Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828)
Ath"el*ing (#), n. [AS. æeling noble, fr. æele noble, akin to G. adel nobility, edel noble. The word æel, E. ethel, is in many AS. proper names, as Ethelwolf, noble wolf; Ethelbald, noble bold; Ethelbert, noble bright.] An Anglo-Saxon prince or nobleman; esp., the heir apparent or a prince of the royal family. [Written also Adeling and ætheling.]
Ath`e*ne"um, Ath`e*næ"um (#), n.; pl. E. Atheneums (#), L. Athenæa (#). [L. Athenaemum, Gr. a temple of Minerva at Athens, fr. , contr. fr. , , in Homer , , Athene (called Minerva by the Romans), the tutelary goddess of Athens.]
1 (Gr. Antiq.) A temple of Athene, at Athens, in which scholars and poets were accustomed to read their works and instruct students.
2. A school founded at Rome by Hadrian.
3. A literary or scientific association or club.
4. A building or an apartment where a library, periodicals, and newspapers are kept for use.
A*the"ni*an (#), a. [Cf. F. Athénien.] Of or pertaining to Athens, the metropolis of Greece. -- n. A native or citizen of Athens.
A`the*o*log"ic*al (#), a. Opposed to theology; atheistic.
A`the*ol"o*gy (#), n. [Pref. a- not + theology.] Antagonism to theology.
A"the*ous (#), a. [Gr. without God. See Atheist.]
1. Atheistic; impious. [Obs.]
2. Without God, neither accepting nor denying him.
I should say science was atheous, and therefore could not be atheistic.
Bp. of Carlisle.
Ath"er*ine (#), n. [NL. atherina, fr. Gr. a kind of smelt.] (Zoöl.) A small marine fish of the family Atherinidæ, having a silvery stripe along the sides. The European species (Atherina presbyter) is used as food. The American species (Menidia notata) is called silversides and sand smelt. See Silversides.
A*ther"man*cy (#), n. [See Athermanous.] Inability to transmit radiant; impermeability to heat.
A*ther"ma*nous (#), a. [Gr. priv. + to heat, heat: cf. F. athermane.] (Chem.) Not transmitting heat; -- opposed to diathermanous.
A*ther"mous (#), a. (Chem.) Athermanous.
Ath"er*oid (#), a. [Gr. , , a beard, or an ear, of grain + -oid.] Shaped like an ear of grain.
Ath`e*ro"ma (#), n. [L., fr. Gr. , , fr. grats, meal.] (Med.) (a) An encysted tumor containing curdy matter. (b) A disease characterized by thickening and fatty degeneration of the inner coat of the arteries.
Ath`e*rom"a*tous (#), a. (Med.) Of, pertaining to, or having the nature of, atheroma.
Ath`e*to"sis (#), n. [NL., fr. Gr. not fixed; priv. + to set.] (Med.) A variety of chorea, marked by peculiar tremors of the fingers and toes.
A*think" (#), v. t. To repent; to displease; to disgust. [Obs.]
A*thirst" (#), a. [OE. ofthurst, AS. ofpyrsted, p. p. of ofpyrstan; pref. of-, intensive + pyrstan to thirst. See Thirst.]
1. Wanting drink; thirsty.
2. Having a keen appetite or desire; eager; longing. Athirst for battle."
Ath"lete (#), n. [L. athleta, Gr. prizefighter, fr. to contend for a prize, , Hom. , contest, prize; fr. the same root as E. wed: cf. F. athl\'8ate.]
1. (Antiq.) One who contended for a prize in the public games of ancient Greece or Rome.
2. Any one trained to contend in exercises requiring great physical agility and strength; one who has great activity and strength; a champion.
3. One fitted for, or skilled in, intellectual contests; as, athletes of debate.
Ath`let"ic (#), a. [L. athleticus, Gr. . See Athlete.]
1. Of or pertaining to athletes or to the exercises practiced by them; as, athletic games or sports.
2. Befitting an athlete; strong; muscular; robust; vigorous; as, athletic Celts. Athletic soundness." South. -- Ath*let"ic*al*ly (#), adv.
Ath*let"i*cism (#), n. The practice of engaging in athletic games; athletism.
Ath*let"ics (#), n. The art of training by athletic exercises; the games and sports of athletes.
Ath"le*tism (#), n. The state or practice of an athlete; the characteristics of an athlete.
A*thwart" (#), prep. [Pref. a- + thwart.]
1. Across; from side to side of.
Athwart the thicket lone.
2. (Naut.) Across the direction or course of; as, a fleet standing athwart our course.
Athwart hawse, across the stem of another vessel, whether in contact or at a small distance. -- Athwart ships, across the ship from side to side, or in that direction; -- opposed to fore and aft.
A*thwart", adv. 1. Across, especially in an oblique direction; sidewise; obliquely.
Sometimes athwart, sometimes he strook him straight.
2. Across the course; so as to thwart; perversely.
All athwart there came
A post from Wales loaden with heavy news.
A*tilt" (#), adv. [Pref. a- + tilt.]
1. In the manner of a tilter; in the position, or with the action, of one making a thrust. To run atilt at men." Hudibras.
2. In the position of a cask tilted, or with one end raised. [In this sense sometimes used as an adjective.]
Abroach, atilt, and run
Even to the lees of honor.
Beau. & Fl.
At"i*my (#), n. [Gr. ; priv. + honor.] (Gr. Antiq.) Public disgrace or stigma; infamy; loss of civil rights.
-a"tion (#). [L. -ationem. See -tion.] A suffix forming nouns of action, and often equivalent to the verbal substantive in -ing. It sometimes has the further meanings of state, and that which results from the action. Many of these nouns have verbs in -ate; as, alliterate -ation, narrate -ation; many are derived through the French; as, alteration, visitation; and many are formed on verbs ending in the Greek formative -ize (Fr. -ise); as, civilization, demoralization.
A-tip"toe (#), adv. On tiptoe; eagerly expecting.
We all feel a-tiptoe with hope and confidence.
At*lan"ta (#), n. [NL., fr. Gr. .] (Zoöl.) A genus of small glassy heteropod mollusks found swimming at the surface in mid ocean. See Heteropod.
At*lan"tal (#), a. (Anat.) (a) Relating to the atlas. (b) Anterior; cephalic.
At`lan*te"an (#), a. [L. Atlantus.]
1. Of or pertaining to the isle Atlantis, which the ancients allege was sunk, and overwhelmed by the ocean.
2. Pertaining to, or resembling, Atlas; strong.
With Atlantean shoulders, fit to bear
The weight of mightiest monarchies.
At*lan"tes (#), n. pl. [L., fr. Gr. , pl. of . See Atlas.] (Arch.) Figures or half figures of men, used as columns to support an entablature; -- called also telamones. See Caryatides.
At*lan"tic (#), a. [L. Atlanticus, fr. Atlas. See Atlas and Atlantes.]
1. Of or pertaining to Mt. Atlas in Libya, and hence applied to the ocean which lies between Europe and Africa on the east and America on the west; as, the Atlantic Ocean (called also the Atlantic); the Atlantic basin; the Atlantic telegraph.
2. Of or pertaining to the isle of Atlantis.
3. Descended from Atlas.
The seven Atlantic sisters.
At*lan"ti*des (#), n. pl. [L. See Atlantes.] The Pleiades or seven stars, fabled to have been the daughters of Atlas.
At"las (#), n.; pl. Atlases (#). [L. Atlas, -antis, Gr. , , one of the older family of gods, who bears up the pillars of heaven; also Mt. Atlas, in W. Africa, regarded as the pillar of heaven. It is from the root of to bear. See Tolerate.]
1. One who sustains a great burden.
2. (Anat.) The first vertebra of the neck, articulating immediately with the skull, thus sustaining the globe of the head, whence the name.
3. A collection of maps in a volume; -- supposed to be so called from a picture of Atlas supporting the world, prefixed to some collections. This name is said to have been first used by Mercator, the celebrated geographer, in the 16th century.
4. A volume of plates illustrating any subject.
5. A work in which subjects are exhibited in a tabular from or arrangement; as, an historical atlas.
6. A large, square folio, resembling a volume of maps; -- called also atlas folio.
7. A drawing paper of large size. See under Paper, n.
Atlas powder, a nitroglycerin blasting compound of pasty consistency and great explosive power.
At"las, n. [Ar., smooth.] A rich kind of satin manufactured in India.
Brande & C.
At`mi*dom"e*ter (#), n. [Gr. , , smoke, vapor + -meter; cf. F. atmidom\'8atre.] An instrument for measuring the evaporation from water, ice, or snow.
Brande & C.
At"mo (#), n. [Contr. fr. atmosphere.] (Physics) The standard atmospheric pressure used in certain physical measurements calculations; conventionally, that pressure under which the barometer stands at 760 millimeters, at a temperature of 0° Centigrade, at the level of the sea, and in the latitude of Paris.
Sir W. Thomson.
At`mo*log"ic (#), At`mo*log"ic*al (#), a. Of or pertaining to atmology. Atmological laws of heat."
At*mol"o*gist (#), n. One who is versed in atmology.
At*mol"o*gy (#), n. [Gr. vapor + -logy.] (Physics) That branch of science which treats of the laws and phenomena of aqueous vapor.
At*mol"y*sis (#), n. [Gr. vapor + a loosing, to loose.] (Chem.) The act or process of separating mingled gases of unequal diffusibility by transmission through porous substances.
At`mol*y*za"tion, n. (Chem.) Separation by atmolysis.
At"mo*lyze (#), v. t. (Chem.) To subject to atmolysis; to separate by atmolysis.
At"mo*ly`zer (#), n. (Chem.) An apparatus for effecting atmolysis.
At*mom"e*ter (#), n. [Gr. smoke, vapor + -meter: cf. F. atmom\'8atre.] An instrument for measuring the rate of evaporation from a moist surface; an evaporometer.
At"mos*phere (#), n. [Gr. vapor (akin to Skr. ātman breath, soul, G. athem breath) + sphere: cf. F. atmosph\'8are. See Sphere.]
1. (Physics) (a) The whole mass of aëriform fluid surrounding the earth; -- applied also to the gaseous envelope of any celestial orb, or other body; as, the atmosphere of Mars. (b) Any gaseous envelope or medium.
An atmosphere of cold oxygen.
2. A supposed medium around various bodies; as, electrical atmosphere, a medium formerly supposed to surround electrical bodies.
3. The pressure or weight of the air at the sea level, on a unit of surface, or about 14.7 Ibs. to the sq. inch.
Hydrogen was liquefied under a pressure of 650 atmospheres.
4. Any surrounding or pervading influence or condition.
The chillest of social atmospheres.
5. The portion of air in any locality, or affected by a special physical or sanitary condition; as, the atmosphere of the room; a moist or noxious atmosphere.
At`mos*pher"ic (#), At`mos*pher"ic*al (#), a. [Cf. F. atmosphérique.]
1. Of or pertaining to the atmosphere; of the nature of, or resembling, the atmosphere; as, atmospheric air; the atmospheric envelope of the earth.
2. Existing in the atmosphere.
The lower atmospheric current.
3. Caused, or operated on, by the atmosphere; as, an atmospheric effect; an atmospheric engine.
4. Dependent on the atmosphere. [R.]
In am so atmospherical a creature.
Atmospheric engine, a steam engine whose piston descends by the pressure of the atmosphere, when the steam which raised it is condensed within the cylinder. Tomlinson. -- Atmospheric line (Steam Engin.), the equilibrium line of an indicator card. Steam is expanded down to the atmosphere" when its pressure is equal to that of the atmosphere. (See Indicator card.) -- Atmospheric pressure, the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, not merely downwards, but in every direction. In amounts to about 14.7 Ibs. on each square inch. -- Atmospheric railway, one in which pneumatic power, obtained from compressed air or the creation of a vacuum, is the propelling force. -- Atmospheric tides. See under Tide.
At`mos*pher"ic*al*ly (#), adv. In relation to the atmosphere.
At`mos*phe*rol"o*gy (#), n. [Atmosphere + -logy.] The science or a treatise on the atmosphere.
At"o*kous (#), a. [Gr. barren; priv. + offspring.] (Zoöl.) Producing only asexual individuals, as the eggs of certain annelids.
A*toll" (#), n. [The native name in the Indian Ocean.] A coral island or islands, consisting of a belt of coral reef, partly submerged, surrounding a central lagoon or depression; a lagoon island.
At"om (#), n. [L. atomus, Gr. , uncut, indivisible; priv. + , verbal adj. of to cut: cf. F. atome. See Tome.]
1. (Physics) (a) An ultimate indivisible particle of matter. (b) An ultimate particle of matter not necessarily indivisible; a molecule. (c) A constituent particle of matter, or a molecule supposed to be made up of subordinate particles.
&hand; These three definitions correspond to different views of the nature of the ultimate particles of matter. In the case of the last two, the particles are more correctly called molecules.
2. (Chem.) The smallest particle of matter that can enter into combination; one of the elementary constituents of a molecule.
3. Anything extremely small; a particle; a whit.
There was not an atom of water.
Sir J. Ross.
At"om, v. t. To reduce to atoms. [Obs.]
A*tom"ic (#), A*tom"ic*al (#), a. [Cf. F. atomique.]
1. Of or pertaining to atoms.
2. Extremely minute; tiny.
Atomic philosophy, or Doctrine of atoms, a system which assuming that atoms are endued with gravity and motion accounted thus for the origin and formation of all things. This philosophy was first broached by Leucippus, was developed by Democritus, and afterward improved by Epicurus, and hence is sometimes denominated the Epicurean philosophy. -- Atomic theory, or the Doctrine of definite proportions (Chem.), teaches that chemical combinations take place between the supposed ultimate particles or atoms of bodies, in some simple ratio, as of one to one, two to three, or some other, always expressible in whole numbers. -- Atomic weight (Chem.), the weight of the atom of an element as compared with the weight of the atom of hydrogen, taken as a standard.
A*tom"ic*al*ly, adv. In an atomic manner; in accordance with the atomic philosophy.
At`o*mi"cian (#), n. An atomist. [R.]
A*tom"i*cism (#), n. Atomism. [Obs.]
At`o*mic"i*ty (#), n. [Cf. F. atomicité.] (Chem.) Degree of atomic attraction; equivalence; valence; also (a later use) the number of atoms in an elementary molecule. See Valence.
At"om*ism (#), n. [Cf. F. atomisme.] The doctrine of atoms. See Atomic philosophy, under Atomic.
At"om*ist, n. [Cf. F. atomiste.] One who holds to the atomic philosophy or theory.
At`om*is"tic (#), a. Of or pertaining to atoms; relating to atomism. [R.]
It is the object of the mechanical atomistic philosophy to confound synthesis with synartesis.
1. The act of reducing to atoms, or very minute particles; or the state of being so reduced.
2. (Med.) The reduction of fluids into fine spray.
At"om*ize, v. t. To reduce to atoms, or to fine spray.
The liquids in the form of spray are said to be pulverized, nebulized, or atomized.