Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828)
4. Not proceeding from, or attended with, passion; calm; as, sober judgment; a man in his sober senses.
5. Serious or subdued in demeanor, habit, appearance, or color; solemn; grave; sedate.
What parts gay France from sober Spain?
See her sober over a sampler, or gay over a jointed baby.
Had in her sober livery all things clad.
Syn. -- Grave; temperate; abstinent; abstemious; moderate; regular; steady; calm; quiet; cool; collected; dispassionate; unimpassioned; sedate; staid; serious; solemn; somber. See Grave.
So"ber (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Sobered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Sobering.] To make sober.
There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
And drinking largely sobers us again.
So"ber, v. i. To become sober; -- often with down.
Vance gradually sobered down.
So"ber*ize (?), v. t. & i. To sober. [R.]
So"ber*ly, adv. In a sober manner; temperately; cooly; calmly; gravely; seriously.
So"ber*ly, a. Grave; serious; solemn; sad. [Obs.]
[He] looked hollow and thereto soberly.
So"ber-mind`ed (?), a. Having a disposition or temper habitually sober. -- So"ber-mind`ed*ness, n.
So"ber*ness, n. The quality or state of being sober.
Sob"o*les (?), n. [L., a short.] (Bot.) (a) A shoot running along under ground, forming new plants at short distances. (b) A sucker, as of tree or shrub.
Sob`o*lif"er*ous (?), a. [L. soboles + -ferous.] (Bot.) Producing soboles. See Illust. of Houseleek.
So*bri"e*ty (?), n. [L. sobrietas: cf. F. sobriété. See Sober.]
1. Habitual soberness or temperance as to the use of spirituous liquors; as, a man of sobriety.
Public sobriety is a relative duty.
2. Habitual freedom from enthusiasm, inordinate passion, or overheated imagination; calmness; coolness; gravity; seriousness; as, the sobriety of riper years.
Mirth makes them not mad,
Nor sobriety sad.
Syn. -- Soberness; temperance; abstinence; abstemiousness; moderation; regularity; steadness; calmness; coolness; sober-mindeness; sedateness; staidness; gravity; seriousness; solemnity.
So`bri`quet" (s&osl;`br&esl;`k&asl;"), n.[F. sobriquet, OF. soubzbriquet, soubriquet, a chuck under the chin, hence, an affront, a nickname; of uncertain origin; cf. It. sottobecco a chuck under the chin.] An assumed name; a fanciful epithet or appellation; a nickname. [Sometimes less correctly written soubriquet.]
Soc (s&ocr;k), n. [AS. s<0mac/c the power of holding court, sway, domain, properly, the right of investigating or seeking; akin to E. sake, seek. Sake, Seek, and cf. Sac, and Soke.] [Written also sock, and soke.]
1. (O. Eng. Law) (a) The lord's power or privilege of holding a court in a district, as in manor or lordship; jurisdiction of causes, and the limits of that jurisdiction. (b) Liberty or privilege of tenants excused from customary burdens.
2. An exclusive privilege formerly claimed by millers of grrinding all the corn used within the manor or township which the mill stands. [Eng.]
Soc and sac (O. Eng. Law), the full right of administering justice in a manor or lordship.
Soc"age (?), n.[From Soc; cf. LL. socagium.] (O.Eng. Law) A tenure of lands and tenements by a certain or determinate service; a tenure distinct from chivalry or knight's service, in which the obligations were uncertain. The service must be certain, in order to be denominated socage, as to hold by fealty and twenty shillings rent. [Written also soccage.]
&hand; Socage is of two kinds; free socage, where the services are not only certain, but honorable; and villein socage, where the services, though certain, are of a baser nature.
Soc"a*ger (?), n. (O. Eng. Law) A tennant by socage; a socman.
So"-called` (?), a. So named; called by such a name (but perhaps called thus with doubtful propriety).
So`cia*bil"i*ty (?), n.[Cf. F. sociabilité.] The quality of being sociable; sociableness.
SSo"cia*ble (?), a.[F., fr. L. sociabilis, fr. sociare to associate, fr. socius a companion. See Social.]
1. Capable of being, or fit to be, united in one body or company; associable. [R.]
They are sociable parts united into one body.
2. Inclined to, or adapted for, society; ready to unite with others; fond of companions; social.
Society is no comfort to one not sociable.
What can be uneasy to this sociable creature than the dry, pensive retirements of solitude?
3. Ready to converse; inclined to talk with others; not taciturn or reserved.
4. Affording opportunites for conversation; characterized by much conversation; as, a sociable party.
5. No longer hostile; friendly. [Obs.]
Beau & Fl.
Sociable bird, ∨ Sociable weaver (Zoöl.), a weaver bird which builds composite nests. See Republican, n., 3. (b).
Syn. -- Social; companionable; conversible; friendly; familiar; communicative; accessible.
1. A gathering of people for social purposes; an informal party or reception; as, a church sociable. [Colloq. U. S.]
2. A carriage having two double seats facing each other, and a box for the driver.
So"cia*ble*ness, n. The quality of being sociable.
So"cia*bly, adv. In a sociable manner.
So"cial (?), a. [L. socialis, from socius a companion; akin to sequi to follow: cf. F. social. See Sue to follow.]
1. Of or pertaining to society; relating to men living in society, or to the public as an aggregate body; as, social interest or concerns; social pleasure; social benefits; social happiness; social duties. Social phenomena."
J. S. Mill.
2. Ready or disposed to mix in friendly converse; companionable; sociable; as, a social person.
3. Consisting in union or mutual intercourse.
Best with thyself accompanied, seek'st not
4. (Bot.) Naturally growing in groups or masses; -- said of many individual plants of the same species.
5. (Zoöl.) (a) Living in communities consisting of males, females, and neuters, as do ants and most bees. (b) Forming compound groups or colonies by budding from basal processes or stolons; as, the social ascidians.
Social science, the science of all that relates to the social condition, the relations and institutions which are involved in man's existence and his well-being as a member of an organized community; sociology. It concerns itself with questions of the public health, education, labor, punishment of crime, reformation of criminals, and the like. -- Social whale (Zoöl.), the blackfish. -- The social evil, prostitution.
Syn. -- Sociable; companionable; conversible; friendly; familiar; communicative; convival; festive.
So"cial*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. socialisme.] A theory or system of social reform which contemplates a complete reconstruction of society, with a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor. In popular usage, the term is often employed to indicate any lawless, revolutionary social scheme. See Communism, Fourierism, Saint-Simonianism, forms of socialism.
[Socialism] was first applied in England to Owen's theory of social reconstruction, and in France to those also of St. Simon and Fourier . . . The word, however, is used with a great variety of meaning, . . . even by economists and learned critics. The general tendency is to regard as socialistic any interference undertaken by society on behalf of the poor, . . . radical social reform which disturbs the present system of private property . . . The tendency of the present socialism is more and more to ally itself with the most advanced democracy.
We certainly want a true history of socialism, meaning by that a history of every systematic attempt to provide a new social existence for the mass of the workers.
So"cial*ist, n. [Cf. F. socialiste.] One who advocates or practices the doctrines of socialism.
So"cial*ist, So`cial*is"tic, a. Pertaining to, or of the nature of, socialism.
So`ci*al"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. socialisté, L. socialitas.] The quality of being social; socialness.
So"cial*ize (?), v. t.
1. To render social.
2. To subject to, or regulate by, socialism.
So"cial*ly, adv. In a social manner; sociably.
So"cial*ness, n. The quality or state of being social.
So"ci*ate (?), a. [L. sociatus, p. p. of sociare to associate, fr. socius companion.] Associated. [Obs.]
So"ci*ate, n. An associate. [Obs.]
As for you, Dr. Reynolds, and your sociates.
So"ci*ate (?), v. i. To associate. [Obs.]
So*ci`e*ta"ri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to society; social.
The all-sweeping besom of societarian reformation.
So*ci"e*ta*ry (?), a. Societarian. [R.]
So*ci"e*ty (?), n.; pl. Societies (#). [L. societas, fr. socius a companion: cf. F. société. See Social.]
1. The relationship of men to one another when associated in any way; companionship; fellowship; company. Her loved society."
There is society where none intrudes
By the deep sea, and music in its roar.
2. Connection; participation; partnership. [R.]
The meanest of the people and such as have the least society with the acts and crimes of kings.
3. A number of persons associated for any temporary or permanent object; an association for mutual or joint usefulness, pleasure, or profit; a social union; a partnership; as, a missionary society.
4. The persons, collectively considered, who live in any region or at any period; any community of individuals who are united together by a common bond of nearness or intercourse; those who recognize each other as associates, friends, and acquaintances.
5. Specifically, the more cultivated portion of any community in its social relations and influences; those who mutually give receive formal entertainments.
Society of Jesus. See Jesuit. -- Society verses [a translation of F. vers de société], the lightest kind of lyrical poetry; verses for the amusement of polite society.
So*cin"i*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Socinus, or the Socinians.
So*cin"i*an, n. One of the followers of Socinus; a believer in Socinianism.
So*cin"i*an*ism (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) The tenets or doctrines of Faustus Socinus, an Italian theologian of the sixteenth century, who denied the Trinity, the deity of Christ, the personality of the Devil, the native and total depravity of man, the vicarious atonement, and the eternity of future punishment. His theory was, that Christ was a man divinely commissioned, who had no existence before he was conceived by the Virgin Mary; that human sin was the imitation of Adam's sin, and that human salvation was the imitation and adoption of Christ's virtue; that the Bible was to be interpreted by human reason; and that its language was metaphorical, and not to be taken literally.
So*cin"i*an*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Socinianized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Socinianizing (?).] To cause to conform to Socinianism; to regulate by, or imbue with, the principles of Socinianism.
So`ci*o*log"ic (?), So`ci*o*log"ic*al (?) a. Of or pertaining to sociology, or social science. -- So`ci*o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.
So`ci*ol"o*gist (?), n. One who treats of, or devotes himself to, the study of sociology.
J. S. Mill.
So`ci*ol"o*gy (?), n. [L. socius a companion + -logy.] That branch of philosophy which treats of the constitution, phenomena, and development of human society; social science.
Sock (?), n. [F. soc, LL. soccus, perhaps of Celtic origin.] A plowshare.
Sock, n. [OE. sock, AS. socc, fr. L. soccus a kind of low-heeled, light shoe. Cf. Sucket.]
1. The shoe worn by actors of comedy in ancient Greece and Rome, -- used as a sumbol of comedy, of the comic drams, as distinguished from tragedy, which is symbolized by the buskin.
Great Fletcher never treads in buskin here,
Nor greater Jonson dares in socks appear.
2. A knit or woven covering for the foot and lower leg; a stocking with a short leg.
3. A warm inner sole for a shoe.
Sock*dol"a*ger (?), n. [A corruption of doxology.] [Written also sockdologer.]
1. That which finishes or ends a matter; a settler; a poser, as a heavy blow, a conclusive answer, and the like. [Slang, U.S.]
2. (Angling) A combination of two hooks which close upon each other, by means of a spring, as soon as the fish bites. [U. S.]
Sock"et (?), n. [OE. soket, a dim. through OF. fr. L. soccus. See Sock a covering for the foot.]
1. An opening into which anything is fitted; any hollow thing or place which receives and holds something else; as, the sockets of the teeth.
His eyeballs in their hollow sockets sink.
2. Especially, the hollow tube or place in which a candle is fixed in the candlestick.
And in the sockets oily bubbles dance.
Socket bolt (Mach.), a bolt that passes through a thimble that is placed between the parts connected by the bolt. -- Socket chisel. Same as Framing chisel. See under Framing. -- Socket pipe, a pipe with an expansion at one end to receive the end of a connecting pipe. -- Socket pole, a pole armed with iron fixed on by means of a socket, and used to propel boats, etc. [U.S.] -- Socket wrench, a wrench consisting of a socket at the end of a shank or rod, for turning a nut, bolthead, etc., in a narrow or deep recess.
Sock"et*ed (?), a. Having a socket.
Sock"less, a. Destitute of socks or shoes.
B. & Fl.
Sock"y (?), a. Wet; soaky. [Prov. Eng.]
So"cle (?), n. [F., fr. L. socculus, dim. of soccus. See Sock a covering for the foot. Cf. Zocco.] (Arch.) (a) A plain block or plinth forming a low pedestal; any base; especially, the base of a statue, column, or the like. See Plinth. (b) A plain face or plinth at the lower part of a wall.
Soc"man (?), n.; pl. Socmen (#). [See Socage.] (O. Eng. Law) One who holds lands or tenements by socage; a socager.
Soc"man*ry (?), n. (O.E. Law) Tenure by socage.
Soc"ome (?), n. [AS. s&omac;cen, s&omac;cn, searching, or the right of searching, the lord's court. See Soc.] (O.Eng. Law) A custom of tenants to grind corn at the lord's mill.
Soc"o*trine (?), a. Of or pertaining to Socotra, an island in the Indian Ocean, on the east coast of Africa. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Socotra.
So*crat"ic (?), So*crat"ic*al (?), a. [L. Socraticus, Gr. .] Of or pertaining to Socrates, the Grecian sage and teacher. (b. c. 469-399), or to his manner of teaching and philosophizing.
&hand; The Socratic method of reasoning and instruction was by a series of questions leading the one to whom they were addressed to perceive and admit what was true or false in doctrine, or right or wrong in conduct.
So*crat"ic*al*ly, adv. In the Socratic method.
Soc"ra*tism (?), n. The philosophy or the method of Socrates.
Soc"ra*tist (?), n. [Gr. .] A disciple or follower of Socrates.
Sod (?), n. (Zoöl.) The rock dove. [Prov. Eng.]
Sod, obs. imp. of Seethe.
Sod, n. [Akin to LG. sode, D. zode, OD. sode, soode, OFries. satha, and E. seethe. So named from its sodden state in wet weather. See Seethe.] That stratum of the surface of the soil which is filled with the roots of grass, or any portion of that surface; turf; sward.
She there shall dress a sweeter sod
Than Fancy's feet have ever trod.
Sod, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Sodden; p. pr. & vb. n. Sodding.] To cover with sod; to turf.
So"da (?), n. [It., soda, in OIt., ashes used in making glass, fr. L. solida, fem. of solidus solid; solida having probably been a name of glasswort. See Solid.] (Chem.) (a) Sodium oxide or hydroxide. (b) Popularly, sodium carbonate or bicarbonate.
Caustic soda, sodium hydroxide. -- Cooking soda, sodium bicarbonate. [Colloq.] -- Sal soda. See Sodium carbonate, under Sodium. -- Soda alum (Min.), a mineral consisting of the hydrous sulphate of alumina and soda. -- Soda ash, crude sodium carbonate; -- so called because formerly obtained from the ashes of sea plants and certain other plants, as saltwort (Salsola). See under Sodium. -- Soda fountain, an apparatus for drawing soda water, fitted with delivery tube, faucets, etc. -- Soda lye, a lye consisting essentially of a solution of sodium hydroxide, used in soap making. -- Soda niter. See Nitratine. -- Soda salts, salts having sodium for the base; specifically, sodium sulphate or Glauber's salts. -- Soda waste, the waste material, consisting chiefly of calcium hydroxide and sulphide, which accumulates as a useless residue or side product in the ordinary Leblanc process of soda manufacture; -- called also alkali waste. -- Soda water, originally, a beverage consisting of a weak solution of sodium bicarbonate, with some acid to cause effervescence; now, in common usage, a beverage consisting of water highly charged with carbon dioxide (carbonic acid). Fruit sirups, cream, etc., are usually added to give flavor. See Carbonic acid, under Carbonic. -- Washing soda, sodium carbonate. [Colloq.]