost.


Whilst (Page: 1646)

Whilst (?), adv. [From Whiles; cf. Amongst.] While. [Archaic]

Whilst the emperor lay at Antioch. Gibbon.
The whilst, in the meantime; while. [Archaic.] Shak.
Whirl-blast (Page: 1647)

Whirl"-blast` (?), n. A whirling blast or wind.

A whirl-blast from behind the hill. Wordsworth.

Whist (Page: 1648)

Whist (?), interj. [Cf. G. st! pst! bst! . Cf. Hist.] Be silent; be still; hush; silence.


Whist (Page: 1648)

Whist, n. [From Whist, interj.] A certain game at cards; -- so called because it requires silence and close attention. It is played by four persons (those who sit opposite each other being partners) with a complete pack of fifty-two cards. Each player has thirteen cards, and when these are played out, he hand is finished, and the cards are again shuffled and distributed. &hand; Points are scored for the tricks taken in excess of six, and for the honors held. In long whist, now seldom played, ten points make the game; in short whist, now usually played in England, five points make the game. In American whist, so-called, honors are not counted, and seven points by tricks make the game.


Whist (Page: 1648)

Whist, v. t. [From Whist, interj.] To hush or silence. [Obs.] Spenser.


Whist (Page: 1648)

Whist, v. i. To be or become silent or still; to be hushed or mute. [R.] Surrey.


Whist (Page: 1648)

Whist, a. [Properly p. p. of whist, v.] Not speaking; not making a noise; silent; mute; still; quiet. So whist and dead a silence." Sir J. Harrington.

The winds, with wonder whist, Smoothly the waters kissed. Milton.
&hand; This adjective generally follows its noun, or is used predicatively.
Wildebeest (Page: 1653)

Wilde"beest` (?), n. [D. wild wild + beeste beast.] (Zoöl.) The gnu.


Wist (Page: 1658)

Wist (?), archaic imp. & p. p. of Wit, v. Knew.


Worst (Page: 1666)

Worst (?), a., superl. of Bad. [OE. werst, worste, wurste, AS. wyrst, wierst, wierrest. See Worse, a.] Bad, evil, or pernicious, in the highest degree, whether in a physical or moral sense. See Worse. Heard so oft in worst extremes." Milton.

I have a wife, the worst that may be. Chaucer.
If thou hadst not been born the worst of men, Thou hadst been a knave and flatterer. Shak.

Worst (Page: 1666)

Worst, n. That which is most bad or evil; the most severe, pernicious, calamitous, or wicked state or degree.

The worst is not So long as we can say, This is the worst. Shak.
He is always sure of finding diversion when the worst comes to the worst. Addison.

Worst (Page: 1666)

Worst, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Worsted; p. pr. & vb. n. Worsting.] [See Worse, v. t. & a.] To gain advantage over, in contest or competition; to get the better of; to defeat; to overthrow; to discomfit.

The . . . Philistines were worsted by the captivated ark. South.

Worst (Page: 1666)

Worst, v. i. To grow worse; to deteriorate. [R.] Every face . . . worsting." Jane Austen.


Wost (Page: 1667)

Wost (?), 2d pers. sing. pres. of Wit, to know. [Obs.] Spenser.


Wotest, Wottest (Page: 1667)

Wot"est (?), Wot"test, 2d pers. sing. pres. of Wit, to know. [Obs.]


Wrest (Page: 1668)

Wrest (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Wrested; p. pr. & vb. n. Wresting.] [OE. wresten, AS. wrstan; akin to wr a twisted band, and wrīn to twist. See Writhe.]

1. To turn; to twist; esp., to twist or extort by violence; to pull of force away by, or as if by, violent wringing or twisting. The secret wrested from me." Milton.

Our country's cause, That drew our swords, now secret wrests them from our hand. Addison.
They instantly wrested the government out of the hands of Hastings. Macaulay.

2. To turn from truth; to twist from its natural or proper use or meaning by violence; to pervert; to distort.

Wrest once the law to your authority. Shak.
Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor. Ex. xxiii. 6.
Their arts of wresting, corrupting, and false interpreting the holy text. South.

3. To tune with a wrest, or key. [Obs.]


Wrest (Page: 1668)

Wrest, n.

1. The act of wresting; a wrench; a violent twist; hence, distortion; perversion. Hooker.

2. Active or moving power. [Obs.] Spenser.

3. A key to tune a stringed instrument of music.

The minstrel . . . wore round his neck a silver chain, by which hung the wrest, or key, with which he tuned his harp. Sir W. Scott.

4. A partition in a water wheel, by which the form of the buckets is determined. Wrest pin (Piano Manuf.), one of the pins around which the ends of the wires are wound in a piano. Knight. -- Wrest plank (Piano Manuf.), the part in which the wrest pins are inserted.


Wrist (Page: 1669)

Wrist (?), n. [OE. wriste, wrist, AS. wrist; akin to OFries. wriust, LG. wrist, G. rist wrist, instep, Icel. rist instep, Dan. & Sw. vrist, and perhaps to E. writhe.]

1. (Anat.) The joint, or the region of the joint, between the hand and the arm; the carpus. See Carpus.

He took me by the wrist, and held me hard. Shak.

2. (Mach.) A stud or pin which forms a journal; -- also called wrist pin. Bridle wrist, the wrist of the left hand, in which a horseman holds the bridle. -- Wrist clonus. [NL. clonus, fr. Gr. . See Clonic.] (Med.) A series of quickly alternating movements of flexion and extension of the wrist, produced in some cases of nervous disease by suddenly bending the hand back upon the forearm. -- Wrist drop (Med.), paralysis of the extensor muscles of the hand, affecting the hand so that when an attempt is made to hold it out in line with the forearm with the palm down, the hand drops. It is chiefly due to plumbism. Called also hand drop. -- Wrist plate (Steam Engine), a swinging plate bearing two or more wrists, for operating the valves.


Yeast (Page: 1674)

Yeast (?), n. [OE. \'f4eest, \'f4est, AS. gist; akin to D. gest, gist, G. gischt, gäscht, OHG. jesan, jerian, to ferment, G. gischen, gäschen, gähren, Gr. boiled, zei^n to boil, Skr. yas. &root;111.]

1. The foam, or troth (top yeast), or the sediment (bottom yeast), of beer or other in fermentation, which contains the yeast plant or its spores, and under certain conditions produces fermentation in saccharine or farinaceous substances; a preparation used for raising dough for bread or cakes, and making it light and puffy; barm; ferment.

2. Spume, or foam, of water.

They melt thy yeast of waves, which mar Alike the Armada's pride, or spoils of Trafalgar. Byron.
<-- 3. A form of fungus which grows as indvidual rounded cells, rather than in a mycelium, and reproduces by budding; esp. members of the orders Endomycetales and Moniliales. Some fungi may grow both as a yeast or as a mycelium, depending on the conditions of growth. --> Yeast cake, a mealy cake impregnated with the live germs of the yeast plant, and used as a conveniently transportable substitute for yeast. -- Yeast plant (Bot.), the vegetable organism, or fungus, of which beer yeast consists. The yeast plant is composed of simple cells, or granules, about one three-thousandth of an inch in diameter, often united into filaments which reproduce by budding, and under certain circumstances by the formation of spores. The name is extended to other ferments of the same genus. See Saccharomyces. -- Yeast powder, a baling powder, -- used instead of yeast in leavening bread.
Yerst (Page: 1675)

Yerst (?), adv. See Erst. [Obs.] Sylvester.


Yest (Page: 1675)

Yest (?), n. See Yeast. Shak.


Zealotist (Page: 1678)

Zeal"ot*ist, n. A zealot. [Obs.] Howell.


Zest (Page: 1679)

Zest (?), n. [F. zeste, probably fr. L. schistos split, cleft, divided, Gr. , from to split, cleave. Cf. Schism.]

1. A piece of orange or lemon peel, or the aromatic oil which may be squeezed from such peel, used to give flavor to liquor, etc.

2. Hence, something that gives or enhances a pleasant taste, or the taste itself; an appetizer; also, keen enjoyment; relish; gusto.

Almighty Vanity! to thee they owe Their zest of pleasure, and their balm of woe. Young.
Liberality of disposition and conduct gives the highest zest and relish to social intercourse. Gogan.

3. The woody, thick skin inclosing the kernel of a walnut. [Obs.]


Zest (Page: 1679)

Zest, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Zested; p. pr. & vb. n. Zesting.]

1. To cut into thin slips, as the peel of an orange, lemon, etc.; to squeeze, as peel, over the surface of anything.

2. To give a relish or flavor to; to heighten the taste or relish of; as, to zest wine. Gibber.


Zoöcyst (Page: 1680)

Zo"ö*cyst (?), n. [Zoö- + cyst.] (Biol.) A cyst formed by certain Protozoa and unicellular plants which the contents divide into a large number of granules, each of which becomes a germ.


Zoögraphist (Page: 1680)

Zo*ög"ra*phist (?), n. A zoögrapher.


Zoölogist (Page: 1680)

Zo*öl"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. zoologiste.] One who is well versed in zoölogy.


Zoöphilist (Page: 1681)

Zo*öph"i*list (?), n. [Zoö- + Gr. to love.] A lover of animals. Southey.


Zoötomist (Page: 1681)

Zo*öt"o*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. zootomiste.] One who dissects animals, or is skilled in zoötomy.


Zymologist (Page: 1681)

Zy*mol"o*gist (?), n. One who is skilled in zymology, or in the fermentation of liquors.


Displaying 864 result(s) from the 1828 edition:

AB''ACIST, n. One that casts accounts; a calculator.


A''BLER, and A''BLEST, Comp. and superl. of able.


ABREAST'', adv. abrest'', [from a and breast.]

1. Side by side; with the breasts in a line.

Two men rode abreast.

2. In marine language, ships are abreast when their heads are equally advanced; and they are abreast of objects when the objects are on a line with the beam. - Hence,

Opposite; against; on a line with - as a ship was abreast of Montauk point - A seaman''s phrase.

ACAD''EMIST, n. a member of an Academy for promoting arts and sciences; also an academic philosopher.


ACCOM''PANIST, n. The performer in music who takes the accompanying part.


ACCOST'', v.t.

1. To approach; to draw near; to come side by side, or face to face. [Not in use.]

2. To speak first to; to address.

ACCOST'', v.i. to adjoin. [Not in use.]


ACOL''OTHIST, n. [Gr.]


ACQUEST'', n. [L. acquisitus, acquiro.]

1. Acquisition; the thing gained.

2. Conquest; a place acquired by force.

ACQUIST'', n. See Acquest. [Not used.]


AC''TIONARY or AC''TIONIST, n. In Europe, a proprietor of stock in a trading company; one who owns actions or shares of stock.


ADJUST'', v.t. [L. ad, and justus, just, exact. See Just.]

1. To make exact; to fit; to make correspondent, or conformable; as, to adjust a garment to the body, an event to the prediction, or things to a standard.

2. To put in order; to regulate or reduce to system; as to adjust a scheme; to adjust affairs.

3. To make accurate; to settle or bring to a satisfactory state, so that parties are agreed in the result; as to adjust accounts; the differences are adjusted.

ADUST'', a. [L. adustus, burnt, the participle of aduro, to burn.]

Burnt; scorched; become dry by heat; hot and fiery.

AE''OLIST, n. [L. AEolus.]

A pretender to inspiration.

AEROL''OGIST, n. One who is versed in aerology.


AFFOR''EST, v.t. [ad and forest.]

To convert ground into forest, as was done by the first Norman kings in England, for the purpose of affording them the pleasures of the chase.

''AFTER-COST, n. Later cost; expense after the execution of the main design.


''AFTER-MOST, a. Superl. In marine language, nearest the stern, opposed to foremost; also hindmost.


AGAINST, prep. agenst''.

1. In opposition; noting enmity or disapprobation.

His hand will be against every man. Gen. 16.

I am against your pillows. Ez. 8.

2. In opposition, noting contrariety, contradiction, or repugnance; as, a decree against law, reason or public opinion.

3. In opposition, noting competition, or different sides or parties; as, there are twenty votes in the affirmative against ten in the negative.

4. In an opposite direction; as, to ride against the wind.

5. Opposite in place; abreast; as, a ship is against the mouth of a river. In this sense it is often preceded by over.

Aaron lighted the lamps over against the candlesticks.

Num. 8.

6. In opposition, noting adversity, injury, or contrariety to wishes; as, this change of measures is against us.

7. Bearing upon; as, one leans against a wall.

8. In provision for; in preparation for.

Urijah made it against king Ahaz came from Damascus.

2Kings, 16.

In this sense against is a preposition, with the following part of the sentence for an object. See After, prep. def. 2.

In short, the sense of this word is opposition, variously modified according to its application to different objects.

AG''AST or AGH''AST, a

Struck with terror, or astonishment; amazed; struck silent with horror.

With shuddering horror pale and eyes agast.

AGH''AST, or more correctly AGHAST, a or adv. [Perhaps the participle of agaze; otherwise from the root of ghastly and ghost.]

Struck with amazement; stupefied with sudden fright or horror.

AGIST'', v.t.

In law, to take the cattle of others to graze, at a certain sum; to feed or pasture the cattle of others; used originally for the feeding of cattle in the king''s forest.

AG''ONIST, n. One who contends for the prize in public games. Milton has used Agonistes in this sense, and so called his tragedy, from the similitude of Sampson''s exertions, in slaying the Philistines, to prize fighting. In church history, the disciples of Donatus are called agonistics.


AGRICUL''TURIST, n. One skilled in the art of cultivating the ground; a skilful husbandman.


AL''ARM-POST, n. A place to which troops are to repair in cases of an alarm.


AL''ARMIST, n. One that excites alarm.


AL''CAHEST, or ALKAHEST, n.

A pretended universal dissolvent, or menstruum.

AL''CHIMIST, n. One who practices alchimy.


A''LE-COST, n. Costmary, a plant, a species of Tanacetum.


ALGEBRA''IST, n. One who is versed in the science of algebra.


AL''KAHEST, n.

A universal dissolvent; a menstrumm capable of dissolving every body, which Paracelsus and Van Helmont pretended they possessed. This pretense no longer imposses on the credulity of any man.

The word is sometimes used for fixed salts volatilized.

AL''KORANIST, n. One who adheres strictly to the letter of the Alkoran, rejecting all comments. The Persians are generally Alkoranists; the Turks, Arabs, and Tartars admit a multitude of traditions.


ALL-JUST;, a. Perfectly just.


AL''MAGEST, n.

A book or collection of problems in astronomy and geometry, drawn up by Ptolemy. The same title has been given to other works of the like kind.

ALMO''ST, adv. [all and most.] Nearly; well nigh; for the greatest part.

Almost thou persuadest me to be a christian. Acts 26.

''ALMS-BASKET; ''ALMS-BOX; ''ALMS-CHEST; vessels appropriated to receive alms.


ALONGST'', adv. Along; through or by the length. Obs.


AL''PHEST, n. A small fish, having a purple back and belly, with yellow sides, a smooth mouth, and thick fleshy lips; always caught near the shore or among rocks.


AL''PIST, or AL''PIA, n. The seed of the fox-tail; a small seed, used for feeding birds.


AL''TARIST, or AL''TAR-THANE, n. In old laws, an appellation given to the priest to whom the altarage belonged; also a chaplain.


AMETH''ODIST, n. A quack. [Not used.]


AM''ETHYST, n. [L. amethystus; Gr. which the Greeks supposed to be formed from a neg. and to inebriate, from some supposed quality in the stone of resisting intoxication. Plin. 37.9, mentions an opinion that it takes its name from its color approaching that of wine, but not reaching it.]

A sub-species of quartz, of a violet blue color, of different degrees of intensity. It generally occurs crystallized in hexahedral prisms or pyramids; also in rolled fragments, composed of imperfect prismatic crystals. Its fracture is conchoidal or splintery. It is wrought into various articles of jewelry.

AM''ETHYST, in heraldry, signifies a purple color. It is the same, in a nobelman''s escutcheon, as purpure, in a gentleman''s and mercury, in that of a prince.


AMIDST'', prep. [L. medius. See Middle and Midst.]

1. In the midst or middle.

2. Among; mingled with; as, a shepherd amidst his flock.

3. Surrounded, encompassed, or enveloped with; as, amidst the shade; amid the waves. Amid is used mostly in poetry.

AMONGST'', prep. [Gr. See Mingle.]

1. In a general or primitive sense, mixed or mingled with; as tares among wheat.

2. Conjoined or associated with, or making part of the number.

Blessed art thou among women. Luke 1.

3. Of the number; as, there is not one among a thousand, possessing the like qualities.

AM''ORIST, n. [L. amor, love.] A lover, a gallant; an inamorato.


ANABAP''TIST, n. [Gr. again, and a baptist.]

One who holds the doctrine of the baptism of adults, or of the invalidity of infant baptism, and the necessity of rebaptization in an adult age. One who maintains that baptism ought always to be performed by immersion.

ANAGRAM''MATIST, n. A maker of anagrams.


ANAL''OGIST, n. One who adheres to analogy.


AN''ALYST, n. One who analyzes, or is versed in analysis.


AN''APEST, n. [Gr to strike.]

In poetry, a foot, consisting of three syllables, the two first short, the last long; the reverse of the dactyl; as,

Can a bosom so gentle remain

Unmoved when her Corydon sighs?

AN''ARCHIST, n. An anarch; one who excites revolt, or promotes disorder in a state.


ANAT''OMIST, n. One who dissects bodies; more generally, one who is skilled in the art of dissection, or versed in the doctrine and principles of anatomy.


ANGUST'', a. [L. angustus.] Narrow; straight. [Not used.]


AN''NALIST, n. [See Annals.] A writer of annals.


ANTAG''ONIST, n. [Gr. against, and a champion. See Act and Agony.]

1. One who contends with another in combat; used primarily in the Grecian games. An adversary.

2. An opponent in controversy.

3. In anatomy, a muscle which acts in opposition to another; as a flexor, which bends a part, is the antagonist of an extensor, which extends it.

ANTAG''ONIST, a. Counteracting; opposing; combating; as, an antagonist muscle.


AN''TEPAST, n. [ante, before, and pastum, fed.]

A foretaste; something taken before the proper time.

ANTHROPOL''OGIST, n. One who describes, or is versed in the physical history of the human body.


AN''TI-CHRIST, n. [Gr. against, and Christ.]

A great adversary of Christ; the man of sin; described

1John 2:18. 2Thess. 2. Rev. 9. Protestants generally suppose this adversary to be the Papal power; and some divines believe that, in a more general sense, the word extends to any persons who deny Christ or oppose the fundamental doctrines of christianity.


ANTICONTA''GIONIST, n. One who opposes the doctrine of contagion.


ANTIMINISTE''RIALIST, n. One that opposes the ministry.


ANTIMOR''ALIST, n. An opposer of morality.


AN''TINOMIST, n. One who pays no regard to the law, or to good works.


ANTIPEDOBAP''TIST, n. [Gr. against, a child, and baptize.]

One who is opposed to the baptism of infants.

AN''TIPRIEST, n. An opposer or enemy of priests.


ANTIREVOLU''TIONIST, n. One who is opposed to a revolution in government.


ANTISCRIP''TURIST, n. One that denies revelation.


A''ORIST, n. [Gr. indefinite, of a priv. and limit.]

The name of certain tenses in the grammar of the Greek language, which express time indeterminate, that is, either past, present or future.

APOL''OGIST, n. [See Apology.]

One who makes an apology; one who speaks or writes in defense of another.

APOTHEG''MATIST, n. A collector or maker of apothems.


AP''PLE-HARVEST, n. The gathering of apples, or the time of gathering.


APPREST'', [ad and pressed.]

In botany, pressed close; lying near the stem; or applying its upper surface to the stem.

AR''ABIST, n. One well versed in Arabic literature.


''ARBALIST, n. [From arcus, a bow, and balista, L., an engine to throw stones; Gr. to throw.]

A cross-bow. This consists of a steel bow set in a shaft of wood, furnished with a string and a trigger; and is bent with a piece of iron. It serves to throw bullets, darts, arrows, &c.

''ARBORIST, n. One who makes trees his study, or who is versed in the knowledge of trees.


''ARCHIVIST, n. The keeper of archives or records.


ARCHPRIE''ST, n. [See Priest.] A chief priest.


''ARCUBALIST, n. [L. arcus, a bow, and balista, an engine for throwing stones.] A cross-bow.


''ARMORIST, n. One skilled in heraldry.


''ARNOLDIST, n. A disciple of Arnold of Brescia, who in the 12th century, preached against the Romish Church, for which he was banished; but he was afterwards permitted to return. By his preaching, an insurrection was excited, for which he was condemned and executed.


ARREST'', v.t. [L. resto, to stop; Eng. to rest. See Rest.]

1. To obstruct; to stop; to check or hinder motion; as, to arrest the current of a river; to arrest the senses.

2. To take, seize or apprehend by virtue of a warrant from authority; as, to arrest one for debt or for a crime.

3. To seize and fix; as, to arrest the eyes or attention.

The appearance of such a person in the world, and at such a period, ought to arrest the consideration of every thinking mind.

ARREST'', n.

1. The taking or apprehending of a person by virtue of a warrant from authority. An arrest is made by seizing or touching the body.

2. Any seizure, or taking by power, physical or moral.

3. A stop, hindrance or restraint.

4. In law, an arrest of judgment is the staying or stopping of a judgment after verdict, for causes assigned. Courts have power to arrest judgment for intrinsic causes appearing upon the face of the record; as when the declaration varies from the original writ; when the verdict differs materially from the pleadings; or when the case laid in the declaration is not sufficient in point of law, to found an action upon. The motion for this purpose is called a motion in arrest of judgment.

5. A mangy humor between the ham and pastern of the hind legs of a horse.

''ARTIST, n. [L. ars. See Art.]

1. One skilled in an art or trade; one who is master or professor of a manual art; a good workman in any trade.

2. A skilful man; not a novice.

3. In an academical sense, a proficient in the faculty of arts; a philosopher.

4. One skilled in the fine arts; as a painter, sculptor, architect, &c.

ASSIST'', v.t. [L. assisto, of ad and sisto, to stand up; English, to stand by.]

To help; to aid; to succor; to give support to in some undertaking or effort, or in time of distress.

ASSIST'', v.i. To lend aid.


A''THEIST, n. [Gr. of a priv. and God.]

One who disbelieves the existence of a God, or Supreme intelligent Being.

A''THEIST, a. Atheistical; disbelieving or denying the being of a Supreme God.


ATHIRST'', a. athrust''. [a and thirst. See Thirst.]

1. Thirsty; wanting drink.

2. Having a keen appetite or desire.

He had a soul athirst for knowledge.

AT''OMIST, n. One who holds to the atomical philosophy.


ATTEST'', v.t. [L. attestor; of ad and testor, to affirm or bear witness, from testis. See Testify.]

1. To bear witness; to; to certify; to affirm to be true or genuine; to make a solemn declaration in words or writing, to support a fact; appropriately used the affirmation of persons in their official capacity; as, to attest the truth of a writing; to attest a copy of record. Persons also attest writings by subscribing their names.

2. To bear witness, or support the truth of a fact, by other evidence than words; as, the ruins of Palmyra attest its ancient magnificence.

3. To call to witness; to invoke as conscious.

The sacred streams which heaven''s imperial state Attests in oaths, and fears to violate.

ATTEST'', n. Witness; testimony; attestation. [Little used.]


AUGUST'', a. [L. augustus. The first syllable of this word is probably from the root of augeo, or of awe.]

Grand; magnificent; majestic; impressing awe; inspiring reverence.

The Trojan chief appeared, august in visage.

It is related that this epithet was first conferred by the Roman senate upon Octavius, after confirming him in the sovereign power.

AU''RIST, n. [L. auris, ear.] One skilled in disorders of the ear, or who professes to cure them.


AV''AST, exclam. In seamen''s language, cease; stop; stay.


AVERROIST, n. One of a sect of peripatetic philosophers, who were so demoninated from Averroes, a celebrated Arabian author. They held the soul to be mortal, though they pretended to submit to the christian theology.


BAL''LAST, n.

1. Heavy matter, as stone, sand or iron, laid on the bottom of a ship or other vessel, to sink it in the water, to such a depth, as to enable it to carry sufficient sail, without oversetting.

Shingle ballast is ballast of coarse gravel.

2. Figuratively, that which is used to make a thing steady.

BAL''LAST, v.t. To place heavy substances on the bottom of a ship or vessel, to keep it from oversetting.

2. To keep any thing steady, by counterbalancing its force.

BAP''TIST, n. One who administers baptism. This appellation is

31

appropriately given to John, the forerunner of Christ.

2. As a contraction of Anabaptist, one who denies the doctrine of infant baptism, and maintains that baptism ought to be administered only to adults by immersing the body in water.

BASSOON''IST, n. A performer on the bassoon.


B''AST, n. A rope or cord, made of the bark of the lime tree, bass-wood or linden; or the bark made into ropes and mats.


BAT''INIST. [See Batenites.]


BAT''IST, n. A fine linen cloth made in Flanders and Picardy, of three different kinds or thicknesses.


BATTOL''OGIST,n. [See Battology.] One that repeats the same thing in speaking or writing. [Little used.]


BEAST, n. [L. bestia. See Boisterous.]

1. Any four footed animal, which may be used for labor, food or sport; distinguished from fowls, insects, fishes and man; as beasts of burden, beasts of the chase, beasts of the forest. It is usually applied to large animals.

2. Opposed to man, it signifies any irrational animal, as in the phrase "man and beast." So wild beast.

3. Figuratively, a brutal man; a person rude, coarse, filthy, or acting in a manner unworthy of a rational creature.

4. A game at cards. Hence to beast.

BED''POST, n. [bed and post.] The post of a bedstead.


BEDUST'', v.t. [be and dust.] To sprinkle, soil or cover with dust.


BEE''CHMAST, n. The fruit or nuts of the beech.


BEHEST'', n. Command; precept; mandate.[Antiquated, except in poetry.]


BEMIST'', v.t. [be and mist.] To cover or involve in mist. [Not used.]


BEQUEST'', n. Something left by will; a legacy.


BEST, a. superlative. [Eng.but;] Literally, most advanced, Hence,

1. Most good; having good qualities in the highest degree; applied indifferently to physical or moral subjects; as, the best man; the best road; the best cloth; the best abilities. This, like most, and other attributes, is often used without its noun, when the noun is obvious; as, men are all sinners; the best of them fail in the performance of duty.

2. Most advanced; most accurate; as the best scholar.

3. Most correct or complete; as the best view of a landscape, or of a subject.

4. The best. This phrase is elliptical, and may be variously interpreted; as, the utmost power; the strongest endeavor; the most, the highest perfection; as, let a man do his best; let him do a thing to the best of his power.

5. At best, in the best manner, in the utmost degree or extent, applicable to the case; as, life is at best very short.

To make the best of, to carry to its greatest perfection; to improve to the utmost; as, to make the best of a sum of money, or a piece of land. Also, to permit the least possible inconvenience; as, to make the best of ill fortune or a bad bargain.

The best of the way. We had made the best of our way to the city; that is, the most, the greatest part of the distance. [This is the primary sense of the word.]

BEST, adv. In the highest degree; beyond all other; as, to love one best; to like this best; to please best.

1. To the advantage; with the most ease; as,"which instrument can you best use?"

2. With most profit or success; as, money is best employed in manufactures; this medicine will answer best in the present case.

3. Most intimately or particularly; most correctly; as, what is expedient is best known to himself.

BETRUST'', v.t. [be and trust.] To entrust; to commit to another in confidence of fidelity; to confide. This is less used than entrust.


BIBLIOP''OLIST, n. [Gr. book, and to sell.] A Bookseller.


BIB''LIST, n. [from bible.] With the Romanists, one who makes the scriptures the sole rule of faith.

1. One who is conversant with the bible.

BIG''AMIST, n. [See Bigamy.] One who has committed bigamy, or had two wives at one.


BIRDS''NEST, n. [bird and nest.] The nest in which a bird lays eggs and hatches her young.

1. A plant, a species of Ophrys or twyblade; also a species of Orchis.

2. In cookery, the nest of a small swallow, of China, and the neighboring countries, delicately tasted,and mixed with soups. This nest is found in the rocks; it is of a hemispherical figure, of the size of a goose egg, and in substance resembles isinglass. In the East, these nests are esteemed a great luxury, and sell at a very high price.

BLA''AST, n. [Eng. blaze, which is primarily a blowing or swelling.]

1. A gust or puff of wind; or a sudden gust of wind.

2. The sound made by blowing a wind instrument.

3. Any pernicious or destructive influence upon animals or plants.

4. The infection of any thing pestilential; a blight on plants.

5. A sudden compression of air, attended with a shock, caused by the discharge of cannon.

6. A forcible stream of air from the mouth, from a bellows or the like.

7. A violent explosion of gun powder, in splitting rocks, and the explosion of inflammable air in a mine.

8. The whole blowing of a forge necessary to melt one supply of ore; a common use of the word among workmen in forges in American.


BLACK-FOREST, n. [black and forest.] A forest in Germany, in Swabia; a part of the ancient Hercynian forest.


BL''AST, v.t. [Literally, to strike.] To make to wither by some pernicious influence, as too much heat or moisture, or other destructive cause; or to check growth and prevent from coming to maturity and producing fruit; to blight, as trees or plants.

1. To affect with some sudden violence,plague, calamity, or destructive influence, which destroys or causes to fail; as, to blast pride or hopes. The figurative senses of this verb are taken from the blasting of plants, and all express the idea of checking growth, preventing maturity, impairing, injuring, destroying, or disappointing of the intended effect; as, to blast credit, or reputation; to blast designs.

2. To confound, or strike with force, by a loud blast or din.

3. To split rocks by an explosion of gun powder.

They did not stop to blast this ore.

BLEST, pp. of bless.

BLEST, a. Made happy.

1. Making happy; cheering.

While these blest sounds my rafish''d ear assail.


BLE''TONIST, n. One who possesses the faculty of perceiving subterraneous springs by sensation.


BOAST, v.i. [Gr. to inflate; L. fastus.]

1. To brag,or vaunt one''s self; to make an ostentatious display, in speech, of one''s own worth, property, or actions.

2. To glory; to speak with laudable pride and ostentation of meritorious persons or things.

I boast of you to them of Macedonia. St. Paul. 2. Cor.9.

Usually, it is followed by of; sometimes by in.

3. To exalt one''s self.

With your mouth you have boasted against me. Ezek.

BOAST, v.t. To display in ostentatious language; to speak of with pride, vanity or exultation, with a view to self-commendation.

Lest men should boast their specious deeds.

1. Magnify or exalt.

They boast themselves in the multitude of their riches. Ps.49.

2. To exult in confident expectation.

Boast not thyself of tomorrow. Prov.27.

BOAST, n. Expression of ostentation, pride or vanity; a vaunting.

Thou makest thy boast of the law. Rom.2

1. The cause of boasting; occasion of pride, vanity, or laudable exultation.

Trial by peers is the boast of the British nation.

BOM''BAST, n. Originally a stuff of soft loose texture, used to swell garments. Hence, high sounding words; an inflated style; fustian; a serious attempt, by strained description, to raise a low or familiar subject beyond its rank, which, instead of being sublime, never fails to be ridiculous.

BOM''BAST, a. High-sounding; inflated; big without meaning.


BOOST, v.t. To lift or raise by pushing; to push up. [A common vulgar wood in N. England.]


BOT''ANIST, n. One skilled in botany; one versed in the knowledge of plants or vegetables,their structure, and generic and specific differences.

The botanist is he who can affix similar names to similar vegetables, and different names to different ones, so as to be intelligible to every one.

BRAST, a. Burst. [Not in use.]


BREAK''FAST, n. brek''fast. [break and fast.]

1. The first meal in the day; or the thing eaten at the first meal.

2. A meal, or food in general.

BREAK''FAST, v.i. brek''fast. To eat the first meal in the day.


BREAST, n. brest.

1. The soft, protuberant body, adhering to the thorax, which, in females, furnishes milk for infants.

His breasts are full of milk. Job.21.24.

2. The fore part of the thorax, or the fore part of the human body between the neck and the belly.

3. The part of a breast which answers to the breast in man. This, in quadrupeds, is between the fore legs, below the neck.

4. Figuratively, the heart; the conscience; the disposition of the mind; the affections;the seat of the affections and passions.

5. Formerly,the power of singing.

BREAST, v.t. brest. To meet in front; to oppose breast to breast.


BREAST''F''AST, n. [breast and fast.] A large rope to confine a ship sidewise to a wharf or key.


BREST or BREAST, n. In architecture, the member of a column, more usually called torus or tore. [See Torus.]


BRICK''DUST, n. [brick and dust.] Dust of pounded bricks.


BROAD-CAST, n. [broad and cast.] Among farmers, a casting or throwing seed from the hand for dispersion in sowing.

BROAD-CAST, adv. By scattering or throwing at large from the hand; as, to sow broad-cast.

BROAD-CAST, a. Cast or dispersed upon the ground with the hand, as seed in sowing; opposed to planting in hills or rows.


BROWN''IST, n. A follower of Robert Brown, a puritan, or dissenter from the Church of England, who left England with his congregation and settled at Middleburgh in Zealand. He was the head of a party of Independents in Church government.


BUCK''MAST, n. [buck, that is, beach, and mast.] The mast or fruit of the beach tree.


BULL''IST, n. A writer of papal bulls.


BUR''BAST, n. A different orthography of bombast, which see.]

1. A cloth made by sewing one stuff upon another; patchwork.

2. Linen stuffed with cotton; stuffing; waddling.

BURST, v.i. pret. and pp. burst. The old participle bursten is nearly obsolete.

1. To fly or break open with force, or with sudden violence; to suffer a violent disruption. The peculiar force of this word is, in expressing a sudden rupture, with violence, or expansion, or both. Hence it is generally used to signify the sudden rupture of a thing by internal force,and a liberation from confinement; as, to burst from a prison; the heart bursts with grief.

2. To break away; to spring from; as, to burst from the arms.

3. To come or fall upon suddenly or with violence; to rush upon unexpectedly; as, a sound bursts upon our ears.

4. To issue suddenly, or to come from a hidden or retired place into more open view; as, a river bursts from a valley; a spring bursts from the earth.

5. To break forth into action suddenly; as, to burst into tears.

6. To break or rush in with violence; as, to burst into a house or a room.

It is often followed by an intensive particle; as, out, forth, away, from, or asunder.

BURST, v.t. To break or rend by force or violence; to open suddenly; as, to burst a chain or a door; to burst a cannon.

BURST, n. A sudden disruption; a violent rending; more appropriately, a sudden explosion or shooting forth; as a burst of thunder; a burst of applause, a burst of passion.

1. A rupture, a hernia, or the unnatural protrusion of the contents of the abdomen.

BURST, or BURST''EN, pp. or a. Affected with a rupture or hernia.

BURST, pp. Opened or rent asunder by violence.


BUST, n. [L. bustum.] In sculpture, the figure of a person in relief, showing only the head, shoulders and stomach; ordinarily placed on a pedestal or console. In speaking of an antique, we say the head is marble and the bust porphyry or bronze; that is, the shoulders and stomach. The Italians use the word for the trunk of the body from the neck to the hips.


BY-WEST'', adv. Westward;; to the west of.


CABALIST, n.

1. A Jewish doctor who professes the study of the cabala, or the mysteries of Jewish traditions.

2. In French commerce, a factor or agent.

CALVINIST, n. A follower of Calvin; one who embraces the theological doctrines of Calvin.


CAMBIST, n. A banker; one who deals in notes, and bills of exchange.


CANONIST, n. A professor of cannon law; one skilled in the study and practice of ecclesiastical law.


CAPITALIST, n. A man who has a capital or stock in trade, usually denoting a man of large property, which is or may be employed in business.


CARICATURIST, n. One who caricatures others.


CARNALIST, n. One given to the indulgence of sensual appetites.


CARPOLOGIST, n. One who describes fruits.


CAST, v.t. pret. And pp. cast.

1. To throw, fling or send; that is, to drive from, by force, as from the hand, or from an engine.

Hagar cast the child under a shrub. Gen. 21.

Uzziah prepared slings to cast stones. 2 Ch. 26.

2. To sow; to scatter seed.

If a man should cast seen into the ground. Mark 4.

3. To drive or impel by violence.

A mighty west wind cast the locusts into the sea. Ex. 10.

4. To shed or throw off; as, trees cast their fruit; a serpent casts his skin.

5. To throw or let fall; as, to cast anchor. Hence, to east anchor is to moor, as a ship, the effect of casting the anchor.

6. To throw, as dice or lots; as, to cast lots.

7. To throw on the ground, as in wrestling.

8. To throw away, as worthless.

His carcase was cast in the way. 1 Kings 13.

9. To emit or throw out.

This casts a sulphurous smell.

10. To throw, to extend, as a trench or rampart, including the sense of digging, raising, or forming.

Thy enemies shall cast a trench about thee. Luke 19.

11. To thrust; as, to cast into prison.

12. To put, or set, in a particular state.

Both chariot and horse were cast into a dead sleep. Ps. 76.

13. To condemn; to convict; as a criminal.

Both tried and both were cast.

14. To overcome in a civil suit, or in any contest of strength or skill; as, to cast the defendant or an antagonist.

15. To cashier or discard.

16. To lay aside, as unfit for use; to reject; as a garment.

17. To make to preponderate; to throw into one scale, for the purpose of giving it superior weight; to decide by a vote that gives a superiority in numbers; as, to cast the balance in ones favor; a casting vote or voice.

18. To throw together several particulars, to find the sum; as, to cast accounts. Hence, to throw together circumstances and facts, to find the result; to compute; to reckon; to calculate; as, to cast the event of war.

To cast and see how many things there are which a man cannot do himself.

19. To contrive; to plan.

20. To judge, or to consider, in order to judge.

21. To fix, or distribute the parts of a play among the actors.

22. To throw, as the sight; to direct, or turn, as the eye; to glance; as, to cast a look, or glance, or the eye.

23. To found; to form into a particular shape, by pouring liquid metal into a mold; to run; as, to cast cannon.

Thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it. Ex. 25.

24. Figuratively, to shape; to form by a model.

25. To communicate; to spread over; as, to cast a luster upon posterity; to cast splendor upon actions, or light upon a subject.

To cast aside, to dismiss or reject as useless or inconvenient.

To cast away, to reject. Lev. 26. Is. 5. Rom. 11. Also, to throw away; to lavish or waste by profusion; to turn to no use; as, to cast away life.

Also, to wreck, as a ship.

To cast by, to reject; to dismiss or discard with neglect or hate, or as useless.

To cast down, to throw down; to deject or depress the mind.

Why art thou cast down, O my soul. Ps. 42.

To cast forth, to throw out, or eject, as from an inclosed place; to emit, or send abroad; to exhale.

To cast off, to discard or reject; to drive away; to put off; to put away; to disburden. Among huntsmen, to leave behind, as dogs; to set loose, or free. Among seamen, to loose, or untie.

To cast out, to send forth; to reject or turn out; to throw out, as words; to speak or give vent to.

To cast up, to compute; to reckon; to calculate; as, to cast up accounts, or the cost. Also, to eject; to vomit.

To cast on, to refer or resign to.

To cast ones self on, to resign or yield ones self to the disposal of, without reserve.

To cast young, to miscarry; to suffer abortion. Gen. 32.

To cast in the teeth, to upbraid; to charge; to twit. So in Danish, kaster in I noesen, to cast in the nose.

CAST, v.i.

1. To throw forward, as the thoughts, with a view to some determination; or to turn or revolve in the mind; to contrive; sometimes followed by about.

I cast in careful mind to seek her out. Spenser.

To cast about how to perform or obtain. Bacon.

2. To receive form or shape.

Metal will cast and mold.

3. To warp; to twist from regular shape.

Stuff is said to cast or warp, when it alters its flatness or straightness.

Note. Cast, like throw and warp, implies a winding motion.

4. In seamens language, to fall off, or incline, so as to bring the side of a ship to the wind; applied particularly to a ship riding with her head to the wind, when her anchor is first loosened.

CAST, n.

1. The act of casting; a throw; the thing thrown; the form or state of throwing; kind or manner of throwing.

2. The distance passed by a thing thrown; or the space through which a thing thrown may ordinarily pass; as, about a stones cast. Luke 22.

3. A stroke; a touch.

This was a cast of Woods politics.

4. Motion or turn of the eye; direction, look or glance; a squinting.

Thy let you see by one cast of the eye.

5. A throw of dice; hence, a state of chance or hazard.

It is an even cast, whether the army should march this way or that way.

Hence the phrase, the last cast, is used to denote that all is ventured on one throw, or one effort.

6. Form; shape.

A heroic poem in another cast.

7. A tinge; a slight coloring, or slight degree of a color; as a cast of green. Hence, a slight alteration in external appearance.

The native hue of resolution is sicklied oer with the pale cast of thought. Shak.

8. Manner; air; mien; as, a peculiar cast of countenance. This sense implies, the turn or manner of throwing; as, the neat cast f verse.

9. A flight; a number of hawks let go at once.

10. A small statue of bronze.

11. Among founders, a tube of wax, fitted into a mold, to give shape to metal.

12. A cylindrical piece of brass or copper, slit in two lengthwise, to form a canal or conduit, in a mold, for conveying metal.

13. Among plumbers, a little brazen funnel, at one end of a mold, for casting pipes without sodering, by means of which the melted metal is poured into the mold.

14. A breed, race, lineage, kind, sort.

15. In Hindoostan, a tribe or class of the same rank or profession; as the cast of Bramins, or priests; of rajahs, or princes; of choutres, or artificers; and of parias, or poor people. Or according to some writers, of Bramins; of cuttery, or soldiers; of shuddery, or merchants; and of wyse, or mechanics.

The four casts of the Hindoos are the Brahmins or sacred order; the Chechteres or soldiers and rulers; the Bice, Vaissya, or husbandmen and merchants; and the Sooders, Sudras, or laborers and mechanics.

16. A trick.

CASUIST, n. One who studies and resolves cases of conscience.

The judgment of any casuist or leaned divine is not sufficient to give him confidence.

CASUIST, v.i. To play the part of a casuist.


CATABAPTIST, n. One who opposes baptism.


CATECHIST, n. One who instructs viva voice, or by question and answer; a catechiser; one appointed by the church to instruct in the principles of religion.


CATECHUMENIST, n. A catechumen.


CATH-ARIST, n. One who pretends to more purity than others possess.


CELLARIST, CELLARER, n. An officer in a monastery who has the care of the cellar, or the charge of procuring and keeping the provisions; also, an officer in chapters, who has the care of the temporals, and particularly of distributing bread, wine, and money to canons, an account of their attendance in the choir.


CENTURIST, n. A historian who distinguishes time into centuries; as in the Universal Church History of Magdeburg.


CEST, n. A ladys girdle.


CETOLOGIST, n. One who is versed in the natural history of the whale and its kindred animals.


CHEMIST. [ See chimist.]


CHEST, n.

1. A box of wood or other material, in which goods are kept or transported. It differs from a trunk in not being covered with skin or leather.

2. The trunk of the body from the neck to the belly; the thorax. Hence, broad-chested, narrow-chested, having a broad or narrow chest.

3. In commerce, a certain quantity; as a chest of sugar; a chest of indigo; &c.

Chest of drawers is a case of movable boxes called drawers.

CHEST, v.t. To reposit in a chest; to hoard.


CHILIAST, n. One of the sect of Millenarians.


CHIMIST, n. A person versed in chimistry; a professor of chimistry.


CHIROGRAPHIST, n. One who tells fortunes by examining the hand.


CHIROLOGIST, n. One who communicates thoughts by signs made with the hands and fingers.


CHORIST, n. A singing man in a choir.


CHRIST, n. THE ANOINTED; an appellation given to the Savior of the World, and synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah. It was a custom of antiquity to consecrate persons to the sacerdotal and regal offices by anointing them with oil.


CHRONOGRAMMATIST, n. A writer of chronograms.


CHRONOLOGIST, n. [See Chronology.]

1. A person who attempts to discover the true dates of past events and transactions, and to arrange them under their proper years, or divisions of time, in the order in which they happened.

2. One who studies chronology, or is versed in the science.

CHYMIC, CHYMIST, CHYMISTRY. [See chimical, Chimist, Chimistry.]


CIDERIST, n. A maker of cider.


CIRCUMVEST, v.t. To cover round, as with a garment.


CIST, n. A case. [See Cyst, the proper orthography.]


CIVILIST, n. A civilian.


CLOSEST, a. superl. of close. Most close. In these words, s has its proper sound.


CLUB-FIST, n. A large heavy fist.


CLUBBIST, n. One who belongs to a party, club or association.


COAFFOREST, v.t. To convert ground into a forest.


COAST, n.

1. The exterior line, limit or border of a country, as in Scripture. From the river to the uttermost sea shall your coast be. Deut. 11. And ships shall come from the coast of Chittim. Numb. 24. Hence the word may signify the whole country within certain limits. Ex. 10:4.

2. The edge or margin of the land next to the sea; the sea-shore. This is the more common application of the word; and it seems to be used for sea-coast, the border of the sea. Hence it is never used for the bank of a river.

3. A side; applied to objects indefinitely, by Bacon and Newton. This is a correct use of the word, but now obsolete.

4. The country near the sea-shore; as, populous towns along the coast.

The coast is clear, is a proverbial phrase signifying, the danger is over; the enemies have marched off, or left the coast.

COAST, v.i.

1. To sail near a coast; to sail by or near the shore, or in sight of land.

The ancients coasted only in their navigation.

2. To sail from port to port in the same country.

COAST, v.t.

1. To sail by or near to; as, to coast the American shore.

2. To draw near; to approach; to follow.

COEXIST, v.i. To exist at the same time with another; followed by with.


COLLOQUIST, n. A speaker in a dialogue.


COLONIST, n. [See Colony.] An inhabitant of a colony.


COLORIST, n. One who colors; a painter who excels in giving the proper colors to his designs.


COMBUST, a. When a planet is in conjunction with the sun or apparently very near it, it is said to be combust or in combustion. The distance within which this epithet is applicable to a planet, is said by some writers to be 8 degrees; others say, within the distance of half the suns disk.


COMPOST, n. In agriculture, a mixture or composition of various manuring substances for fertilizing land. Compost may be made by almost every animal and vegetable substance in nature, with lime or other earthy matter.

COMPOST, v.t. To manure with compost.


COMPRIEST, n. A fellow priest. [Not in use.]


COMPUTIST, n. A computer. [Not used.]


CONCHOLOGIST, n. One versed in the natural history of shells or shell-fish; one who studies the nature, properties and habits of shells and their included animals.


CONCHYLIOLOGIST, CONCHYLIOLOGY, from L. Conchylium, a shell-fish, are sometimes used as synonyms of the preceding words; but they are words of inconvenient length, and useless.


CONCORDIST, n. The compiler of a concordance.


CONFES''SIONIST, n. One who makes a profession of faith.


CONFEST'', pp. [for confessed.] Owned; open; acknowledged; apparent; not disputed.


CONFORMIST, n. One who conforms or complies; appropriately, one who complies with the worship of the church of England or of the established church, as distinguished from a dissenter, or nonconformist.


CONGEST, v.t. [L., to bear.] To collect or gather into a mass or aggregate.


CONGREGATIONALIST, n. One who belongs to a congregational church or society; one who holds to the independence of each congregation or church of Christians, in the right of electing a pastor, and in governing the church.


CONQUEST, n. [The primary sense is to seek, to press or drive towards.]

1. The act of conquering; the act of overcoming or vanquishing opposition by force, physical or moral. Applied to persons, territory and the like, it usually implies or includes a taking possession of; as the conquest of Canada by the British troops. So we speak of the heart, the passions, or the will.

2. Victory; success in arms; the overcoming of opposition.

In joys of conquest he resigns his breath.

3. That which is conquered; possession gained by force, physical or moral; as, Jamaica was a valuable conquest for England.

4. In a feudal sense, acquest; acquisition; the acquiring of property by other means than by inheritance, or the acquisition of property by a number in community or by one for all the others.

5. In the law of nations, the acquisition of sovereignty by force of arms.

The right of conquest is derived from the laws of war.

6. The act of gaining or regaining by effort; as the conquest of liberty or peace; a French phrase.

CONSIST, v.i. [L., to stand.]

1. To stand together; to be in a fixed or permanent state, as a body composed of parts in union or connection. Hence, to be; to exist; to subsist; to be supported and maintained.

He was before all things, and by him all things consist. Colossians 1.

2. To stand or be; to lie; to be contained; followed by in.

The beauty of epistolary writing consists in case and freedom.

3. To be composed; followed by of.

A landscape should consist of a variety of scenery.

To consist together, to coexist; to have being concurrently.

Necessity and election cannot consist together in the same act.

To consist with, to agree; to be in accordance with; to be compatible.

Health consists with temperance alone.

CONSTITUTIONALIST, n.

1. An adherent to the constitution of government.

2. An innovator of the old constitution, or a framer or friend of the new constitution in France.

CONSTITUTIONIST, n. One who adheres to the constitution of the country.


CONSUBSIST, v.i. To subsist together. [See Subsist.]


CONSUBSTANTIALIST, n. One who believes in consubstantiation.


CONTEST, v.t. [L., have a different sense, being equivalent to the English attest. See Test.]

1. To dispute; to strive earnestly to hold or maintain; to struggle to defend. The troops contested every inch of ground.

2. To dispute; to argue in opposition to; to controvert; to litigate; to oppose; to call in question; as, the advocate contested every point.

None have contested the proportion of these ancient pieces.

CONTEST, v.i.

1. To strive; to contend; followed by with.

The difficulty of an argument adds to the pleasure of contesting with it, when there are hopes of victory.

2. To vie; to emulate.

Of man who dares in pomp with Jove contest.

CONTEST, n.

1. Strife; struggle for victory, superiority, or in defense; struggle in arms. All Europe engaged in the contest against France. The contest was furious.

2. Dispute; debate; violent controversy; strife in argument.

Leave all noisy contests, all immodest clamors, and brawling language.

CONTRABANDIST, n. One who trafficks illegally.


CONTRAPUNTIST, n. One skilled in counterpoint.


CONTRAST, v.t.

1. To set in opposition two or more figures of a like kind, with a view to show the difference or dissimilitude, and to manifest the superior excellence of the one by the inferiority of the other, or to exhibit the excellence of the one and the defects of the other in a more striking view; as, to contrast two picture or statues.

2. To exhibit differences or dissimilitude in painting and sculpture, by position or attitude, either of the whole figure or of its members; or to show to advantage by opposition or difference of position.

3. To set in opposition different things or qualities, to show the superior excellence of one to advantage.

To contrast the goodness of God with our rebellion, will tend to make us humble and thankful.

CONTRAST, n.

1. Opposition or dissimilitude of figures, by which one contributes to the visibility or effect of the other. Contrast, in this sense, is applicable to things of a similar kind. We never speak of a contrast between a man and a mountain, or between a dog and a tree; but we observe the contrast between an oak and a shrub, and between a palace and a cottage.

2. Opposition, or difference of position, attitude, &c., of figures, or of their several members; as in painting and sculpture.

3. Opposition of things or qualities; or the placing of opposite things in view, to exhibit the superior excellence of one to more advantage. What a contrast between modesty and impudence, or between a well-bred man and a clown!

CONTROVERSIALIST, n. One who carries on a controversy; a disputant.


CONTROVERTIST, n. One who controverts; a disputant; a man versed or engaged in controversy, or disputation.

How unfriendly is the spirit of the controvertist to the discernment of the critic.

CONVENTIONIST, n. One who makes a contract.


COPIST, n. A copier; an ill formed word.


COPPLE-DUST, n. Powder used in purifying metals.


COPYIST, n. A copier; a transcriber.


CORNIST, n. A performer on the cornet or horn.


CORPOREALIST, n. One who denies the existence of spiritual substances.


COSMOGONIST, n. [See Cosmogony.] One who treats of the origin or formation of the universe.


COSMOLOGIST, n. One who describes the universe.


COST, n. [See the Verb.]

1. The price, value or equivalent of a thing purchased; the amount in value paid, charge or engaged to be paid for any thing bought or taken in barter. The word is equally applicable to the price in money or commodities; as the cost of a suit of clothes; the cost of a house or farm.

2. Expense; amount in value expended or to be expended; charge; that which is given or to be given for another thing.

I will not offer burnt offerings without cost. 1 Chronicles 21.

Have we eaten at all at the kings cost? 2 Samuel 19.

The cost of maintaining armies is immense and often ruinous.

3. In law, the sum fixed by law or allowed by the court for charges of a suit awarded against the party losing, in favor of the party prevailing, &c. The jury find that the plaintiff recover of the defendant ten dollars with costs of suit or with his cost.

4. Loss or expense of any kind; detriment; pain; suffering. The vicious man indulges his propensities at a great cost.

5. Sumptuousness; great expense.

COST, v.t. [The noun cost coincides in most of these languages with coast and L. Costa, a rib, the exterior part. The primary sense of the verb is, to throw or send out, to cast, as we say, to lay out. I call this a transitive verb. In the phrase, a hat costs six dollars, the sense is, it expends, lays out, or causes to be laid out six dollars.]

1. To require to be given or expend in barter or purchase; to be bought for; as, this book cost a dollar; the army and navy cost four millions a year.

2. To require to be laid out, given, bestowed or employed; as, Johnsons dictionary_webster1828 cost him seven years labor.

3. To require to be borne or suffered. Our sins cost us many pains. A sense of ingratitude to his maker costs the penitent sinner many pangs and sorrows.

COUNTERCAST, n. Delusive contrivance; contrary cast.


CRANIOLOGIST, n. One who treats of craniology, or one who is versed in the science of the cranium.


CREST, n. [L. This is probably, a growing or shooting up, from the root of cresco.]

1. The plume of feathers or other material on the top of the ancient helmet; the helmet itself.

2. The ornament of the helmet in heraldry.

3. The comb of a cock; also, a tuft of feathers on the head of other fowls.

4. Any tuft or ornament worn on the head.

5. Loftiness; pride; courage; spirit; a lofty mien.

CREST, v.t.

1. To furnish with a crest; to serve as a crest for.

2. To mark with long streaks.

CROWN-POST, n. In building, a post which stands upright in the middle, between two principal rafters.


CRUST, n. [L., G.]

1. An external coat or covering of a thing, which is hard or harder than the internal substance; as the crust of bread; the crust of snow; the crust of dross; the crust of a pie.

2. A piece of crust; a waste piece of bread.

3. A shell, as the hard covering of a crab and some other animals.

4. A scab.

5. The superficial substances of the earth are, in geology, called its crust.

CRUST, v.t.

1. To cover with a hard case or coat; to spread over the surface a substance harder than the matter covered; to incrust; as, to crust a thing with clay; to crust cake with sugar; crusted with bark.

2. To cover with concretions.

CRUST, v.i. To gather or contract into a hard covering; to concrete or freeze, as superficial matter.


CRUSTALOGIST, n. One who describes, or is versed in the science of crustaceous animals.


CURST, pp. of curse. [See Cursed.]

CURST, a. Hateful; detestable; froward; tormenting; vexatious; peevish; malignant; mischievous; malicious; snarling; a word however which can be hardly said to have a definite signification. It is applied to any thing vexatious. In some of its applications in old authors, ti appears to be the Dutch korst, crust, and to signify crusty, crabbed, surly.


CYST, n. [Gr., a bladder.] A bag or tunic which includes morbid matter in animal bodies.


DAC''TYLIST, n. One who writes flowing verse.


DECAL''OGIST, n. One who explains the decalogue.

DEC''ALOGUE, n. dec''alog. [Gr., ten and speech.] The ten commandments or precepts given by God to Moses at mount Sinai, and originally written on two tables of stone.

DECAM''ETER, n. [Gr., ten and measure.] A French measure of length, consisting of ten meters, and equal to 393 English inches, and 71 decimals.

DECAMP'', v.i. To remove or depart from a camp; to march off; as, the army decamped at six o''clock.

DECAMP''MENT, n. Departure from a camp; a marching off.

DEC''ANAL, a. Pertaining to a deanery.

DECAN''DER, n. [Gr., ten and a male.] In botany, a plant having ten stamens.


DECRETIST, n. One who studies or professes the knowledge of the decretals.


DEIPNOSOPHIST, n. [Gr. A feast; a sophist.] One of an ancient sect of philosophers, who were famous for their learned conversation at meals.


DEIST, n. One who believes in the existence of a God, but denies revealed religion, but follows the light of nature and reason, as his only guides in doctrine and practice; a freethinker.


DEMONOMIST, n. [Gr. Demon and law.] One that lives in subjection to the devil, or to evil spirits.


DENTIST, n. One whose occupation is to clean and extract teeth, or repair the loss of them.


DESIST, v.i. [L. To stand.] To stop; to cease to act or proceed; to forbear; with from; as, he desisted from his purpose; let us desist.


DETEST, v.t. [L., to affirm or bear witness. The primary sense of testor is to set, throw or thrust. To detest is to thrust away.] To abhor; to abominate; to hate extremely; as, to detest crimes or meanness.


DEUTEROGAMIST, n. [infra.] One who marries the second time.


DEVAST, v.t. [L.] To lay waste; to plunder. [Not in use.]


DEVEST, v.t. [L., a vest, a garment. Generally written divest.]

1. To strip; to deprive of clothing or arms; to take off.

2. To deprive; to take away; as, to devest a man or nation of rights. [See Divest.]

3. To free from; to disengage.

4. In law, to alienate, as title or right.

DEVEST, v.i. In law, to be lost or alienated, as a title or an estate.

[This word is generally written divest, except in the latter and legal sense.]

DEVOTIONALIST, DEVOTIONIST, n. A person given to devotion; or one superstitiously or formally devout.


DEVOTIONALIST, DEVOTIONIST, n. A person given to devotion; or one superstitiously or formally devout.


DIALIST, n. A constructor of dials; one skilled in dialing.


DIALOGIST, n. [See Dialogue.] A speaker in a dialogue; also, a writer of dialogues.


DIARIST, n. One who keeps a diary.


DICAST, n. [Gr., to judge; justice.] In ancient Greece, an officer answering nearly to our juryman.


DIGEST, n. [L., put in order.]

1. A collection or body of Roman laws, digested or arranged under proper titles by order of the Emperor Justinian. A pandect.

2. Any collection, compilation, abridgment or summary of laws, disposed under proper heads or titles; as the digest of Comyns.

DIGEST, v.t. L., to distribute, or to dissolve; to bear, carry, or wear.]

1. To distribute into suitable classes, or under proper heads or titles; to arrange in convenient order; to dispose in due method; as, to digest the Roman laws or the common law.

2. To arrange methodically in the mind; to form with due arrangement of parts; as, to digest a plan or scheme.

3. To separate or dissolve in the stomach, as food; to reduce to minute parts fit to enter the lacteals and circulate; to concoct; to covert into chyme.

4. In chemistry, to soften and prepare by heat; to expose to a gentle heat in a boiler or matrass, as a preparation for chemical operations.

5. To bear with patience; to brook; to receive without resentment; not to reject; as, say what you will, he will digest it.

6. To prepare in the mind; to dispose in a manner that shall improve the understanding and heart; to prepare for nourishing practical duties; as, to digest a discourse or sermon.

7. To dispose an ulcer or wound to suppurate.

8. To dissolve and prepare for manure, as plants and other substances.

DIGEST, v.i.

1. To be prepared by heat.

2. To suppurate; to generate laudable pus; as an ulcer or wound.

3. To dissolve and be prepared for manure, as substances in compost.

DISAFFOREST, v.t. [dis and afforest.] To reduce from the privileges of a forest to the state of common ground; to strip of forest laws and their oppressive privileges.

By Charter 9. Hen. III many forests were disafforested.

DISCOAST, v.i. To depart from; to quit the coast. [Not used.]


DISCURSIST, n. [See Discourse.] A disputer. [Not in use.]


DISFOREST. [See Disafforest.]


DISGUST, n. [L.]

1. Disrelish; distaste; aversion to the taste of food or drink; an unpleasant sensation excited int he organs of taste by something disagreeable, and when extreme, producing loathing or nausea.

2. Dislike; aversion; an unpleasant sensation in the mind excited by something offensive in the manners, conduct, language or opinions of others. Thus, obscenity in language and clownishness in behavior excite disgust.

DISGUST, v.t.

1. To excite aversion in the stomach; to offend the taste.

2. To displease; to offend the mind or moral taste; with at or with; as, to be disgusted at foppery, or with vulgar manners. To disgust from is unusual and hardly legitimate.

DISHONEST, a. Dizonest. [dis and honest.]

1. Void of honesty; destitute of probity, integrity or good faith; faithless; fraudulent; knavish; having or exercising a disposition to deceive, cheat and defraud; applied to persons; as a dishonest man.

2. Proceeding from fraud or marked by it; fraudulent; knavish; as a dishonest transaction.

3. Disgraced; dishonored; from the sense in Latin.

Dishonest with lopped arms the youth appears.

4. Disgraceful; ignominious; from the Latin sense.

Inglorious triumphs, and dishonest scars.

5. Unchaste; lewd.

DISINTEREST, n. [dis and interest.]

1. What is contrary to the interest or advantage; disadvantage; injury. [Little used or not at all.]

2. Indifference to profit; want of regard to private advantage.

DISINTEREST, v.t. To disengage from private interest or personal advantage. [Little used.]


DISMAST, v.t. [dis and mast.] To deprive of a mast or masts; to break and carry away the masts from; as, a storm dismated the ship.


DISTRUST, v.t. [dis and trust. See Mistrust.]

1. To doubt or suspect the truth, fidelity, firmness or sincerity of; not to confide in or rely on. We distrust a man, when we question his veracity, &c. We may often distrust our own firmness.

2. To doubt; to suspect not to be real, true, sincere or firm. We distrust a mans courage, friendship, veracity, declarations, intentions or promises, when we question their reality or sincerity. We cannot distrust the declarations of God. We often have reason to distrust our own resolutions.

DISTRUST, n.

1. Doubt or suspicion of reality or sincerity; want of confidence, faith or reliance. Sycophants should be heard with distrust. Distrust mars the pleasures of friendship and social intercourse.

2. Discredit; loss of confidence.

DIURNALIST, n. A journalist. [Not in use.]


DIVEST, v.t. [L. It is the same word as devest, but the latter is appropriately used as a technical term in law.]

1. To strip of clothes, arms or equipage; opposed to invest.

2. To deprive; as, to divest one of his rights or privileges; to divest one of title or property.

3. To deprive or strip of any thing that covers , surrounds or attends; as, to divest one of his glory; to divest a subject of deceptive appearances, or false ornaments.

DOGMATIST, n. A positive asserter; a magisterial teacher; a bold or arrogant advancer of principles.


DONATIST, n. One of the sect founded by Donatus. They held that theirs was the only pure church, and that baptism and ordination, unless by their church, were invalid.


DOOR-POST, n. The post of a door.


DOST, the second person of do, used int he solemn style; thou dost.


DOWNCAST, a. Cast downward; directed to the ground; as a downcast eye or look, indicating bashfulness, modesty or dejection of mind.

DOWNCAST, n. Sadness; melancholy look.


DOWST, n. A stroke. [Not in use.]


DRAMATIST, n. The author of a dramatic composition; a writer of plays.


DREST, pp. Of dress.


DRUGGIST, n. One who deals in drugs; properly, one whose occupation is merely to but and sell drugs, without compounding or preparation. In America, the same person often carries on the business of the druggist and the apothecary.


DUELIST, n.

1. One who fights in single combat.

The duelist values his honor above the life of his antagonist, his own life, and the happiness of his family.

2. One who professes to study the rules of honor.

DURST, pret. Of dare.


DUST, n.

1. Fine dry particles of earth or other matter, so attenuated that it may be raised and wafted by the wind; powder; as clouds of dust and seas of blood.

2. Fine dry particles of earth; fine earth.

The peacock warmeth her eggs in the dust. Job 34.

3. Earth; unorganized earthy matter.

Dust thou art, and to dust shalt thou return. Genesis 3.

4. The grave.

For now shall I sleep in the dust. Job 7.

5. A low condition.

God raiseth the poor out of the dust. 1 Samuel 2.

DUST, v.t.

1. To free from dust; to brush, wipe or sweep away dust; as, to dust a table or a floor.

2. To sprinkle with dust.

3. To levigate.

DY''NAST, n. [See Dynasty.] a ruler; a governor; a prince; a government.


EARNEST, a. ern''est.

1. Ardent in the pursuit of an object; eager to obtain; having a longing desire; warmly engaged or incited.

They are never more earnest to disturb us, than when they see us most earnest in this duty.

2. Ardent; warm; eager; zealous; animated; importunate; as earnest in love; earnest in prayer.

3. Intent; fixed.

On that prospect strange

Their earnest eyes were fixed.

4. Serious; important; that is, really intent or engaged; whence the phrase, in earnest. To be in earnest, is to be really urging or stretching towards an object; intent on a pursuit. Hence, from fixed attention, comes the sense of seriousness in the pursuit, as opposed to trifling or jest. Are you in earnest or in jest?

EARNEST, n. ern''est. Seriousness; a reality; a real event; as opposed to jesting or feigned appearance.

Take heed that this jest do not one day turn to earnest.

And given in earnest what I begg''d in jest.

1. First fruits; that which is in advance, and gives promise of something to come. Early fruit may be an earnest of fruit to follow. The first success in arms may be an earnest of future success. The christian''s peace of mind in this life is an earnest of future peace and happiness. Hence earnest or earnest-money is a first payment or deposit giving promise or assurance of full payment. Hence the practice of giving an earnest to ratify a bargain.

This sense of the word is primary, denoting that which goes before, or in advance. Thus the earnest of the spirit is given to saints, as a pledge or assurance of their future enjoyment of God''s presence and favor.


EAST, n. [L. oriens, this word may belong to the root of hoise,hoist.]

1. The point in the heavens, where the sun is seen to rise at the equinox, or when it is in the equinoctial, or the corresponding point on the earth; one of the four cardinal points. The east and the west are the points where the equator intersects the horizon. But to persons under the equinoctial line, that line constitutes east and west.

2. The eastern parts of the earth; the regions or countries which lie east of Europe, or other country. In this indefinite sense, the word is applied to Asia Minor, Syria, Chaldea, Persia, India, China, &c. We speak of the riches of the east, the diamonds and pearls of the east, the kings of the east.

The gorgeous east, with richest hand,

Pours on her kings barbaric,pearl and gold.

EAST, a. Towards the rising sun; or towards the point where the sun rises, when in the equinoctial; as the east gate; the east border; the east side. The east wind is a wind that blows from the east.


ECON''OMIST, n. One who manages domestic or other concerns with frugality; one who expends money, time or labor judiciously, and without waste.

1. One who writes on economy; the writer of a treatise on economy.

EGEST'', v.t. [L.egestum, from egero.] To cast or throw out; to void, as excrement.


E''GOIST, n. [from L. ego.] A name given to certain followers of Des Cartes, who held the opinion that they were uncertain of every thing except their own existence and the operations and ideas of their own minds.


E''GOTIST, n. One who repeats the word I very often in conversation or writing; one who speaks much of himself, or magnifies his own achievements; one who makes himself the hero of every tale.


ELD''EST, a. Oldest; most advanced in age; that was born before others; as the eldest son or daughter. It seems to always applied to persons or at least to animals, and not to things. If ever applied to things, it must signify, that was first formed or produced, that has existed the longest time. But applied to things we use oldest.


EL''EGIST, n. A writer of elegies.


EL''OGIST, n. An eulogist. [Not used.]


EMBLEM''ATIST, n. A writer or inventor of emblems.


ENCO''MIAST, n. One who praises another; a panegyrist; one who utters or writes commendations.


ENCRUST'', v.t. To cover with a crust. It is written also incrust.


ENCYCLOPE''DIST, n. The compiler of an Encyclopedia, or one who assists in such compilation.


ENIG''MATIST, n. A maker or dealer in enigmas and riddles.


ENLIST'', v.t. [See List.] To enroll; to register; to enter a name on a list.

1. To engage in public service, by entering the name in a register; as, an officer enlists men.

ENLIST'', v.i. To engage in public service, by subscribing articles, or enrolling one''s name.


ENTHU''SIAST, n. enthu''ziast.

1. One who imagines he has special or supernatural converse with God, or special communications from him.

2. One whose imagination is warmed; one whose mind is highly excited with the love or in the pursuit of an object; a person of ardent zeal; as an enthusiast in poetry or music.

3. One of elevated fancy or exalted ideas.

ENTOMOL''OGIST, n. One versed in the science of insects.


ENTWIST'', v.t. [from twist.] To twist or wreath round.


EPHEM''ERIST, n. One who studies the daily motions and positions of the planets; an astrologer.


EPIGRAM''MATIST, n. One who composes epigrams, or deals in them. Martial was a noted epigrammatist.


EPIT''OMIST, n. An epitomizer.


EQUIL''IBRIST, n. One that balances equally.


ERPETOL''OGIST, n. [Gr. reptile, discourse.] One who writes on the subject of reptiles, or is versed in the natural history of reptiles.


ERST, adv. [See Ere.]

1. First; at first; at the beginning.

2. Once; formerly; long ago.

3. Before; till then or now; hitherto.

[This word is obsolete, except in poetry.]


ESSA''YIST, n. A writer of an essay, or of essays.


ETER''NALIST, n. One who holds the past existence of the world to be infinite.


ETHOL''OGIST, n. One who writes on the subject of manners and morality.


ETYMOL''OGIST, n. One versed in etymology or the deduction of words from their originals; one who searches into the original of words.


EU''CHARIST, n. [Gr. a giving of thanks; well, favor.]

1. The sacrament of the Lord''s supper; the solemn act or ceremony of commemorating the death of our Redeemer, in the use of bread and wine, as emblems of his flesh and blood, accompanied with approprite prayers and hymns.

2. The act of giving thanks.

EU''LOGIST, n. [See Eulogy.] One who praises and commends another; one who writes or speaks in commendation of another, on account of his excellent qualities, exploits or performances.


EVAN''GELIST, n. A writer of the history, or doctrines, precepts, actions, life and death of our blessed Savior, Jesus Christ; as the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.

1. A preacher or publisher of the gospel of Jesus Christ, licensed to preach, but not having charge of a particular church.

EXCLU''SIONIST, n. One who would preclude another from some privilege.


EXHAUST'', v.t. egzhaust''. [L. exhaurio, exhaustum; ex and haurio, to draw.]

1. To draw out or drain off the whole of any thing; to draw out, till nothing of the matter drawn is left. We exhaust the water in a well, by drawing or pumping; the water of a marsh is exhausted by draining; the moisture of the earth is exhausted by evaporation.

2. To empty by drawing out the contents. Venesection may exhaust the veins and arteries.

3. To draw out or to use and expend the whole; to consume. The treasures of the prince were exhausted; his means or his resources were exhausted. The strength or fertility of land may be exhausted.

4. To use or expend the whole by exertion; as, to exhaust the strength or spirits; to exhaust one''s patience. Hence this phrase is equivalent to tire, weary, fatigue.

EXHAUST'', a. Drained; exhausted. [Little used.]


EXIST'', v.i. egzist''. [L. existo; ex and sisto, or more directly from Gr. to set, place or fix; L. sto, to stand. The primary sense is to set, fix or be fixed, whence the sense of permanence, continuance.]

1. To be; to have an essence or real being; applicable to matter or body, and to spiritual substances. A supreme being and first cause of all other beings must have existed from eternity, for no being can have created himself.

2. To live; to have life or animation. Men cannot exist in water, nor fishes on land.

3. To remain; to endure; to continue in being. How long shall national enmities exist?

EX''ORCIST, n. One who pretends to expel evil spirits by conjuration, prayers, and ceremonies. Acts.14.


EXPERIMENT''ALIST, n. One who makes experiments.


FABULIST, n. [from fable.] The inventor or writer of fables.


FAC''TIONIST, n. One who promotes faction.


FAL''LOWIST, n. One who favors the practice of fallowing land.

On this subject, a controversy has arisen between two sects, the fallowists and the anti-fallowists. [Unusual.]

FAM''ILIST, n. [from family.] One of the religious sect called the family of love.


F''ARMOST, a. [far and most.] Most distant or remote.


F''ARTHEST, a. superl. [See Furthest.]

Most distant or remote; as the farthest degree.

F''ARTHEST, adv. At or to the greatest distance. [See Furthest.]


F''AST, a.

1. Literally, set, stopped, fixed, or pressed close. Hence, close; tight; as, make fast the door; take fast hold.

2. Firm; immovable.

Who by his strength, setteth fast the mountains. Ps. 115.

3. Close; strong.

Robbers and outlaws - lurking in woods and fast places.

4. Firmly fixed; closely adhering; as, to stick fast in more; to make fast a rope.

5. Close, as sleep; deep; sound; as a fast sleep.

6. Firm in adherence; as a fast friend.

Fast and loose, variable; inconstant; as, to play fast and loose.

F''AST, adv. Firmly; immovably.

We will bind thee fast, and deliver thee into their hand. Judges 15.

F''AST, a. [L. festino. The sense is to press, drive, urge, and it may be from the same root as the preceding word, with a different application.]

Swift; moving rapidly; quick in motion; as a fast horse.

F''AST, adv. Swiftly; rapidly; with quick steps or progression; as, to run fast; to move fast through the water, as a ship; the work goes on fast.

F''AST, v.i.

1. To abstain from food, beyond the usual time; to omit to take the usual meals, for a time; as, to fast a day or a week.

2. To abstain from food voluntarily, for the mortification of the body or appetites, or as a token of grief, sorrow and affliction.

Thou didst fast and weep for the child. 2Sam. 12.

When ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance. Matt. 6.

3. To abstain from food partially, or from particular kinds of food; as, the Catholics fast in Lent.

F''AST, n.

1. Abstinence from food; properly a total abstinence, but it is used also for an abstinence from particular kinds of food, for a certain time.

Happy were our forefathers, who broke their fasts with herbs.

2. Voluntary abstinence from food, as a religious mortification or humiliation; either total or partial abstinence from customary food, with a view to mortify the appetites, or to express grief and affliction on account of some calamity, or to deprecate an expected evil.

3. The time of fasting, whether a day, week or longer time. An annual fast is kept in New England, usually one day in the spring.

The fast was now already past. Act. 27.

F''AST, n. That which fastens or holds.


FA''TALIST, n. One who maintains that all things happen by inevitable necessity.


FAUN''IST, n. One who attends to rural disquisitions; a naturalist.


FEAST, n. [L. festum.]

1. A sumptuous repast or entertainment, of which a number of guests partake; particularly, a rich or splendid public entertainment.

On Pharaoh''s birth day, he made a feast to all his servants. Gen. 40.

2. A rich or delicious repast or meal; something delicious to the palate.

3. A ceremony of feasting; joy and thanksgiving on stated days, in commemoration of some great event, or in honor of some distinguished personage; an anniversary, periodical or stated celebration of some event; a festival; as on occasion of the games in Greece, and the feast of the passover, the feast of Pentecost, and the feast of tabernacles among the Jews.

4. Something delicious and entertaining to the mind or soul; as the dispensation of the gospel is called a feast of fat things. Is. 25.

5. That which delights and entertains.

He that is of a merry heart hath a continual feast.

Prov. 15.

In the English church, feasts are immovable or movable; immovable, when they occur on the same day of the year, as Christmas day, &c.; and movable, when they are not confined to the same day of the year, as Easter, which regulates many others.

FEAST, v.i.

1. To eat sumptuously; to dine or sup on rich provisions; particularly in large companies, and on public festivals.

And his sons went and feasted in their houses. Job 1.

2. To be highly gratified or delighted.

FEAST, v.t.

1. To entertain with sumptuous provisions; to treat at the table magnificently; as, he was feasted by the king.

2. To delight; to pamper; to gratify luxuriously; as, to feast the soul.

Whose taste or smell can bless the feasted sense.

FED''ERALIST, n. an appellation in America, given to the friends of the constitution of the United States, at its formation and adoption, and to the political party which favored the administration of President Washington.


FEU''DIST, n. A writer on feuds.


FI''REBL''AST, n. A disease in hops, chiefly towards the later periods of their growth.


FIRST, a. furst. [See fare and for.]

1. Advanced before or further than any other in progression; foremost in place; as the first man in a marching company or troop is the man that precedes all the rest. Hence,

2. Preceding all others in the order of time. Adam was the first man. Cain was the first murderer. Monday was the first day of January.

3. Preceding all others in numbers or a progressive series; the ordinal of one; as, 1 is the first number.

4. Preceding all others in rank, dignity or excellence. Demosthenes was the first orator of Greece. Burke was one of the first geniuses of his age. Give God the first place in your affections.

FIRST, adv. furst.

1. Before any thing else in the order of time.

Adam was first formed, then Eve. 1Tim. 2.

2. Before all others in place or progression.

Let the officers enter the gate first.

3. Before any thing else in order of proceeding or consideration. First, let us attend to the examination of the witnesses.

4. Before all others in rank. He stands or ranks first in public estimation.

At first, at the first, as the beginning or origin.

First or last, at one time or another; at the beginning or end.

And all fools and lovers first or last.

FIST, n.

The hand clinched; the hand with the fingers doubled into the palm.

FIST, v.t.

1. To strike with the fist.

2. To gripe with the fist.

FLO''RIST, n.

1. A cultivator of flowers; one skilled in flowers.

2. One who writes a flora, or an account of plants.

FLU''TIST, n. A performer on the flute.


FLUX''IONIST, n. One skilled in fluxions.


FOIST, v.t.

To insert surreptitiously, wrongfully, or without warrant.

Lest negligence or partiality might admit or foist in abuses and corruption.

FOIST, n. A light and fast sailing ship. Obs.


FOOT''POST, n. A post or messenger that travels on foot.


FOREC''AST, v.t.

1. To foresee; to provide against.

It is wisdom to forecast consequences.

2. To scheme; to plan before execution.

He shall forecast his devices against the strong holds. Dan. 11.

3. To adjust; contrive or appoint beforehand

The time so well forecast.

FOREC''AST, v.i. To form a scheme previously; to contrive beforehand.

Forecasting how his foe he might annoy.

FO''REMAST, n. The mast of a ship or other vessel which is placed in the forepart or forecastle, and carries the foresail and foretop-sail yards.

Foremast-men, on board of ships, the men who take in the top-sails, sling the yards, furl the sails, &c.

FO''REMOST, a.

1. First in place; most advanced; as the foremost troops of an army.

2. First in dignity. In honor he held the foremost rank.

FO''REPAST, a. Past before a certain time; as forepast sins. [Little used.]


FOR''EST, n. [L. foris.]

1. An extensive wood, or a large tract of land covered with trees. In America, the word is usually applied to a wood of native growth, or a tract of woodland which has never been cultivated. It differs from wood or woods chiefly in extent. We read of the Hercynian forest, in Germany, and the forest of Ardennes, in France or Gaul.

2. In law, in Great Britain, a certain territory of woody grounds and pastures, privileged for wild beasts and fowls of forest, chase and warren, to rest and abide in, under the protection of the king, for his pleasure. In this sense, the word has no application in America.

Forest laws, laws for governing and regulating forests, and preserving game.

FOR''EST, v.t. To cover with trees or wood.


FORM''ALIST, n.

1. One who observes forms, or practices external ceremonies. More generally,

2. One who regards appearances only, or observes the forms of worship, without possessing the life and spirit of religion; a hypocrite. A grave face and the regular practice of ceremonies have often gained to a formalist the reputation of piety.

FOS''SILIST, n. One who studies the nature and properties of fossils; one who is versed in the science of fossils.


FREE''COST, n. Without expense; freedom from charges.


FROST, n.

1. A fluid congealed by cold into ice or crystals; as hoar-frost, which is dew or vapor congealed.

He scattereth the hoar-frost like ashes. Ps. 147.

2. The act of freezing; congelation of fluids.

The third day comes a frost, a killing frost.

3. In physiology, that state or temperature of the air which occasions freezing or the coagelation of water.

4. The appearance of plants sparkling with icy crystals.

FROST, v.t.

1. In cookery, to cover or sprinkle with a composition of sugar, resembling hoar-frost; as, to frost cake.

2. To cover with any thing resembling hoarfrost.

FU''GUIST, n. A musician who composes fugues, or performs them extemporaneously.


FUNAM''BULIST, n. [L. funis, rope, and ambulo, to walk.] A rope walker or dancer.


FUR''THEST, a. Most distant either in time or place.

FUR''THEST, adv. At the greatest distance.


FUST, n. [L. fustis, a staff.] The shaft of a column.


FUS''TIANIST, n. One who writes bombast.


''GAINST. [See Against.]


GA''LENIST, n. A follower of Galen in the preparation of medicine and modes of treating diseases; opposed to the chimists.


GAL''LEYFOIST, n. A barge of state.


GAL''VANIST, n. One who believes in galvanism; one versed in galvanism.


GALVANOL''OGIST,n. One who describes the phenomena of galvanism.


G`AST


GASTRIL''OQUIST, n. [Gr. belly, and L. loquor, to speak.]

Literally, one who speaks from his belly or stomach; hence, one who so modified his voice that it seems to come from another person or place.


GEEST, n. Alluvial matter on the surface of land,not of recent origin.


GENEAL''OGIST, n. He who traces descents of persons or families.


GE''OGNOST, n. [See Geognosy.] One versed in geognosy; a geologist.


GEOL''OGIST, n. One versed in the science of geology.


GEST, n. [L. gestum, from gero, to carry, to do.]

1. A deed, action or achievement.

2. Show; representation.

3. A state in travelling; so much of a journey as is made without resting; or properly, a rest; a stop.

4. A roll or journal of the several days and stages prefixed, in the journeys of the English kings, many of which are extant in the herald''s office.

GHOST, n. [See Ghastly.]

1. Spirit; the soul of man.

In this sense seldom used. But hence,

2. The soul of a deceased person; the soul or spirit separate from the body; an apparition.

The mighty ghosts of our great Harrys rose.

To give up the ghost, is to die; to yield up the breath or spirit; to expire.

The Holy Ghost, is the third person in the adorable Trinity.

GHOST, v.i. To die; to expire.

GHOST, v.t. To haunt with an apparition.


GIST, n. In law,the main point of a question; the point on which an action rests.


GLIST, n. [from glisten.] Glimmer; mica. [See Glimmer.]


GLOSS''ARIST, n. A writer of glosses or comments.


GLOSS''IST, n. A writer of comments. [Not in use.]


GLOSSOL''OGIST, n. [gloss.] One who writes glosses; a commentator.


GO''THAMIST, n. A person deficient in wisdom, so called from Gotham in Nottinghamshire, noted for some pleasant blunders.


GRAM''MATIST, n. A pretender to a knowledge of grammar.


GRIST, n.

1. Properly, that which is ground; hence, corn ground; but in common usage, it signifies corn for grinding, or that which is ground at one time; as much grain as is carried to the mill at one time or the meal it produces.

Get grist to the mill to have plenty in store.

2. Supply; provision.

3. Profit; gain; [as in Latin emolumentum, from molo, to grind;] in the phrase, it brings grist to the mill.

GUEST, n. gest. [L. visito; Eng. visit.]

1. A stranger; one who comes from a distance, and takes lodgings at a place, either for a night or for a longer time.

2. A visitor; a stranger or friend, entertained in the house or at the table of another, whether by invitation or otherwise.

The wedding was furnished with guests. Matt.22.

GUIDEPOST, n. A post at the forks of a road, for directing travelers the way.


GUST, n. [L. gustus, gusto; Gr. a contracted word, for it has taste.]

1. Taste; tasting, or the sense of tasting. More generally, the pleasure of tasting; relish.

2. Sensual enjoyment.

Where love is duty on the female side,

On theirs, mere sensual gust, and sought with surly
pride.

3. Pleasure; amusement; gratification.

Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust.

4. Turn of fancy; intellectual taste.

A choice of it may be made according to the gust and manner of the ancients. [Taste is now generally used.]

GUST, v.t. To taste; to have a relish. [Little used.]

GUST, n.

1. A sudden squall; a violent blast of wind; a sudden rushing or driving of the wind, of short duration.

2. A sudden, violent burst of passion.

GYM''NOSOPHIST, n. [Gr. naked, and a philosopher.]

A philosopher of India, so called from his going with bare feet, or with little clothing. The Gymnosophists in India lived in the woods and on mountains, subsisting on wild productions of the earth. They never drank wine nor married. Some of them traveled about, and practiced physic. They believed the immortality and transmigration of the soul. They placed the chief happiness of man in a contempt of the goods of fortune, and of the pleasures of sense.


H`ALF-LOST, a. Nearly lost.


HAND''F`AST, n. Hold; custody; power of confining or keeping.

HAND''F`AST, a. Fast by contract; firm.

HAND''F`AST, v.t. To pledge; to betroth; to bind; to join solemnly by the hand.


HANG''NEST, n. The name of certain species of birds, which build nests suspended from the branches of trees, such as the Baltimore oriole or red-bird; also,the nest so suspended.


H`ARMONIST, n. A musician; a composer of music.

1. One who brings together corresponding passages, to show their agreement.

H`ARMOST, n. [Gr. to regulate.] In ancient Greece, a Spartan governor, regulator or perfect.


H`ARPIST, n. A harper.


H`ARTBEEST, n. The quanga, or cervine antelope of Africa.


H`ARVEST, n. [L. acerbus.]

1. The season of reaping and gathering in corn or other crops. It especially refers to the time of collecting corn or grain, which is the chief food of men, as wheat and rye. In Egypt and Syria, the wheat harvest is in April and May; in the south of Europe and of the United States, in June; in the Northern states of America, in July; and in the north of Europe,in August and September. In the United States,the harvest of maiz is mostly in October.

2. The ripe corn or grain collected and secured in barns or stacks. The harvest this year is abundant.

3. The product of labor; fruit or fruits.

Let us the harvest of our labor eat.

4. Fruit or fruits; effects; consequences.

He that sows iniquity will reap a harvest of woe.

5. In Scripture, harvest signifies figuratively the proper season for business.

He that sleepeth in harvest, is a son that causeth shame. Prov.10.

Also, a people whose sins have ripened them for judgment. Joel 3.

Also, the end of the world. Matt.13.

Also, a seasonable time for instructing men in the gospel. Matt.9.

H`ARVEST, v.t. To reap or gather ripe corn and other fruits for the use of man and beast.


HAST, the second person singular of have, I have, thou hast, contracted from havest. It is used only in the solemn style.


HAUST, n. A dry cough.


HEADFAST, n. hed''fast. A rope at the head of a ship to fasten it to a wharf or other object.


HEADFIRST, adv. hedfurst. With the head foremost.


HEADMOST, a. hed''most. Most advanced; most forward; first in a line or order of progression; as the headmost ship in a fleet.


HE''BRAIST, n. One versed in the Hebrew language.


HEL''LENIST, n. A Grecian Jew; a Jew who used the Greek language.

1. One skilled in the Greek language.

HELMINTHOL''OGIST, n. One who is versed in the natural history of vermes.


HEMEROBAP''TIST, n. [Gr. day, and to wash.] One of a sect among the Jews who bathed every day.


HEN''ROOST, n. A place where poultry rest at night.


HEP''TARCHIST, n. A ruler of one division of a heptarchy.


HERB''ALIST, n. A person skilled in plants; one who makes collections of plants.


HERB''ARIST, n. A herbalist. [Little used.]


HERB''ORIST. [See Herbalist.]


HERPETOL''OGIST, n. A person versed in herpetology, or the natural history of reptiles.


HEST, n. Command; precept; injunction; order. [Now obsolete,but it is retained in the compound, behest.]


HIEROGRAM''MATIST, n. A writer of hieroglyphics.


HIGH-BLEST, a. Supremely happy.


HIGH-PRIEST, n. A chief priest.


HIGHMOST, a. Highest. [Not used.]


HINDERMOST, a. That which is behind all others; the last. [but we now use hindmost.]


HINDMOST, a. The last; that is in the rear of all others.

He met thee in the way, and smote the hindmost of thee. Deut.25.

HIST, exclam. A word commanding silence; equivalent to hush, be silent.


HITH''ERMOST, a. Nearest on this side.


HOAR-FROST, n. The white particles of ice formed by the congelation of dew or watery vapors.


HOB''BIST, n. A follower of Hobbes.


HOIST, v.t. [originally hoise; but corrupted, perhaps beyond remedy.]

1. To raise; to lift.

We''ll quickly hoist duke Humphrey from his seat.

In popular language, it is a word of general application. But the word has two appropriate uses, one by seamen, and the other by milkmaids, viz.

2. To raise, to lift or bear upwards by means of tackle; and to draw up or raise, as a sail along the masts or stays, or as a flag, though by a single block only. Hoist the main-sail. Hoist the flag.

3. To lift and move the leg backwards; a word of command used by milkmaids to cows, when they wish them to lift and set back the right leg.

HOIST, n. In marine language, the perpendicular highth of a flag or ensign, as opposed to the fly, or breadth from the staff to the outer edge.


HOLDFAST, n. A thing that takes hold; a catch; a hook.


HOL''OCAUST, n. [Gr. whole,and burnt, to burn.] A burnt-sacrifice or offering, the whole of which was consumed by fire; a species of sacrifice in use among the Jews and some pagan nations.


HOM''ILIST, n. One that preaches to a congregation.


HON''EST, a. on''est. [L. honestus, from honos, honor.]

1. Upright; just; fair in dealing with others; free from trickishness and fraud; acting and having the disposition to act at all times according to justice or correct moral principles; applied to persons.

An honest man''s the noblest work of God.

An honest physician leaves his patient, when he can contribute no farther to his health.

2. Fair; just; equitable; free from fraud; as an honest transaction; an honest transfer of property.

3. Frank; sincere; unreserved; according to truth; as an honest confession.

4. Sincere; proceeding from pure or just principles, or directed to a good object; as an honest inquiry after truth; an honest endeavor; honest views or motives.

5. Fair; good; unimpeached.

Seek seven men of honest report. Acts.6.

6. Decent; honorable; or suitable.

Provide things honest in the sight of all men. Rom.12.

7. Chaste; faithful.

Wives may be merry, and yet honest too.

HON''EST, v.t. on''est. To adorn; to grace. [Not used.]


HON''EY-H`ARVEST, n. Honey collected.


HON''EY-LOCUST, n. A plant,the three-thorned Acacia, of the genus Gleditsia.


HOP''OAST, n. In Kent, a kiln for drying hops.


HORTICUL''TURIST, n. One who is skilled in the art of cultivating gardens.


HOST, n. [L.hostis, a stranger, an enemy, probably of the same family. See Hospitable.]

1. One who entertains another at his own house, without reward.

Homer never entertained guests or hosts with long speeches.

2. One who entertains another at his house for reward; an innkeeper; a landlord.

3. A guest; one who is entertained at the house of another. The innkeeper says of the traveler,he has a good host,and the traveler says of his landlord, he has a kind host. [See Guest.]

HOST, n. [L. hostis, a stranger, an enemy.] The sense is probably transferred from a single foe to an army of foes.]

1. An army; a number of men embodied for war.

2. Any great number or multitude.

HOST, n. [L. hostia, a victim or sacrifice, from hostis, an enemy.]

In the Romish church, the sacrifice of the mass, or the consecrated wafer, representing the body of Christ, or as the Catholics allege, transubstantiated into his own body.

HOST, v.i. To lodge at an inn; to take up entertainment. [Little used.]

HOST, v.t. To give entertainment to. [Not used.]


HU''MANIST, n. A professor of grammar and rhetoric; a philologist; a term used in the universities of Scotland.

1. One versed in the knowledge of human nature.

HU''MORIST, n. One who conducts himself by his own inclination, or bent of mind; one who gratifies his own humor.

The humorist is one that is greatly pleased or greatly displeased with little things; his actions seldom directed by the reason and nature of things.

1. One that indulges humor in speaking or writing; one who has a playful fancy or genius.

2. One who has odd conceits; also, a wag; a droll.

HURST, n. A wood or grove; a word found in many names, as in Hazlehurst.


HYMNOL''OGIST, n. A composer of hymns.


HYPAS''PIST, n. [Gr. a shield.] A soldier in the armies of Greece, armed in a particular manner.


HYPERAS''PIST, n. [Gr. a shield.] A defender.


HYPER''BOLIST, n. One who uses hyperboles.


HYP''OCAUST, n. [Gr. to burn.]

1. Among the Greeks and Romans, a subterraneous place where was a furnace to heat baths.

2. Among the moderns,the place where a fire is kept to warm a stove or a hot-house.

HYP''OCIST, n. [Gr. sub cisto, under the distus.] An inspissated juice obtained from the sessile asarum [Cytinus hypocistis,] resembling the true Egyptian acacia. The juice is expressed from the unripe fruit and evaporated to the consistence of an extract, formed into cakes and dried in the sun. It is an astringent, useful in diarrheas and hemorrhages.


HYRST, n. A wood. [See Hurst.]


ICHTHYOL''OGIST, n. [See Ichthyology.] One versed in ichthyology.


ICON''OCLAST, n. [Gr. an image, and a breaker, to break.] A breaker or destroyer of images; a name which Catholics give to those who reject the use of images in religious worship.


I''DOLIST, n. A worship of images; a poetical word.


IMMATE''RIALIST, n. One who professes immateriality.


IMMOD''EST, a. [L. immodestus; in and modestus, modest. See the latter.]

1. Literally, not limited to due bounds. Hence, in a general sense, immoderate; exorbitant, unreasonable; arrogant.

2. Appropriately, wanting in the reserve or restraint which decency requires; wanting in decency and delicacy. It is immodest in decency and delicacy. It is immodest to treat superiors with the familiarity that is customary among equals.

3. Wanting in chastity; unchaste; lewd; as an immodest female.

4. Impure; indelicate; as an immodest thought.

5. Obscene; as an immodest word.

IMP`ARTIALIST, n. One who is impartial. [Little used.]


IMPE''RIALIST, n. One who belongs to an emperor; a subject or soldier of an emperor. The denomination, imperialists,is often given to the troops or armies of the emperor of Austria.


IM''POST, n. [L. impositum, impono.]

1. Any tax or tribute imposed by authority; particularly, a duty or tax laid by government on goods imported, and paid or secured by the importer at the time of importation. Imposts are also called customs.

2. In architecture, that part of a pillar in vaults and arches, on which the weight of the building rests; or the capital of a pillar, or cornice which crowns the pier and supports the first stone or part of an arch.

IM''PREST, n. A kind of earnest-money; loan; money advanced.


IN''CEST, n. [L. incestum; in and castus, chaste.]

The crime of cohabitation or sexual commerce between persons related within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by the law of a country.

Spiritual incest, is a like crime committed between persons who have a spiritual alliance by means of baptism or confirmation. It is also understood of a vicar or other beneficiary, who holds two benefices, the one depending on the collation of the other.

INCHEST'', v.t. To put into a chest.


INCRUST'', v.t. [L. incrusto; in and crusto, to crust.

To cover with a crust or with a hard coat; to form a crust on the surface of any substance; as iron incrusted with oxyd or rust; a vessel incrusted with salt.


INDIGEST'', n. A crude mass. [Not used.]


INFEST'', v.t. [L. infesto.] To trouble greatly; to disturb; to annoy; to harass. In warm weather, men ar infested with musketoes and gnats; flies infest horses and cattle. The sea is often infested with pirates. Small parties of the enemy infest the coast.

These, said the genius, are envy, avarice, superstition,love, with the like cares and passions that infest human life.

INGEST'', v.t. [L. ingestus, from ingero; in and gero, to bear.]

To throw into the stomach. [Little used.]


INLIST'', v.i. [in and list.] To enter into military service by signing articles and receiving a sum of money. [See List.]

INLIST'', v.t. To engage or procure to enter into military service. [See Enlist, a common spelling, but inlist is preferable.]


IN''MOST, a. [in and most.] Deepest within; remotest from the surface or external part.

The silent, slow, consuming fires

Which on my inmost vitals prey.

I got into the inmost court.

IN''NERMOST, a. Farthest inward; most remote from the outward part. Prov. 18.


IN''QUEST, n. [L. inquisitio, inquiro; in and quoero, to seek.]

1. Inquisition; judicial inquiry; official examination. An inquest of office, is an inquiry made by the king''s officer, his sheriff, coroner, or escheator, concerning any matter that entitles the king to the possession of lands or tenements, goods or chattels. It is made by a jury of no determinate number.

In the United States, a similar inquiry, made by the proper officer, under the authority of a state.

2. A jury.

3. Inquiry; search.

INSIST'', v.i. [L.insisto; in and sisto, to stand.]

1. Literally, to stand or rest on. [Rarely used.]

2. In geometry, an angle is said to insist upon the arc of the circle intercepted between the two lines which contain the angle.

3. To dwell on in discourse; as, to insist on a particular topic.

To insist on, to press or urge for any thing with immovable firmness; to persist in demands; as, to insist on oppressive terms in a treaty; to insist on immediate payment of a debt.


IN''STITUTIST, n. A writer of institutes or elementary rules and instructions.


INTELLECT''UALIST, n. One who overrates the understanding.


IN''TEREST, v.t. [L. inter and esse.]

1. To concern; to affect; to excite emotion or passion, usually in favor,but sometimes against a person or thing. A narration of suffering interests us in favor of the sufferer. We are interested in the story or in the fate of the sufferer. We are interested to know the result, issue or event of an enterprise. It is followed by in or for. We are interested in the narration,but for the sufferer.

2. To give a share in. Christ, by his atonement, has interested believers in the blessings of the covenant of grace.

3. To have a share.

We are not all interested in the public funds, but we are all interested in the happiness of a free government.

4. To engage; as, to interest one in our favor.

To interest one''s self, is to take a share or concern in.

IN''TEREST, n. Concern; advantage; good; as private interest; public interest.

Divisions hinder the common interest and public good.

1. Influence over others. They had now lost their interest at court.

He knew his interest sufficient to procure the office.

2. Share; portion; part; participation in value. He has parted with his interest in the stocks. He has an interest in a manufactory of cotton goods.

3. Regard to private profit.

''Tis interest calls off all her sneaking train.

4. Premium paid for the use of money; the profit per cent derived from money lent, or property used by another person, or from debts remaining unpaid. Commercial states have a legal rate of interest. Debts on book bear an interest after the expiration of the credit. Courts allow interest in many cases where it is not stipulated. A higher rate of interest than that which the law allows, is called usury.

Simple interest is that which arises from the principal sum only.

Compound interest is that which arises from the principal with the interest added; interest on interest.

5. Any surplus advantage.

With all speed,

you shall have your desire with interest.

INTERTWIST'', v.t. [inter and twist.] To twist one with another.


INTHIRST, v.t. inthurst''. [in and thirst.] To make thirsty. [Not used.]


INTRUST'', v.t. [in and trust.] To deliver in trust; to confide to the care of; to commit to another with confidence in his fidelity; as, to intrust a servant with one''s money or goods, or to intrust money or goods to a servant. We intrust an agent or factor with commercial business, or we intrust commercial concerns to an agent.

We intrust our friends with secrets, or intrust secrets to them.


INTWIST'', v.t. [in and twist.] To twist together; to interweave.


INVEST'', v.t. [L. investio; in and vestio, to clothe. See Vest.]

1. To clothe; to dress; to put garments on; to array; usually and most correctly followed by with, before the thing put on; as, to invest one with a mantle or robe. In this sense, it is used chiefly in poetry and elevated prose, not in colloquial discourse.

2. To clothe with office or authority; to place in possession of an office, rank or dignity; as, to invest a person with a civil office, or with an ecclesiastical dignity.

3. To adorn; to grace; as, to invest with honor.

4. To clothe; to surround; as, to be invested with light, splendor or glory.

5. To confer; to give. [Little used.]

6. To inclose; to surround; to block up, so as to intercept succors of men and provisions and prevent escape; to lay siege to; as, to invest a town.

7. To clothe money in something permanent or less fleeting; as, to invest money in funded or bank stock; to invest it in lands or goods. In this application, it is always followed by in.

I''RONIST, n. One who deals in irony.


IRRELIG''IONIST, n. One who is destitute of religious principles; a despiser of religion.


JAN''SENIST, n. A follower of Jansen, bishop of Ypres, in Flanders.


JEHO''VIST, n. Among critics, one who maintains that the vowel-points annexed to the word Jehovah in Hebrew, are the proper vowels of the word and express the true pronunciation. The Jehovists are opposed to the Adonists, who hold that the points annexed to the word Jehovah, are the vowels of the word Adonai.


JEST, n. [L. gestio.]

1. A joke; something ludicrous uttered and meant only to excite laughter. Religion should never be the subject of jest.

2. The object of laughter or sport; a laughing stock.

Then let me be your jest, I deserve it.

In jest, for mere sport or diversion; not in truth and reality; not in earnest.

--And given in earnest what I begged in jest.

3. A mask.

4. A deed; an action.

JOIST, n. A small piece of timber, such as is framed into the girders and summers of a building to support a floor.


JOURNALIST, n. jur''nalist. The writer of a journal or diary.


JOUST. [See Just.]


JO''VIALIST, n. One who lives a jovial life.


JU''RIST, n. [L. jus, juris, law.]

1. A man who professes the science of law; one versed in the law, or more particularly, in the civil law; a civilian.

2. One versed in the law of nations, or who writes on the subject.

JU''RYM`AST, n. A mast erected in a ship to supply the place of one carried away in a tempest or an engagement, &c. The most probable origin of the word jury, in this compound, is that proposed by Thomson, vix. from the Fr. jour, day, quasi, joure, temporary, or from L. juvare, to assist.


JUST, a. [L. justus. The primary sense is probably straight or close, from the sense of setting, erecting, or extending.]

1. Regular; orderly; due; suitable.

When all

The war shall stand ranged in its just array.

2. Exactly proportioned; proper.

Pleaseth your lordship

To meet his grace,just distance ''tween our armies?

3. Full; complete to the common standard.

He was a comely personage, a little above just stature.

4. Full; true; a sense allied to the preceding, or the same.

--So that once the skirmish was like to have come to a just battle.

5. In a moral sense, upright; honest; having principles of rectitude; or conforming exactly to the laws, and to principles of rectitude in social conduct; equitable in the distribution of justice; as a just judge.

6. In an evangelical sense, righteous; religious; influenced by a regard to the laws of God; or living in exact conformity to the divine will.

There is not a just man on earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not. Eccles.7.

7. Conformed to rules of justice; doing equal justice.

Just balances, just weights, a just ephah and a just him shall ye have. Lev.19.

8. Conformed to truth; exact; proper; accurate; as just thoughts; just expressions; just images or representations; a just description; a just inference.

9. True; founded in truth and fact; as a just charge or accusation.

10. Innocent; blameless; without guilt.

How should man be just with God? Job.9.

11. Equitable; due; merited; as a just recompense or reward.

--Whose damnation is just. Rom.3.

12. True to promises; faithful; as just to one''s word or engagements.

13. Impartial; allowing what is due; giving fair representation of character, merit or demerit.


KINK''HAUST, n. The chincough. [Not used.]


KISS''ING-CRUST, n. In cookery, the crust of a loaf that touches another.


KIST, n. A chest. [Not used.]


LAB''ADIST, n. the Labadists were followers of Jean de Labadie, who lived in the 17th century. They held that God can and does deceive men, that the observance of the sabbath is a matter of indifference, and other peculiar or heretical opinions.


LAP''IDIST, n. A dealer in precious stones. [See lapidary.]


L''AST, a. [See Late and Let.]

1. That comes after all the others; the latest; applied to time; as the last hour of the day; the last day of the year.

2. That follows all the others; that is behind all the others in place; hindmost; as, this was the last man that entered the church.

3. Beyond which there is no more.

Here, last of Britons, let your names be read.

4. Next before the present; as the last week; the last year.

5. Utmost.

Their last endeavors bend, T'' outshine each other.

It is an object of the last importance.

6. Lowest; meanest.

Antilochus takes the lst prize.

At last, at the last, at the end; in the conclusion.

Gad, a troop shall overcome him; but he shall overcome at the last. Gen. 49.

To the last, to the end; till the conclusion.

And blunder on in business to the last.

In the phrases, "you are the last man I should consult" "this is the last place in which I should expect to find you," the word last implies improbability; this is the most improbable place, and therefore I should resort to it last.

L''AST, adv.

1. The last time; the time before the present. I saw him last at New York.

2. In conclusion; finally.

Pleased with his idol, he commends, admires, adores; and last, the thing adored desires.

L''AST, v.i. [See Let.]

1. To continue in time; to endure; to remain in existence. Our government cannot last long unless administered by honest men.

2. To continue unimpaired; not to decay or perish. Select for winter the best apples to last. This color will last.

3. To hold out; to continue unconsumed. The captain knew he had not water on board to last a week.

L''AST, n. [See Load.]

A load; hence, a certain weight or measure. A last of codfish, white herrings, meal, and ashes, is twelve barrels; a last of corn is ten quarters or eighty bushels; of gun powder, twenty four barrels; of red herrings, twenty cades; of hides, twelve dozen; of leather, twenty dickers; of pitch and tar, fourteen barrels; of wool, twelve sacks; of flax or feathers, 1700 pounds.

L''AST, n.

A mold or form of the human foot, made of wood, on which shoes are formed.

The cobbler is not to go beyond his last.

LAT''INIST, n. One skilled in Latin.


LEAST, a.

Smallest; little beyond others, either in size or degree; as the least insect; the least mercy.

Least is often used without the noun to which it refers. "I am the least of the apostles," that is, the least apostle of all the apostles. 1Cor. 15.

LEAST, adv.

1. In the smallest or lowest degree; in a degree below all others; as, to reward those who least deserve it.

At least,

At the least, To say no more; not to demand or affirm more than is barely sufficient; at the lowest degree. If he has not incurred a penalty, he at least deserves censure.

He who tempts, though vain, at least asperses the tempted with dishonor.

2. To say no more. Let useful observations be at least a part of your conversation.

The least, in the smallest degree. His faculties are not in the least impaired.

At leastwise, in the sense of at least, is obsolete.

LE''GIST, n. One skilled in the laws.


LEST, con. That not; for fear that.

Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. Gen. 3.

The phrase may be thus explained. Ye shall not touch it; that separated or dismissed, ye die. That here refers to the preceding command or sentence; that being removed or not observed, the fact being not so, ye will die.

Sin no more, lest a worse thing come to thee. John 5.

Sin no more; that fact not taking place, a worse thing will happen to thee.

LEX''ICONIST, n. A writer of a lexicon. [Little used.]


LIB''IDNIST, n. One given to lewdness.


LICHENOG''RAPHIST, n. One who describes the lichens.


LIN''GUIST, n. [L. lingua, tongue.] A person skilled in languages; usually applied to a person well versed in the languages taught in colleges, Greek, Latin, and Hebrew.


LIPOGRAM''MATIST, n. One who writes any thing, dropping a single letter.


LIST, n. [L. licium.]

1. In commerce, the border, edge or selvage of cloth; a strip of cloth forming the border, particularly of broadcloth, and serving to strengthen it.

2. A line inclosing or forming the extremity of a piece of ground, or field of combat; hence, the ground or field inclosed for a race or combat. Hence, to enter the lists, is to accept a challenge or engage in contest. Hence,

3. A limit or boundary; a border.

4. In architecture, a little square molding; a fillet; called also a listel.

5. A roll or catalogue, that is, a row or line; as a list of names; a list of books; a list of articles; a list of ratable estate.

6. A strip of cloth; a fillet.

Civil list, in Great Britain and the United States, the civil officers of government, as judges, embassadors, secretaries, &c. Hence it is used for the revenues or appropriations of public money for the support of the civil officers.

LIST, v.t. [from list, a roll.]

1. To enroll; to register in a list or catalogue; to enlist. The latter is the more elegant word. Hence,

2. To engage in the public service, as soldiers.

They in my name are listed.

3. To inclose for combat; as, to list a field.

4. To sew together, as strips of cloth; or to form a border.

5. To cover with a list, or with strips of cloth; as, to list a door.

6. To hearken; to attend; a contraction of listen, which see.

LIST, v.i. To engage in public service by enrolling one''s name; to enlist. [The latter is the more elegant word. See Enlist.]

LIST, v.i. [See the noun.]

Properly, to lean or incline; to be propense; hence, to desire or choose.

Let other men think of your devices as they list.

The wind bloweth where it listeth. John 3.

LIST, n. In the language of seamen, an inclination to one side. The ship has a list to port.


LITHOL''OGIST, n. A person skilled in the science of stones.


LITHOT''OMIST, n. [See Lithotomy.] One who performs the operation of cutting for the stone in the bladder; or one who is skilled in the operation.


LO''CUST, n. [L. locusta.] An insect of the genus Gryllus. These insects are at times so numerous in Africa and the S. of Asia as to devour every green thing, and when they migrate, they fly in an immense cloud.

LO''CUST, n. A name of several plants and trees; as a species of Melianthus, and of Ceratonia.


LOGOM''ACHIST, n. One who contends about words.


LON''GEST, a. Of the greatest extent; as the longest line.

LON''GEST, adv. For the greatest continuance of time. They who live longest, are most convinced of the vanity of life.


LOST, pp. [from lose.]

1. Mislaid or left in a place unknown or forgotten; that cannot be found; as a lost book.

2. Ruined; destroyed; wasted or squandered; employed to no good purpose; as lost money; lost time.

3. Forfeited; as a lost estate.

4. Not able to find the right way, or the place intended. A stranger is lost in London or Paris.

5. Bewildered; perplexed; being in a maze; as, a speaker may be lost in his argument.

6. Alienated; insensible; hardened beyond sensibility or recovery; as a profligate lost to shame; lost to all sense of honor.

7. Not perceptible to the senses; not visible; as an isle lost in fog; a person lost in a crowd.

8. Shipwrecked or foundered; sunk or destroyed; as a ship lost at sea, or on the rocks.

LOWERMOST, a. [from low.] Lowest.


LOWEST, a. [superl. of low.] Most low; deepest; most depressed or degraded, &c.


LOY''ALIST, n. A person who adheres to his sovereign; particularly, one who maintains his allegiance to his prince, and defends his cause in times of revolt or revolution.


LUST, n.

1. Longing desire; eagerness to possess or enjoy; as the lust of gain.

My lust shall be satisfied upon them. Ex. 15.

2. Concupiscence; carnal appetite; unlawful desire of carnal pleasure. Romans 1. 2Peter 2.

3. Evil propensity; depraved affections and desires. James 1. Ps. 81.

4. Vigor; active power. [Not used.]

LUST, v.i.

1. To desire eagerly; to long; with after.

Thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after. Deut. 12.

2. To have carnal desire; to desire eagerly the gratification of carnal appetite.

Lust not after her beauty in thy heart. Prov. 6.

Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her,hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. Matt. 5.

3. To have irregular or inordinate desires.

The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy. James 4.

Lust not after evil things as they also lusted. 1Cor. 10.

4. To list; to like.

LU''TANIST, n. [from lute.] A person that plays on the lute.

A celebrated lutanist was playing to a large company.

LU''TENIST, n. A performer on the lute.


LU''TIST, n. One who plays on a lute.


LUX''URIST, n. One given to luxury.


LY''RIST, n. A musician who plays on the harp or lyre.


MACH''INIST, n. A constructor of machines and engines, or one well versed in the principles of machines.


MA''IN-MAST, n. The principal mast in a ship or other vessel.


MALT''-DUST, n. The grains or remains of malt.

Malt-dust is an enricher of barren land.

MAMMAL''OGIST, n. One who treats of mammiferous animals.


MAM''MONIST, n. A person devoted to the acquisition of wealth; one whose affections are placed supremely on riches; a worldling.


MAN''IFEST, a. [L. manifestus.]

1. Plain, open, clearly visible to the eye or obvious to the understanding; apparent; not obscure or difficult to be seen or understood. From the testimony, the truth we conceive to be manifest.

Thus manifest to sight the god appeared.

That which may be known of God is manifest in them. Rom.1.

2. Detected; with of.

Calistho there stood manifest of shame. [Unusual.]

MAN''IFEST, n. An invoice of a cargo of goods, imported or laden for export, to be exhibited at the custom-house by the master of the vessel, or the owner or shipper.

MAN''IFEST


MAN''NERIST, n. An artist who performs his work in one unvaried manner.


M`ARTIALIST, n. A warrior; a fighter. [Not used.]


MARTYROL''OGIST, n. A writer of martyrology, or an account of martyrs.


M`AST, n. A long, round piece of timber, elevated or designed to be raised perpendicularly or nearly so, on the keel of a ship or other vessel, to which the yards,sails and rigging are attached, and by which they are supported. A mast is a single stick, formed from the trunk of a tree, or it consists of many pieces of timber united by iron bands. Masts are of several kinds, as the main-mast, fore-mast, mizzen-mast, top-mast, top-gallant-mast, &c.

M`AST, n. The fruit of the oak and beech, or other forest trees; nuts; acorns. [It has no plural.]


M`ASTER-JEST, n. Principal jest.


MATE''RIALIST, n. One who denies the existence of spiritual substances, and maintains that the soul of man is the result of a particular organization of matter in the body.


MAZOL''OGIST, n. One versed in mazology.


MECH''ANIST, n. The maker of machines, or one skilled in mechanics.


MED''ALLIST, n. A person that is skilled or curious in medals.


ME''DIOCRIST, n. A person of middling abilities. [Not used.]


MEL''ANCHOLIST, n. One affected with melancholy.


MEMO''RIALIST, n. One who writes a memorial.

1. One who presents a memorial to a legislative or any other body, or to a person.

MEM''ORIST, n. One who causes to be remembered. [Not used.]


MERCU''RIALIST, n. One under the influence of Mercury, or one resembling Mercury in variety of character.


MET''ALLIST, n. A worker in metals, or one skilled in metals.


MET''ALLURGIST, n. One whose occupation is to work metals, or to purify, refine and prepare metals for use.


MET''APHORIST, n. One that makes metaphors.


MET''APHRAST, n. A person who translates from one language into another, word for word.


METEOROL''OGIST


METEROL''OGIST, n. A person skilled in meteors; one who studies the phenomena of meteors, or keeps a register of them.


METH''ODIST, n. One that observes method.

1. One of a sect of christians, founded by Morgan, or rather by John Wesley, and so called from the exact regularity of their lives, and the strictness of their principles and rules.

2. A physician who practices by method or theory.

3. In the cant of irreligious men, a person of strict piety; one who lives in the exact observance of religious duties.

METOPOS''COPIST, n. [infra.] One versed in physiognomy.


MID''DEST, a. superl. of mid.

Among the middest crowd. [Not used.]

MID''DLEMOST, a. Being in the middle, or nearest the middle of a number of things that are near the middle. If a thing is in the middle, it cannot be more so, and in this sense the word is improper. But when two or more things are near the middle, one may be nearer than another.


MID''MOST, a. Middle; as the midmost battles.


MIDST, n. [contracted from middest, the superlative of mid.]

The middle.

There is nothing said or done in the midst of the play, which might not have been placed in the beginning.

The phrase, in the midst, often signifies involved in, surrounded or overwhelmed by, or in the thickest part, or in the depths of; as in the midst of afflictions, troubles or cares; in the midst of our contemplations; in the midst of the battle; in the midst of pagan darkness and error; in the midst of gospel light; in the midst of the ocean; in the midst of civil dissensions.

From the midst, from the middle, or from among. Deut.18.

MIDST, adv. In the middle.

On earth,join all ye creatures to extol

Him first, Him last, Him midst, and without end.

MIL''LENIST, n. One who holds to the millenium. [Not used.]


MIN''ERALIST, n. One versed or employed in minerals.


MINERAL''OGIST, n. One who is versed in the science of minerals, or one who treats or discourses of the properties of mineral bodies.


MISAN''THROPIST, n. [Gr. to hate, and man.] A hater of mankind.


MISC`AST, v.t. To cast or reckon erroneously.

MISC`AST, pp. Erroneously cast or reckoned.

MISC`AST, n. An erroneous cast or reckoning.


MISOG''AMIST, n. [Gr. to hate, and marriage.] A hater of marriage.


MISOG''YNIST, n. [Gr. to hate, and woman.] A woman hater. [Unusual.]


MIST, n. [L. mixtus, mistus, from misceo, to mix.]

1. Water falling in very numerous, but fine and almost imperceptible drops.

A mist is a multitude of small but solid globules, which therefore descend.

2. That which dims or darkens, and obscures or intercepts vision.

His passion cast a mist before his sense.

MIST, v.t. To cloud; to cover with vapor.


MISTRUST'', n. Want of confidence or trust; suspicion.

MISTRUST'', v.t. To suspect; to doubt; to regard with jealousy or suspicion.

Fate her own book mistrusted at the sight.

MIZ''ZEN-MAST, n. The mast which supports the after-sails, and stands nearest to the stern.


MOD''ERNIST, n. One who admires the moderns.


MOD''EST, a. [L. modestus, from modus, a limit.]

1. Properly, restrained by a sense of propriety; hence, not forward or bold; not presumptuous or arrogant; not boastful; as a modest youth; a modest man.

2. Not bold or forward; as a modest maid. The word may be thus used without reference to chastity.

The blushing beauties of a modest maid.

3. Not loose; not lewd.

Mrs. Ford, the honest woman, the modest wife.

4. Moderate; not excessive or extreme; not extravagant; as a modest request; modest joy; a modest computation.

MOIST, a. [L. madeo.]

1. Moderately wet; damp; as a moist atmosphere or air.

Exhalation dusk and moist.

2. Containing water or other liquid in a perceptible degree.

MO''LE-C`AST, n. A little elevation of earth made by a mole.


MOLEST'', v.t. [L. molestus, troublesome, molo. See Mill.]

To trouble; to disturb; to render uneasy.

They have molested the church with needless opposition.

MO''LINIST, n. A follower of the opinions of Molina, a Spanish Jesuit, in respect to grace; an opposer of the Jansenists.


MON''ARCHIST, n. An advocate of monarchy.


MONODIST, n. One who writes a monody.


MONOG''AMIST, n. [supra.] One who disallows second marriages.


MONOP''OLIST


MON''TANIST, n. A follower of the heresiarch Montanus, a Phrygian by birth, who pretended he was inspired by the Holy Spirit and instructed in several points not revealed to the apostles. His sect sprung up in the second century.


MOR''ALIST, n.

1. One who teaches the duties of life, or a writer of essays intended to correct vice and inculcate moral duties.

2. One who practices moral duties; a mere moral person.

MOST, a. superl. of more.

1. Consisting of the greatest number. That scheme of life is to be preferred, which presents a prospect of the most advantages with the fewest inconveniences.

Most men will proclaim every one his own goodness. Prov.20.

2. consisting of the greatest quantity; greatest; as the most part of the land or the mountain.

MOST, adv. In the greatest or highest degree. Pursue that course of life which will most tend to produce private happiness and public usefulness. Contemplations on the works of God expand the mind and tend to produce most sublime views of his power and wisdom.

As most is used to express the superlative degree, it is used before any adjective; as most vile, most wicked, most illustrious.

MOST, n. [used as a substitute for a noun, when the noun is omitted or understood.]

1. The greatest number or part.

Then he began to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done. Matt.11.

[This use seems to have resulted form the omission of part, or some similar word,and most in this case signifies greatest, that is, the greatest part.]

2. The most, the greatest value, amount or advantage, or the utmost in extent, degree or effect.

A covetous man makes the most of what he has, and can get.

At the most, the greatest degree or quantity; the utmost extent. Stock brings six per cent. interest at the most, often less.


MUST, v.i.

1. To be obliged; to be necessitated. It expresses both physical and moral necessity. A man must eat for nourishment, and he must sleep for refreshment. We must submit to the laws or be exposed to punishment. A bill in a legislative body must have three readings before it can pass to be enacted.

2. It expresses moral fitness or propriety, as necessary or essential to the character or end proposed. "Deacons must be grave," "a bishop must have a good report of them that are without." 1 Tim.3.

MUST, n. [L. mustum; Heb. to ferment.]

New wine; wine pressed from the grape but not fermented.

MUST, v.t. To make moldy and sour.

MUST, v.i. To grow moldy and sour; to contract a fetid smell.


MUT''TONFIST, n. A large red brawny hand.


MYOG''RAPHIST, n. One who describes the muscles of animals.


MYROP''OLIST, n. [Gr. unguent, and to sell.]

One that sells unguents. [Little used.]


MYTHOL''OGIST, n. One versed in mythology; one who writes on mythology, or explains the fables of the ancient pagans.


NATURALIST, n. One that studies natural history and philosophy or physics; one that is versed in natural history or philosophy. It is more generally applied to one that is versed in natural history.


NATURIST, n. One who ascribes every thing t nature.


NEAREST, a. Shortest; most direct; as the nearest way to London. So we use nearer for shorter. [The use of these words is not correct, but very common.]


NECROLOGIST, n. One who gives an account of deaths.


NEOLOGIST, n. One who introduces new words into a language. Lavoisier has been a successful neologist.


NEPTUNIST, n. One who adopts the theory that the whole earth was once covered with water, or rather that the substances of the globe were formed from aqueous solution ; opposed to the Plutonic theory.


NEST, n.

1. The place or bed formed or used by a bird for incubation or the mansion of her young, until they are able to fly. The word is used also for the bed in which certain insects deposit their eggs.

2. Any place where irrational animals are produced.

3. An abode; a place of residence; a receptacle of numbers, or the collection itself; usually in an ill sense; as a nest of rogues.

4. A warm close place of abode; generally in contempt.

5. A number of boxes, cases or the like, inserted in each other.

NEST, v.i. To build and occupy a nest.

The king of birds nested with its leaves.

NETHERMOST, a. Lowest; as the nethermost hell; the nethermost abyss.


NEUROLOGIST, n. One who describes the nerves of animals.


NEUROSPAST, n. [Gr. To draw with strings.] A puppet; a little figure put in motion.


NEUROTOMIST, n. One who dissects the nerves.


NEUTRALIST, n. A neutral. [Little used.]


NIGHT-REST, n. Rest or repose at night.


NOCTAM''BULIST, n. One who rises from bed and walks in his sleep. Arbuthnot uses noctambulo in the same sense; but it is a less analogical word.


NOMINALIST, n. The Nominalists were a sect of school philosophers, the disciples of Ocham or Ocdcam, in the 14th century, who maintained that words and not things are the object of dialectics. They were the founders of the university of Leipsic.


NON-CONFORMIST, n. One who neglects or refuses to conform to the rites and mode of worship of an established church.


NORTHE''AST, n. The point between the north and east, at an equal distance from each.

NORTHE''AST, a. Pertaining to the northeast, or proceeding from that point; as a northeast wind.


NORTHWEST'', n. The point in the horizon between the north and west, and equally distant from each.

NORTHWEST'', a.

1. Pertaining to the point between the north and west; being in the northwest; as the northwest coast.

2. Proceeding from the northwest; as a northwest wind.

NOSOL''OGIST, n. One who classifies diseases, arranges them in order and gives them suitable names.


NO''TIONIST, n. One who holds to an ungrounded opinion.


NOV''ELIST, n.

1. An innovator; an asserter of novelty.

2. A writer of a novel or of novels.

3. A writer of news.

NU''MERIST, n. One that deals in numbers. [Not used.]


NUMISMATOL''OGIST, n. One versed in the knowledge of coins and medals.


OAST,


OBTEST'', v.t. [L. obtestor; ob and testor, to witness. To beseech; to supplicate.

Obtest his clemency.

OBTEST'', v.i. To protest.


OC''ULIST, n. [from L. oculus, the eye.] One skilled in diseases of the eyes, or one who professes to cure them.

Oculus beli, a semi-pellucid gem, a variety of agate of a grayish white color, variegated with yellow, and with a black central nucleus. Its variegations resemble the pupil and iris of the eye.

Oculus cati, cat''s eye or asteria, a beautiful gem approaching the nature of the opal, having a bright color which seems to be lodged deep in the stone, and which shifts as it is moved in various directions. It is larger than a pea, and generally of a semi-circular form, naturally smooth. It is found in the East and West Indies, and in Europe.

Oculus mundi, otherwise called hydrophane and lapis mutabilis, a precious stone of an opake whitish brown color, but becoming transparent by infusion in an aqueous fluid, and resuming its opacity when dry. It is found in beds over the opals in Hungary, Silesia and Saxony, and over the chalcedonies and agates in Iceland.

OL''IGIST,''IC, a. [Gr. least.] Oligist iron, so called, is a crystallized tritoxyd of iron.


ONTOL''OGIST, n. One who treats of or considers the nature and qualities of being in general.


OPHIOL''OGIST, n. One versed in the natural history of serpents.


OPIN''IONIST, n. One fond of his own notions, or one unduly attached to his own opinions.


OPPOSI''TIONIST, n. One that belongs to the party opposing the administration.


OR''CHARDIST, n. One that cultivates orchards.


OR''GANIST, n.

1. One who plays on the organ.

2. One who sung in parts; an old musical use of the word.

ORIENT''ALIST,

n.

1. An inhabitant of the eastern parts of the world.

2. One versed in the eastern languages and literature.

OR''IGENIST, n. A follower of Origen of Alexandria, a celebrated christian father. The Origenists held that the souls of men have a pre-existent state; that they are holy intelligences, and sin before they are united to the body; that Christ will be crucified hereafter for the salvation of devils, &c.


ORNIS''COPIST, n. [Gr. a bird, and to view.]

One who views the flight of fowls in order to foretell future events by their manner of flight. [Little used.]

ORNITHOL''OGIST, n. [See Ornithology.] A person who is skilled in the natural history of fowls, who understands their form, structure, habits and uses; one who describes birds.


OROL''OGIST, n. A describer of mountains.


OR''THOEPIST, n. [See Orthoepy.] One who pronounces words correctly, or who is well skilled in pronunciation.


OST,


OSTEOL''OGIST, n. [See Osteology.] One who describes the bones of animals.


OUST, n. [L. ustus.] A kiln to dry hops or malt.


OUT''CAST, pp. or a. Cast out; thrown away; rejected as useless.

OUT''CAST, n. One who is cast out or expelled; an exile; one driven from home or country. Is. 16.


OUT''ERMOST, a. [superl. from outer.] Being on the extreme external part; remotest from the midst; as the outermost row.


OUTFE''AST, v.t. To exceed in feasting.


OUTJEST'', v.t. To overpower by jesting.


OUTL''AST, v.t. To last longer than something else; to exceed in duration. Candles laid in bran will outlast others of the same stuff.


OUT''MOST, a. Farthest outward; most remote from the middle.


OUT''POST, n.

1. A post or station without the limits of a camp, or at a distance from the main body of an army.

2. The troops placed at such a station.

OUTWREST, v.t. outrest''. To extort; to draw from or forth by violence.


OVERC''AST, v.t.

1. To cloud; to darken; to cover with gloom.

The clouds that overcast our morn shall fly.

2. To cast or compute at too high a rate; to rate too high.

The king in his account of peace and calms did much overcast his fortunes -

3. To sew over.

OVERC''AST, pp. Clouded; overspread with clouds or gloom.

The dawn is overcast.

Our days of age are sad and overcast.

OVERM''AST, v.t. To furnish with a mast or with masts that are too long or too heavy for the weight of keel.


OVERMOD''EST, a. Modest to excess; bashful.


O''VERMOST, a. Highest; over the rest in authority.


OVERP''AST, pp. Passed by; passed away; gone; past.


OVERPOST, v.t. To hasten over quickly.


OVERROAST, v.t. To roast too much.


OVERTRUST'', v.t. To trust with too much confidence.


PALEOL''OGIST, n. One who writes on antiquity, or one conversant with antiquity.


PANEGYR''IST, n. One who bestows praise; an eulogist; an encomiast, either by writing or speaking.


PANTHE''IST, n. One that believes the universe to be God; a name given to the followers of Spinosa.

The earliest Grecian pantheist of whom we read is Orpheus.

PA''PIST,n. A Roman catholic; one that adheres to the church of Rome and the authority of the pope.


PARAGRAM''MATIST, n. A punster.


PAR''APHRAST, n. [Gr.] One that paraphrases; one that explains or translates in words more ample and clear than the words of the author.


P`ARTIALIST, n. One who is partial. [Unusual.]


P`AST , pp. Gone by; done; accomplished; ended.

1. Enacted; having received all the formalities necessary to constitute a law.

PATHOL''OGIST, n. One who treats of pathology.


PED''ERAST, n. [Gr. a boy, and love.] A sodomite.


PEDOBAP''TIST, n. One that holds to infant baptism; one that practices the baptism of children. Most denominations of christians are pedobaptists.


PEN''NYPOST, n. One that carries letters from the post office and delivers them to the proper persons for a penny or other small compensation.


PEN''TASPAST, n. [Gr. five, and to draw.]

An engine with five pulleys.


PEN''TECOST,n. [Gr. fiftieth.]

1. A solemn festival of the Jews, so called because celebrated on the fiftieth day after the sixteenth of Nisan, which was the second day of the passover. It was called the feast of weeks, because it was celebrated seven weeks after the passover. It was instituted to oblige the people to repair to the temple of the Lord,there to acknowledge his absolute dominion over the country, and offer him the first fruits of their harvest; also that they might call to mind and give thanks to God for the law which he had given them at Sinai on the fiftieth day from their departure from Egypt.

2. Whitsuntide, a solemn feast of the church, held in commemoration of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles. Acts.2.

PERFEC''TIONIST, n. One pretending to perfection; an enthusiast in religion.


PERSIST'', v.i. [L. persisto; per and sisto, to stand or be fixed.]

To continue steadily and firmly in the pursuit of any business or course commenced; to persevere. [Persist is nearly synonymous with persevere; but persist frequently implies more obstinacy than persevere, particularly in that which is evil or injurious to others.]

If they persist in pointing their batteries against particular persons, no laws of war forbid the making reprisals.

PEST, n. [L. pestis; Heb. to be fetid.]

1. Plague; pestilence; a fatal epidemic disease.

Let fierce Achilles

The god propitiate, and the pest assuage.

2. Any thing very noxious, mischievous or destructive. The tale bearer, the gambler,the libertine, the drunkard, are pests to society.

Of all virtues justice is the best;

Valor without it is a common pest.

PHARMACOL''OGIST, n. [Gr.] One that writes on drugs, or the composition and preparation of medicines.


PHARMACOP''OLIST, n. [Gr. to sell.]

One that sells medicines; an apothecary.


PHILAN''THROPIST, n. A person of general benevolence; one who loves or wishes well to his fellow men, and who exerts himself in doing them good.


PHILOL''OGIST, n. One versed in the history and construction of language. Philologist is generally used.


PHILOS''OPHIST, n. A lover of sophistry; one who practices sophistry.


PHLEBOT''OMIST,n. [See Phlebotomy.]

One that opens a vein for letting blood; a blood-letter.


PHYSIOG''NOMIST, n. One that is skilled in physiognomy; one that is able to judge of the particular temper or other qualities of the mind, by signs in the countenance.


PHYSIOL''OGIST, n. One who is versed in the science of living beings, or in the properties and functions of animals and plants.

1. One that treats of physiology.

PHYTOL''OGIST, n. [See Phytology.] One versed in plants, or skilled in phytology; a botanist.


PI''ANIST, n. A performer on the forte-piano, or one well skilled in it.


PI''ETIST, n. One of a sect professing great strictness and purity of life, despising learning, school theology and ecclesiastical polity, as also forms and ceremonies in religion, and giving themselves up to mystic theology. This sect sprung up among the protestants of Germany, in the latter part of the seventeenth century.


PINCH''FIST


PIN''DUST, n. Small particles of metal made by pointing pins.


PIN''IONIST, n. A winged animal; a fowl. [Not used.]


PIST


PLA''GIARIST, n. One that purloins the writings of another and puts them off as his own.


PLA''TONIST


PLEAS''URIST, n. A person devoted to worldly pleasure. [Little used.]


PLE''NIST, n. [L. plenus.] One who maintains that all space is full of matter.


PLU''RALIST, n. A clerk or clergyman who holds more ecclesiastical benefices than one, with cure of souls.


PLU''TONIST, n. One who adopts the theory of the formation of the world in its present state from igneous fusion.


PNEUMATOL''OGIST, n. One versed in pneumatology.


POL''YCHREST, n. [Gr. many, and useful.] In pharmacy, a medicine that serves for many uses, or that cures many diseases.


POLYG''AMIST, n. [See Polygamy.] A person who maintains the lawfulness of polygamy.


POL''YSPAST,n. [Gr. many and to draw.] A machine consisting of many pulleys.


POL''YTHEIST, n. A person who believes in or maintains the doctrine of a plurality of gods.


PORTIONIST, n. One who has a certain academical allowance or