Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828)
Sur*beat" (?), v. t. Same as Surbate. [Obs.]
Sur*bed" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Surbedded; p. pr. & vb. n. Surbedding.] [Pref. sur- + bed.] To set edgewise, as a stone; that is, to set it in a position different from that which it had in the quarry.
It . . . has something of a grain parallel with the horizon, and therefore should not be surbedded.
Sur*bet" (?), v. t. Same as Surbate. [Obs.]
Sur*bet", a. Surbated; bruised. [Obs.]
Sur*cease" (?), n. [F. sursis, from sursis, p.p. of surseoir to suspend, postpone, defer, in OF., to delay, refrain from, forbear, L. supersedere. Surcease is not connected with E. cease. See Supersede.] Cessation; stop; end. Not desire, but its surcease."
It is time that there were an end and surcease made of this immodest and deformed manner of writing.
Sur*cease", v. t. To cause to cease; to end. [Obs.] The waves . . . their range surceast."
The nations, overawed, surceased the fight.
Sur*cease", v. i. To cease. [Obs.]
Sur*cease"ance (?), n. Cessation. [Obs.]
Sur*charge" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Surcharged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Surcharging (?).] [F. surcharger. See Sur-, and Charge, and cf. Overcharge, Supercharge, Supercargo.]
1. To overload; to overburden; to overmatch; to overcharge; as, to surcharge a beast or a ship; to surcharge a cannon.
Four charged two, and two surcharged one.
Your head reclined, as hiding grief from view,
Droops like a rose surcharged with morning dew.
2. (Law) (a) To overstock; especially, to put more cattle into, as a common, than the person has a right to do, or more than the herbage will sustain. Blackstone. (b) (Equity) To show an omission in (an account) for which credit ought to have been given.
Sur*charge", n. [F.]
1. An overcharge; an excessive load or burden; a load greater than can well be borne.
A numerous nobility causeth poverty and inconvenience in a state, for it is surcharge of expense.
2. (Law) (a) The putting, by a commoner, of more beasts on the common than he has a right to. (b) (Equity) The showing an omission, as in an account, for which credit ought to have been given.
Sur*charge"ment (?), n. The act of surcharging; also, surcharge, surplus. [Obs.]
Sur*char"ger (?), n. One who surcharges.
Sur"cin`gle (?), n. [OE. sursengle, OF. sursangle. See Sur-, and Cingle, Shingles.]
1. A belt, band, or girth which passes over a saddle, or over anything laid on a horse's back, to bind it fast.
2. (Eccl.) The girdle of a cassock, by which it is fastened round the waist.
Sur"cin`gled (?), a. Bound with the surcingle.
Sur"cle (?), n. [L. surculus.] A little shoot; a twig; a sucker. [Obs.]
Sir T. Browne.
Sur"cloy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Surcloyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Surcloying.] To surfeit. [Obs.]
Sur"coat` (?), n. [OE. surcote, OF. surcote. See Sur-, and Coat, and cf. Overcoat.]
1. A coat worn over the other garments; especially, the long and flowing garment of knights, worn over the armor, and frequently emblazoned with the arms of the wearer.
A long surcoat of pers upon he had..
At night, or in the rain,
He dons a surcoat which he doffs at morn.
2. A name given to the outer garment of either sex at different epochs of the Middle Ages.
Sur"crew` (?), n. [From F. surcro\'8ct increase, or surcr\'96, p.p. of surcro\'8ctre to overgrow.] Increase; addition; surplus. [Obs.]
Sir H. Wotton.
Sur"cu*late (?), v. t. [L. surculatus, p.p. of surculare to purne, from surculus a shoot, sprout. See Surcle.] To purne; to trim. [Obs.]
Sur`cu*la"tion (?), n. Act of purning. [Obs.]
Sur"cu*lose` (?), a. [CF. L. sucrulosus woody. See Surcle.] (Bot.) Producing suckers, or shoots resembling suckers.
Surd (?), a. [L. surdus deaf (whence the meaning, deaf to reason, irrational), perhaps akin to E. swart. Cf. Sordine.]
1. Net having the sense of hearing; deaf. [Obs.] A surd . . . generation."
Sir T. Browne.
2. Unheard. [Obs.]
3. (Math.) Involving surds; not capable of being expressed in rational numbers; radical; irrational; as, a surd expression or quantity; a surd number.
4. (Phonetics) Uttered, as an element of speech, without tone, or proper vocal sound; voiceless; unintonated; nonvocal; atonic; whispered; aspirated; sharp; hard, as f, p, s, etc.; -- opposed to sonant. See Guide to Pronunciation, §§169, 179, 180.
Surd, n. (Math.)
1. A quantity which can not be expressed by rational numbers; thus, √2 is a surd.
2. (Phon.) A surd element of speech. See Surd, a., 4.
Surd"al (?), a. (Math.) Same as Surd, a., 3.
Surd"i*ny (?), n. A sardine. [Obs.]
Beau. & Fl.
Surd"i*ty (?), n. [L. surditas.] Deafness. [Obs.]
Sure (?), a. [Compar. Surer (?); superl. Surest.] [OE. sur, OF. se\'81r, F. s\'96r, L. securus; se aside, without + cura care. See Secure, and cf. Assure, Insure, Sicker sure.]
1. Certainly knowing and believing; confident beyond doubt; implicity trusting; unquestioning; positive.
We are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things.
Rom. ii. 2.
I'm sure care 's an enemy of life.
2. Certain to find or retain; as, to be sure of game; to be sure of success; to be sure of life or health.
3. Fit or worthy to be depended on; certain not to fail or disappoint expectation; unfailing; strong; permanent; enduring. His sure word."
The Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house; because my lord fighteth the battles of the Lord.
1 Sam. xxv. 28.
The testimony of the Lord is sure.
Ps. xix. 7.
Which put in good sure leather sacks.
4. Betrothed; engaged to marry. [Obs.]
The king was sure to Dame Elizabeth Lucy, and her husband before God.
Sir T. More.
I presume . . . that you had been sure as fast as faith could bind you, man and wife.
5. Free from danger; safe; secure.
Fear not; the forest is not three leagues off;
If we recover that we are sure enough.
-- To be sure, ∨ Be sure, certainly; without doubt; as, Shall you do? To be sure I shall. -- To make sure. (a) To make certain; to secure so that there can be no failure of the purpose or object. Make Cato sure." Addison. A peace can not fail, provided we make sure of Spain." Sir W. Temple. (b) To betroth. [Obs.]
She that's made sure to him she loves not well.
Syn. -- Certain; unfailing; infallible; safe; firm; permanent; steady; stable; strong; secure; indisputable; confident; positive.
Sure (?), adv. In a sure manner; safely; certainly. Great, sure, shall be thy meed."
'T is pleasant, sure, to see one's name in print.
Sure"-foot`ed (?), a. Not liable to stumble or fall; as, a sure-footed horse.
Sure"ly (?), adv.
1. In a sure or certain manner; certainly; infallibly; undoubtedly; assuredly.
In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
Gen. ii. 17.
He that created something out of nothing, surely can raise great things out of small.
2. Without danger; firmly; steadly; securely.
He that walketh uprightly walketh surely.
Prov. x. 9.
Sure"ment (?), n. A making sure; surety. [Obs.]
Every surement and every bond.
Sure"ness, n. The state of being sure; certainty.
For more sureness he repeats it.
The law holds with equal sureness for all right action.
Sures"by (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain. See Rudesby.] One to be sure of, or to be relied on. [Obs.]
There is one which is suresby, as they say, to serve, if anything will serve.
Sure"ti*ship (?), n. Suretyship.
Prov. xi. 15.
Sure"ty (?), n.; pl. Sureties (#). [OE. seurte, OF. se\'81rté, F. s\'96reté. See Sure, Security.]
1. The state of being sure; certainty; security.
Know of a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs.
Gen. xv. 13.
For the more surety they looked round about.
Sir P. Sidney.
2. That which makes sure; that which confirms; ground of confidence or security.
[We] our happy state
Hold, as you yours, while our obedience holds;
On other surety none.
3. Security against loss or damage; security for payment, or for the performance of some act.
There remains unpaid
A hundred thousand more; in surety of the which
One part of Aquitaine is bound to us.
4. (Law) One who is bound with and for another who is primarily liable, and who is called the principal; one who engages to answer for another's appearance in court, or for his payment of a debt, or for performance of some act; a bondsman; a bail.
He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it.
Prov. xi. 15.
5. Hence, a substitute; a hostage.
6. Evidence; confirmation; warrant. [Obs.]
She called the saints to surety,
That she would never put it from her finger,
Unless she gave it to yourself.
Sure"ty, v. t. To act as surety for. [Obs.]
Sure"ty*ship, n. The state of being surety; the obligation of a person to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another.
Surf (?), n. [Formerly spelled suffe, and probably the same word as E. sough.] The swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, esp. upon a sloping beach.
Surf bird (Zoöl.), a ploverlike bird of the genus Aphriza, allied to the turnstone. -- Surf clam (Zoöl.), a large clam living on the open coast, especially Mactra, ∨ Spisula, solidissima. See Mactra. -- Surf duck (Zoöl.), any one of several species of sea ducks of the genus Oidemia, especially O. percpicillata; -- called also surf scoter. See the Note under Scoter. -- Surf fish (Zoöl.), any one of numerous species of California embiotocoid fishes. See Embiotocoid. -- Surf smelt. (Zoöl.) See Smelt. -- Surf whiting. (Zoöl.) See under Whiting.
Surf, n. The bottom of a drain. [Prov. Eng.]
Sur"face` (?), n. [F. See Sur-, and Face, and cf. Superficial.]
1. The exterior part of anything that has length and breadth; one of the limits that bound a solid, esp. the upper face; superficies; the outside; as, the surface of the earth; the surface of a diamond; the surface of the body.
The bright surface of this ethereous mold.
2. Hence, outward or external appearance.
Vain and weak understandings, which penetrate no deeper than the surface.
3. (Geom.) A magnitude that has length and breadth without thickness; superficies; as, a plane surface; a spherical surface.
4. (Fort.) That part of the side which is terminated by the flank prolonged, and the angle of the nearest bastion.
Caustic surface, Heating surface, etc. See under Caustic, Heating, etc. -- Surface condensation, Surface condenser. See under Condensation, and Condenser. -- Surface gauge (Mach.), an instrument consisting of a standard having a flat base and carrying an adjustable pointer, for gauging the evenness of a surface or its height, or for marking a line parallel with a surface. -- Surface grub (Zoöl.), the larva of the great yellow underwing moth (Triphœna pronuba). It is often destructive to the roots of grasses and other plants. -- Surface plate (Mach.), a plate having an accurately dressed flat surface, used as a standard of flatness by which to test other surfaces. -- Surface printing, printing from a surface in relief, as from type, in distinction from plate printing, in which the ink is contained in engraved lines.
Sur"face (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Surfaced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Surfacing (?).]
1. To give a surface to; especially, to cause to have a smooth or plain surface; to make smooth or plain.
2. To work over the surface or soil of, as ground, in hunting for gold.
<-- Surface, v.i. 1. To rise from the depths of a liquid to the surface; as, the submarine surfaced to recharge its batteries.
2. (a) To become known or public; -- said of information. (b) To show up, as a person who was in hiding. -->
Sur"fa*cer (?), n. A form of machine for dressing the surface of wood, metal, stone, etc.
Surf"boat` (?), n. (Naut.) A boat intended for use in heavy surf. It is built with a pronounced sheer, and with a view to resist the shock of waves and of contact with the beach.
Sur"feit (?), n. [OE. surfet, OF. surfait, sorfait, excess, arrogance, crime, fr. surfaire, sorfaire, to augment, exaggerate, F. surfaire to overcharge; sur over + faire to make, do, L. facere. See Sur-, and Fact.]
1. Excess in eating and drinking.
Let not Sir Surfeit sit at thy board.
Now comes the sick hour that his surfeit made.
2. Fullness and oppression of the system, occasioned often by excessive eating and drinking.
To prevent surfeit and other diseases that are incident to those that heat their blood by travels.
3. Disgust caused by excess; satiety.
Sir P. Sidney.
Matter and argument have been supplied abundantly, and even to surfeit.
Sur"feit, v. i.
1. To load the stomach with food, so that sickness or uneasiness ensues; to eat to excess.
They are as sick that surfeit with too much as they that starve with nothing.
2. To indulge to satiety in any gratification.
Sur"feit, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Surfeited; p. pr. & vb. n. Surfeiting.]
1. To feed so as to oppress the stomach and derange the function of the system; to overfeed, and produce satiety, sickness, or uneasiness; -- often reflexive; as, to surfeit one's self with sweets.
2. To fill to satiety and disgust; to cloy; as, he surfeits us with compliments.
Sur"feit*er (?), n. One who surfeits.
Sur"feit-wa`ter (?), n. Water for the cure of surfeits. [Obs.]
Sur"fel, Sur"fle (?), v. t. [Cf. Sulphur.] To wash, as the face, with a cosmetic water, said by some to be prepared from the sulphur. [Obs.]
She shall no oftener powder her hair, [or] surfel her cheeks, . . . but she shall as often gaze on my picture.
Surf"er (?), n. (Zoöl.) The surf duck. [U. S.]
Surf"man (?), n.; pl. Surmen (). One who serves in a surfboat in the life-saving service.
Sur"foot` (?), a. Tired or sore of foot from travel; lamed. [Obs.]
Surf"y (?), a. Consisting of, abounding in, or resembling, surf; as, a surfy shore.
Scarce had they cleared the surfy waves
That foam around those frightful caves.
Surge (?), n. [L. surgere, surrectum, to raise, to rise; sub under + regere to direct: cf. OF. surgeon, sourgeon, fountain. See Regent, and cf. Insurrection, Sortie, Source.]
1. A spring; a fountain. [Obs.] Divers surges and springs of water."
2. A large wave or billow; a great, rolling swell of water, produced generally by a high wind.
He that doubteth is like the surge of the sea driven by the wind and tossed.
James i. 6 (Rev. Ver.)
He flies aloft, and, with impetuous roar,
Pursues the foaming surges to the shore.
3. The motion of, or produced by, a great wave.
4. The tapered part of a windlass barrel or a capstan, upon which the cable surges, or slips.
Surge, v. i.
1. To swell; to rise hifg and roll.
The surging waters like a mountain rise.
2. (Naut.) To slip along a windlass.
Surge, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Surged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Surging (?).] [Cf. F. surgir to cast anchor, to land. Cf. Surge, n.] (Naut.) To let go or slacken suddenly, as a rope; as, to surge a hawser or messenger; also, to slacken the rope about (a capstan).
Surge"ful (?), a. Abounding in surges; surgy. Tossing the surgeful tides."
Surge"less, a. Free from surges; smooth; calm.
Sur"gent (?), a. [L. surgens, p.pr.] Rising; swelling, as a flood. [R.]
Sur"geon (?), n. [OE. surgien, OF. surgien, contr. fr. chirurgien. See Chirurgeon.]
1. One whose profession or occupation is to cure diseases or injuries of the body by manual operation; one whose occupation is to cure local injuries or disorders (such as wounds, dislocations, tumors, etc.), whether by manual operation, or by medication and constitutional treatment.
2. (Zoöl.) Any one of numerous species of chætodont fishes of the family Teuthidæ, or Acanthuridæ, which have one or two sharp lancelike spines on each side of the base of the tail. Called also surgeon fish, doctor fish, lancet fish, and sea surgeon.
Surgeon apothecary, one who unites the practice of surgery with that of the apothecary. Dunglison. -- Surgeon dentist, a dental surgeon; a dentist. -- Surgeon fish. See def. 2, above. -- Surgeon general. (a) In the United States army, the chief of the medical department. (b) In the British army, a surgeon ranking next below the chief of the medical department.