Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828)
Sal"ic (?), a. [F. salique, fr. the Salian Franks, who, in the fifth century, formed a body of laws called in latin leges Salicæ.] Of or pertaining to the Salian Franks, or to the Salic law so called. [Also salique.]
Salic law. (a) A code of laws formed by the Salian Franks in the fifth century. By one provision of this code women were excluded from the inheritance of landed property. (b) Specifically, in modern times, a law supposed to be a special application of the above-mentioned provision, in accordance with which males alone can inherit the throne. This law has obtained in France, and at times in other countries of Europe, as Spain.
Sal`i*ca"ceous (?), a. [L. salix, -icis, the willow.] Belonging or relating to the willow.
Sal"*cin (?), n. [L. salix, -icis, a willow: cf. F. salicine. See Sallow the tree.] (Chem.) A glucoside found in the leaves of several species of willow (Salix) and poplar, and extracted as a bitter white crystalline substance.<-- salicyl alcohol glucoside, salicyl alcohol β-D-glucopyranoside, saligenin β-D-glucopyranoside, C13H18O7. It is used in biochemistry as a standard substrate for evaluating the potency of β-glucosidase in enzymatic preparations. It is also an analgesic. -->
Sal"i*cyl (?), n. [Salicin + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical of salicylic acid and of certain related compounds.
Sal"i*cyl`al (?), n. [Salicylic + aldehide.] (Chem.) A thin, fragrant, colorless oil, HO.C6H4.CHO, found in the flowers of meadow sweet (Spiræa), and also obtained by oxidation of saligenin, etc. It reddens on exposure. Called also salycylol, salicylic aldehyde, and formerly salicylous, ∨ spiroylous, acid.
Sal"i*cyl`ate (-&asl;t), n. (Chem.) A salt of salicylic acid.
Sal`i*cyl"ic (?), n. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or designating, an acid formerly obtained by fusing salicin with potassium hydroxide, and now made in large quantities from phenol (carbolic acid) by the action of carbon dioxide on heated sodium phenolate. It is a white crystalline substance. It is used as an antiseptic, and in its salts in the treatment of rheumatism. Called also hydroxybenzoic acid.
Sal"i*cyl`ide (?), n. [Salicylic + anhydride.] (Chem.) A white crystalline substance obtained by dehydration of salicylic acid.
Sal"i*cyl`ite (?), n. (Chem.) A compound of salicylal; -- named after the analogy of a salt.
Sal"i*cyl`ol (?), n. [Salicylic + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) Same as Salicylal.
Sa*lic"y*lous (? ∨ ?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a substance called salicylous acid, and now salicylal. [Obs.]
Sa"li*ence (?), n. [See Salient.]
1. That quality or condition of being salient; a leaping; a springing forward; an assaulting.
2. The quality or state of projecting, or being projected; projection; protrusion.
Sir W. Hamilton.
Sa"li*en*cy (?), n. Quality of being salient; hence, vigor. A fatal lack of poetic saliency."
Sa"li*ent (?), a. [L. saliens, -entis, p.pr. of salire to leap; cf. F. saillant. See Sally, n. & v. i..]
1. Moving by leaps or springs; leaping; bounding; jumping. Frogs and salient animals."
Sir T. Browne.
2. Shooting out up; springing; projecting.
He had in himself a salient, living spring of generous and manly action.
3. Hence, figuratively, forcing itself on the attention; prominent; conspicuous; noticeable.
He [Grenville] had neither salient traits, nor general comprehensiveness of mind.
4. (Math. & Fort.) Projectiong outwardly; as, a salient angle; -- opposed to reëntering. See Illust. of Bastion.<-- convex? -->
5. (Her.) Represented in a leaping position; as, a lion salient.
Salient angle. See Salient, a., 4. -- Salient polygon (Geom.), a polygon all of whose angles are salient. -- Salient polyhedron (Geom.), a polyhedron all of whose solid angles are salient.
Sa"li*ent, a. (Fort.) A salient angle or part; a projection.
Sa"li*ent*ly, adv. In a salient manner.
Sa*lif"er*ous (?), a. [L. sal salt + -ferous.] Producing, or impregnated with, salt.
Saliferous rocks (Geol.), the New Red Sandstone system of some geologists; -- so called because, in Europe, this formation contains beds of salt. The saliferous beds of New York State belong largely to the Salina period of the Upper Silurian. See the Chart of Geology.
Sal"i*fi`a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. salifiable. See Salify.] (Chem.) Capable of neutralizing an acid to form a salt; -- said of bases; thus, ammonia is salifiable.
Sal`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. salification.] (Chem.) The act, process, or result of salifying; the state of being salified.
Sal"i*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Salified (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Salifying (?).] [F. salifier; from L. sal salt + -ficare (only in comp.) to make. See -fy.] (Chem.) (a) To combine or impregnate with a salt. (b) To form a salt with; to convert into a salt; as, to salify a base or an acid.
Sa*lig"e*nin (?), n. [Salicin + -gen.] (Chem.) A phenol alcohol obtained, by the decomposition of salicin, as a white crystalline substance; -- called also hydroxy-benzyl alcohol.
<-- ortho-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, saligenol, salicyl alcohol. HOCH2.C6H4.OH -->
Sal"i*got (?), n. [F.] (Bot.) The water chestnut (Trapa natans).
Sal*im"e*ter (?), n. [L. sal salt + -meter.] An instrument for measuring the amount of salt present in any given solution. [Written also salometer.]
Sal*im"e*try (?), n. The art or process of measuring the amount of salt in a substance.
Sa*li"na (?), n. [Cf. L. salinae, pl., salt works, from sal salt. See Saline, a.]
1. A salt marsh, or salt pond, inclosed from the sea.
2. Salt works.
Sa*li"na pe"ri*od (?). [So called from Salina, a town in New York.] (Geol.) The period in which the American Upper Silurian system, containing the brine-producing rocks of central New York, was formed. See the Chart of Geology.
Sal`i*na"tion (?), n. The act of washing with salt water. [R. & Obs..]
Sa"line (? ∨ ?; 277), a. [F. salin, fr. L. sal salt: cf. L. salinae salt works, salinum saltcellar. See Salt.]
1. Consisting of salt, or containing salt; as, saline particles; saline substances; a saline cathartic.
2. Of the quality of salt; salty; as, a saline taste.
Sa"line (? ∨ ?; 277), n. [Cf. F. saline. See Saline, a.] A salt spring; a place where salt water is collected in the earth.
Sal"ine (?), n.
1. (Chem.) A crude potash obtained from beet-root residues and other similar sources. [Written also salin.]
2. (Med. Chem.) A metallic salt; esp., a salt of potassium, sodium, lithium, or magnesium, used in medicine.
<-- 3. (Med., Biochemistry) A saline solution, esp. normal saline, or isotonic saline, used for infusion, to maintain blood pressure. -->
Sa*line"ness (?), n. The quality or state of being salt; saltness.
Sal`i*nif"er*ous (?), a. [Saline + -ferous.] Same as Saliferous.
Sa*lin"i*form (?), a. Having the form or the qualities of a salt, especially of common salt.
Sa*lin"i*ty (?), n. Salineness.
Sal`i*nom"e*ter (?), n. [Saline + -meter.] A salimeter.
Sa*lin"ous (?), a. Saline. [Obs.]
Sal"ique (? ∨ ?), a. [F.] Salic.
She fulmined out her scorn of laws salique.
Sal`i*re"tin (?), n. [Saligenin + Gr. resin.] (Chem.) A yellow amorphous resinoid substance obtained by the action of dilute acids on saligenin.
Sal`is*bu"ri*a (?), n. [Named after R. A. Salisbury, an English botanist.] (Bot.) The ginkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba, or Salisburia adiantifolia).
Sal"ite (?), v. t. [L. salitus, p.p. of salire to salt, fr. sal salt.] To season with salt; to salt. [Obs.]
Sa"lite (?), n. [So called from Sala, a town in Sweden.] (Min.) A massive lamellar variety of pyroxene, of a dingy green color. [Written also sahlite.]
Sa*li"va (?), n. [L.; cf. Gr. .] (Physiol.) The secretion from the salivary glands.
&hand; In man the saliva is a more or less turbid and slighty viscid fluid, generally of an alkaline reaction, and is secreted by the parotid, submaxillary, and sublingual glands. In the mouth the saliva is mixed with the secretion from the buccal glands. The secretions from the individual salivary glands have their own special characteristics, and these are not the same in all animals. In man and many animals mixed saliva, i.e., saliva composed of the secretions of all three of the salivary glands, is an important degestive fluid on account of the presence of the peculiar enzyme, ptyalin.
Sa*li"val (?; 277), a. Salivary.
Sal"i*vant (?), a. [L. salivans, p.pr. of salivare. See Salivate.] Producing salivation.
Sal"i*vant, n. That which produces salivation.
Sal"i*va*ry (?), a. [L. salivarius slimy, clammy: cf. F. salivaire.] (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to saliva; producing or carrying saliva; as, the salivary ferment; the salivary glands; the salivary ducts, etc.
Sal"i*vate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Salivated (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Salivating.] [L. salivatus, p.p. of salivare to salivate. See Saliva.] To produce an abnormal flow of saliva in; to produce salivation or ptyalism in, as by the use of mercury.
<-- v.i. To produce saliva, esp. in excess.
2. To drool.
3. (Fig.) To anticipate keenly with pleasure, as though salivating at the expectation of a delicious meal. Used often with over.; as, salivate over the prospects of high profits from an enterprise.
Probably influenced by the experiments of Pavlov, who trained dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell, by previously ringing the bell immediately prior to feeding them. -->
Sal`i*va"tion (?), n. [L. salivatio: cf. F. salivation.] (Physiol.) The act or process of salivating; an excessive secretion of saliva, often accompained with soreness of the mouth and gums; ptyalism.
&hand; It may be induced by direct chemical or mechanical stimulation, as in mastication of some tasteless substance like rubber, or indirectly by some agent which affects the whole system, as mercury compounds.
Sa*li"vous (?), a. [L. salivosus: cf. F. saliveux.] Pertaining to saliva; of the nature of saliva.
Sa"lix (?), n.; pl. Salices (#). [L., the willow.] (Bot.) (a) A genus of trees or shrubs including the willow, osier, and the like, growing usually in wet grounds. (b) A tree or shrub of any kind of willow.
Sal"len*ders (?), n. pl. [F. solandres, solandre.] (Far.) An eruption on the hind leg of a horse. [Written also sellanders, and sellenders.]
On the inside of the hock, or a little below it, as well as at the bend of the knee, there is occasionally a scurfy eruption called mallenders" in the fore leg, and sallenders" in the hind leg.
Sal"let (?), n. [F. salade, Sp. celada, or It. celata, fr. L. (cassis) caelata, fr. caelare, caelatum, to engrave in relief. So called from the figures engraved upon it.] A light kind of helmet, with or without a visor, introduced during the 15th century. [Written also salade.]
Then he must have a sallet wherewith his head may be saved.
Sal"et, Sal"let*ing, n. Salad. [Obs.]
Sal"li*ance (?), n. Salience. [Obs.]
Sal"low (?), n. [OE. salwe, AS. sealth; akin to OHG. salaha, G. salwiede, Icel. selja L. salix, Ir. sail, saileach, Gael. seileach, W. helyg, Gr. .]
1. The willow; willow twigs. [Poetic]
And bend the pliant sallow to a shield.
The sallow knows the basketmaker's thumb.
2. (Bot.) A name given to certain species of willow, especially those which do not have flexible shoots, as Salix caprea, S. cinerea, etc.
Sallow thorn (Bot.), a European thorny shrub (Hippophae rhamnoides) much like an Elæagnus. The yellow berries are sometimes used for making jelly, and the plant affords a yellow dye.
Sal"low, a. [Compar. Sallower (?); superl. Sallowest.] [AS. salu; akin to D. zaluw, OHG. salo, Icel. sölr yellow.] Having a yellowish color; of a pale, sickly color, tinged with yellow; as, a sallow skin.
Sal"low, v. t. To tinge with sallowness. [Poetic]
July breathes hot, sallows the crispy fields.
Sal"low*ish, a. Somewhat sallow.
Sal"low*ness (?), n. The quality or condition of being sallow.
Sal"ly (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Sallied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Sallying.] [F. saillir, fr. L. salire to leap, spring, akin to gr. ; cf. Skr. to go, to flow. Cf. Sallient, Assail, Assault, Exult, Insult, Saltation, Saltire.] To leap or rush out; to burst forth; to issue suddenly; as a body of troops from a fortified place to attack besiegers; to make a sally.
They break the truce, and sally out by night.
The foe retires, -- she heads the sallying host.
Sal"ly, n.; pl. Sallies (#). [F. saillie, fr. sailir. See Sally, v.]
1. A leaping forth; a darting; a spring.
2. A rushing or bursting forth; a quick issue; a sudden eruption; specifically, an issuing of troops from a place besieged to attack the besiegers; a sortie.
Sallies were made by the Spaniards, but they were beaten in with loss.
3. An excursion from the usual track; range; digression; deviation.
Every one shall know a country better that makes often sallies into it, and traverses it up and down, than he that . . . goes still round in the same track.
4. A flight of fancy, liveliness, wit, or the like; a flashing forth of a quick and active mind.
The unaffected mirth with which she enjoyed his sallies.
Sir W. Scott.
5. Transgression of the limits of soberness or steadiness; act of levity; wild gayety; frolic; escapade.
The excursion was esteemed but a sally of youth.
Sir H. Wotton.
Sally port. (a) (Fort.) A postern gate, or a passage underground, from the inner to the outer works, to afford free egress for troops in a sortie. (b) (Naval) A large port on each quarter of a fireship, for the escape of the men into boats when the train is fired; a large port in an old-fashioned three-decker or a large modern ironclad.
Sal"ly Lunn" (?). [From a woman, Sally Lunn, who is said to have first made the cakes, and sold them in the streets of Bath, Eng.] A tea cake slighty sweetened, and raised with yeast, baked in the form of biscuits or in a thin loaf, and eaten hot with butter.
Sal"ly*man (?), n. (Zoöl.) The velella; -- called also saleeman.
Salm (?), n. Psalm. [Obs.]
Sal`ma*gun"di (?), n. [F. salmigondis of uncertain origin; perhaps from L. salgama condita, pl.; salgama pickles + condita preserved (see Condite); or from the Countess Salmagondi, lady of honor to Maria de Medici, who is said to have invented it; or cf. It. salame salt meat, and F. salmis a ragout.]
1. A mixture of chopped meat and pickled herring, with oil, vinegar, pepper, and onions.
2. Hence, a mixture of various ingredients; an olio or medley; a potpourri; a miscellany.
Sal"mi (?), n. (Cookery) Same as Salmis.
Sal"mi*ac (?), n. [Cf. F. salmiac, G. salmiak.] (Old Chem.) Sal ammoniac. See under Sal.
Sal`mis" (?), n. [F.] (Cookery) A ragout or partky roasted game stewed with sauce, wine, bread, and condiments suited to provoke appetite.
Salm"on (?), n.; pl. Salmons (#) or (collectively) Salmon. [OE. saumoun, salmon, F. saumon, fr. L. salmo, salmonis perhaps from salire to leap. Cf. Sally, v.]
1. (Zoöl.) Any one of several species of fishes of the genus Salmo and allied genera. The common salmon (Salmo salar) of Northern Europe and Eastern North America, and the California salmon, or quinnat, are the most important species. They are extensively preserved for food. See Quinnat.
&hand; The salmons ascend rivers and penetrate to their head streams to spawn. They are remarkably strong fishes, and will even leap over considerable falls which lie in the way of their progress. The common salmon has been known to grow to the weight of seventy-five pounds; more generally it is from fifteen to twenty-five pounds. Young salmon are called parr, peal, smolt, and grilse. Among the true salmons are: Black salmon, or Lake salmon, the namaycush. -- Dog salmon, a salmon of Western North America (Oncorhynchus keta). -- Humpbacked salmon, a Pacific-coast salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). -- King salmon, the quinnat. -- Landlocked salmon, a variety of the common salmon (var. Sebago), long confined in certain lakes in consequence of obstructions that prevented it from returning to the sea. This last is called also dwarf salmon.
Among fishes of other families which are locally and erroneously called salmon are: the pike perch, called jack salmon; the spotted, or southern, squeteague; the cabrilla, called kelp salmon; young pollock, called sea salmon; and the California yellowtail.
2. A reddish yellow or orange color, like the flesh of the salmon.
Salmon berry (Bot.), a large red raspberry growing from Alaska to California, the fruit of the Rubus Nutkanus. -- Salmon killer (Zoöl.), a stickleback (Gasterosteus cataphractus) of Western North America and Northern Asia. -- Salmon ladder, salmon stair. See Fish ladder, under Fish. -- Salmon peel, a young salmon. -- Salmon pipe, a certain device for catching salmon. Crabb. -- Salmon trout. (Zoöl.) (a) The European sea trout (Salmo trutta). It resembles the salmon, but is smaller, and has smaller and more numerous scales. (b) The American namaycush. (c) A name that is also applied locally to the adult black spotted trout (Salmo purpuratus), and to the steel head and other large trout of the Pacific coast.
Salm"on, a. Of a reddish yellow or orange color, like that of the flesh of the salmon.